Work on the great aqueduct and dams that are to control and carry the water supply of Greater New York from the Esopus creek, in the Catskill Mountains, to its farthesr borough on Staten Island, is making very satisfactory progress and, should there be no unforeseen hitch in the plans, the undertaking will be completed inside the time specified when the project was first launched. In previous issues of FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING some details were given up to certain periods in the construction, and this additional data will help to keep those interested in the work informed on the progress made since those facts were published. The aqueduct, from the Ashokan reservoir, will he 92 1/2 miles long to Hill View reservoir at Yonkers, and 18 miles from that point to the heart of Manhattan. At this writing, according to an official statement by the board of water supply, one-sixth of the construction work, in point of expenditure, has been finished on the entire system. In point of the time >f delivery of ( atskill water to New York City, one-half of the labor is finished. In 11)13 the whole undertaking will have been completed, and water will lie delivered to the live boroughs of New York in 1014. The preliminary work was started in 1905, and the actual construction of the Ashokan dam and aqueduct two years later.


In order to comprehend the size of the undertaking, it may again be stated that the Ashokan reservoir will be only one of several reservoirs for the storage of the city water. The Esopus watershed, of which it forms a part, will precede in development the Rondout, Schoharie and Catskill creek watersheds, each of the latter being connected by aqueducts and tunnels. The Ashokan, however, will be the main impounding reservoir, with a capacity of 130,000,00(1,000 gallons. Its length is close to twelve miles, and the average width is one mile. The maximum depth will be 190 feet, and the water surface of the full reservoir will be 590 feet above sea level. As a result of the submerging of the twelve square miles, forty miles of new highways will need to be built. The cost of the entire project, including filtration plant and main delivery aqueducts to the five boroughs, is estimated at $101,857,000. The Ashokan dam has reached 115 feet of its final 610. Being built on an elevation of at least seventy-five feet above the lowest part of the reservoir floor, from the hilltop at Camp Ashokan are visible in clear weather twelve square miles of farm lands which will be inundated by the great Ashokan reservoir. In five years, if plans are fulfilled, a dozen villages and hamlets, numbering in summer a population of nearly four thousand, will have disappeared. Town halls, churches, schoolhouses, factories, boarding houses, graveyards and cottages, together with a branch of the Ulster & Delaware railroad, a telegraph service, covering, all told, 15,000 acres, will be given over to the lake and its margin. The principal towns in (his section are West Hurley, Ashton, Olive Bridge, Sbokan, Brodhead, West Shokan, Boiceville and Brown’s Station. The greater part of the inhabitants of the reservoir area will move north of the proposed basin, and there, it is expected, an extensive summer resort will spring up. The valuation of the condemned land, based upon the estimates of the property owners, is $999,900.


The main features of the system already under development are the Olive Bridge dam and Beaverkill dikes at the proposed Ashokan reservoir, and the Catskill aqueduct.

The total amount of embankment necessary for the dams and aqueduct is 18,425,000 cubic yards.

The masonry in the dams, gate houses, core walls, aqueducts, tunnels and shafts will aggregate 4,430,000 cubic yards, and the toal amount of excavation is estimated at 17,170,000 cubic yards.

At various intervals along the route of the aqueduct to the Ashokan reservoir site are twenty-seven shafts, aggregating a depth of 10,000 feet, or nearly two miles. On May 1, 10,800 men were employed in the reservoir and aqueduct departments.

The Ashokan reservoir site is eighty-six miles in a straight line from New York City.

The aqueduct front the Ashokan reservoir to the distributing reservoir to be built at Hill View. Yonkers, will have a carrying capacity of not less than 500,000,000 gallons daily. Near White Plains the Kensico reservoir, with a capacity of 40,000,000,000 gallons, will provide storage for the water at that point. In order to purify the water stored in the Ashokan and Kensico reservoirs, an aerating plant will be installed below each of them.

As far as possible the aqueduct is being built of concrete, its general dimensions being 17 feet high by 17 feet 6 inches wide. Tunnels on the hydraulic gradient are of the same height, but are reduced in width to 13 feet 4 inches. In the solid rock crossing the valleys of the Rondout, Walkill, Moodna, Hudson, and Croton rivers are concrete pressure tunnels with a diameter of 14 feet 6 inches, and steel pipe siphons are being constructed across fourteen valleys where the geological conditions are such that pressure tunnels cannot be built.

The work of removing all the dead from the cemeteries within the flow line of the reservoir is being carried out. Thirty-five graveyards in all have been marked for removal, and by the time the waters of the Esopus are piled over the area 2,800 graves will have been moved.


The long debated question how the supply would be brought across the Hudson River has been practically decided by the finding of bedrock 1,500 feet below the surface, at a point midway between Storm King and Breakneck. On this foundation it will he possible to construct a bedrock tunnel, thus obviating the more expensive necessity of conveying the water by bridge or perhaps by a concrete tunnel through the mud of Newburg harbor.


The purpose of the engineers in charge of the borings at Storm King is now to discover if the solid rock does not lie closer to the bed of the river, so that the excavation for the tunnel may not have to be made at a depth of 1,500 feet or more. Two new borings have bene started from shafts on each side of the river, which will extend diagonally until they cross at a point 900 feet below the river surface. At that depth, it is expected, solid rock will again be found similar to that at Storm King. Provided solid rock exists at 900 feet, the tunnel, it is planned, will be put through at a level of 1,100 feet below the river surface and at considerably less expense than at 1,500 feet.

Although some opposition has been shown toward the construction of the tunnel under the boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx, there seems to be little doubt that the plan will be carried out. The original plans were to take the water through thirty 48-inch, or sixteen 66-inch mains, extending directly to Queens and Brooklyn from Van Cortlandt Park to an aqueduct under Manhattan. The commission of engineers appointed to report on the change has recommended its construction. What its cost will be has not been determined, hut it is estimated that the cost will he fully $50,000,000. There arc now 75,000,000 gallons of water pumped in Manhattan and the Bronx every day, and 35,000,000 gallons in Brooklyn for public uses, at a total cost of $400,000 yearly. In addition to this, approximately $1,500,000 is spent annually by private persons in pumping 30,000,000 gallons daily in five boroughs. The cost of puntping water in 10,000 buildings, exclusive of public buildings in the city, at an estimated average cost of $300 for each building for tanks and apparatus, is $3,000,000. An economy of $2,-000,000 annually is estimated for the new plan in pumping alone.

The velocity of the water in the proposed aqueduct will be such as to carry it to a height of 260 feet in Manhattan and Brooklyn, and by this high pressure to supply 30-story buildings without need of artificial pumping, but also to contribute greatly to the efficiency of the fire department service.

Meeting the Catskill aqueduct at the Mill View reservoir, Yonkers, the now Manhattan aqueduct, with its concrete lined tube, sixteen feet in diameter, will he extended to Van Cortlandt Park, then, crossing the Harlem River, 350 reet below sea level, it will pass under leading thoroughfares: it will be brought across the East river near the Manhattan bridge through a river tunnel eleven feet in diameter, connecting with a Brooklyn pipe line of the same size. This high pressure aqueduct will be 17 1/2 miles in length, and the pipe line under Brooklyn and the Narrows to Staten Island will be 16 miles. More than one hundred borings between Yonkers and Brooklyn have already been made to find out the geological conditions. The result of these investigations, according to the hoard of water supply, is to establish the possibility of the aqueduct beyond all doubt. It is expected that the original cost of the Ashokan work and Catskill aqueduct to Yonkers will be $161,000,-000, and the Manhattan high pressure tunnel $50,000,000.

Break in Water Main lies l!p City.

By the bursting of a 21 inch water main recently, Cumberland, Md., was tied up completely for several hours. The break caused the city waterworks to shut down pending repairs. The street car service was entirely put out of commission for five hours. There were no electric lights nor water, and all plants with boilers were compelled to shut down. The livening Times of that city was obliged to omit its issue, making the announcement through a circular that “No power, no paper.” When the water was turned on. the Edison Electric .and Illuminating Company. which supplies commercial lighting and power, was about to haul water to the plant for the boilers. To get the pumping engines started at the waterworks pumping station, it was necessary to use the city fire engine to pump water before it could be moved.

New England Waterworks Association Outing.

The June outing of the New England WaterWorks’ Association will be held at Providence, R. I., June 22d. The programme is:

10.30 o’clock.—Take boat at Hale wharf, South Water street, for sail down Narragansett Bay.

12 o’clock.—Meeting of the Executive Committee on the boat.

12.30 o’clock.—Dinner at Field’s Point.

1.45 o’clock.—Leave Field’s Point for Providence. (Field’s Point is only a short distance front the Providence sewage precipitation tanks, giving parties so desiring an opportunity to visit them.)

2.15 o’clock.—-Special trolley cars leave Hale wharf for Pettaconset pumping station of the Providence waterworks.

4.45 o’clock.—Leave pumping station for return to the city, which will be reached in time for the 5.58 train for Boston.

The expense from Providence will be $2.00 for each person. It is important that the committee of arrangements he informed of the number for whom preparations must lie made. Kindly notify I. S. Wood, C.H., City Hall, Providence, R. I., by June 20 of your intention to be present and how many guests you will bring.

It is very desirable that a complete list of attendance may be obtained. Members and guests are particularly requested to see that their names are registered with the secretary.

GEORGE A. KING, President, Taunton, Mass.

WILLARD KENT, Secretary, Narragansett Pier, R. I.

Water Rates.

Beginning May 1 large consumers of water in Bloomington, lnd., pay a flat rate of 8 cents a thousand gallons, and will be allowed a rebeatc of to per cent, if they pay the tenth of the month. Domestic consumers will be allowed a rebate of 10 per cent, if they pay their rentals by the first of each month

In a report filed as master in chancery in the case of the city of El Paso, Tex., vs. the International Water Company, ex-Governor Sayers finds that the court cannot raise the rates for water: that the minimum consumer clause cannot apply where tenants are furnished with water by the landlord; that the company has failed to furnish Mesa with water according to contract. The report favors the city and consumers, hut recommends that the city raise the rates.

The new water rates established for the city of Alliance, Ohio, are as follows: 10,000 gallons, flat rate of $2: for the next 40,000 gallons, during any quarter. 15 cents per thousand gallons; for the next 50.000 gallons in any quarter, 10 cents per thousand gallons ; for the next 200,000 in any quarter, 6 cents per thousand gallons; for the next 1.000.000 gallons, in any quarter, 3 cents per thousand gallons: all over 1,300,000 gallons, 4 cents per thousand gallons.

Topeka. Kan., will not reduce its water rates, at least not for some time to come. A new pump of 15.000,000 gallons capacity, a waterproof flood wall, to protect the pumping station, and other improvements are to he paid for, and the city needs the money.

To encourage the liberal use of water on lawns and grass plots and thereby improve the appearance of the place, the water cotnparfy at Ocean City. N. J. reduced its rates for sprinkling purposes on June 1.

Oakland. Cal., city council has agreed that its water company may continue to charge present rates for another two years to enable it to make needed changes in the system.

That the people who are supplied with water by the Springfield Consolidated Water Company are warranted in their opposition to the company’s proposed increase in its rates will be evident from the following comparison between the old and the new schedules. The old flat rate for a six-room house was $9: the new rate will be $18; under the old rate the minimum water charge was $12 per year the new schedule makes it $18: the old minimum rate per 100 gallons was 15 cents, while under the new rate it will be 29 cents.

Reductions in water rates are contemplated in St. Louis. Mo. Manufacturers will probably pay about 5 1/2 cents, instead of the present 8 cents while fire protection and street sprinkling will be made a charge against the property, so that owners of expensive structures will pay more than those who own more modest buildings.

Water Report of Manchester.

The largest city in the state, a center of varied and important industrial interests, including the manufacture of cotton and woolen goods, locomotives, fire engines, etc., Manchester, Hillsborough County. New Hampshire, draws on Lake Massabesic. four miles from the business center, for a supply of water for its population of 70,000. The system employed rs pumping to reservoir. the waterworks, built during the years 1872 to 1874, being equipped with four pumping engines of Davidson, Wood, Worthington and Snow fiuild, of a total daily capacity of 1,300.000 gallons. The total punipage for 1909 was 1,265,267,676 gallons. In the distribution system there are 117.37 miles of pipe, equipped with 1,113 gales, supplying 881 hydrants and 6,737 services, the number of meters in use being 4,945. The total receipts of the department from till sources amounted to $153,761.50; the total expenses were $1:12.196,96, showing an excess of receipts over expenditures of $21,564.54. As the department opened the year with a credit balance of $41,-821.38, the amount on hand at the close of last year was $63,385.92. In his report Superintendent Charles K. Walker calls attention to the large waste of water entailed by the use of watering troughs, of which the city maintains thirty, supplied free of charge by the department. The superintendent explained that not only were the troughs a source of direct water waste, hut people living near them in many instances obtained water from them in place of paying for a city service. He recommended the adoption of the common cast-iron fountains, used in other cities, which do not waste the water or permit of its use for other than the intended purpose. He gave the quantity of water used in the water troughs in the city as 200.000 gallons daily, for which the department receives no revenue.

Meetings to Come.

June 21.—Nassau County Volunteer Firemen’s Association. Annual Tournament, Mineola, L. I.

June 21-23.—South Carolina State Firemen’s Convention, Sumpter. S. C.

June 27.—Nortli Dakota Firemen’s Association. Annual Meeting, Bismarck, N. D.

July 3.—Milwaukee-Waukesha County Firemen’s Association, Annual Tournament. Center City. Wis.

July 2-4.—Tri-County Firemen’s convention. Little Falls. N. Y.

July 4-5.—Southwestern Iowa Firemen’s tournament, Villisca. la.

July 4-7.—Northwestern Minnesota Firemen’s Tournament. Bemidli. Minn.

July 20.—Lake Shore Volunteer Firemen’s Association. Annual Convention. Wolcott, X. Y.

July 25-30.—-Tri-County Firemen’s convention, Fredonia. N. Y.

July 25-30.—North Carolina State Firemen’s Association. Annual Tournament. Newborn. N. C. July 26-27.—Western New York Volunteer Firemen’s Association, eleventh annual convention, Bockport. N. Y.

July 26-28.—Central New York Firemen’s Association Convention. Auburn, N. Y.

July 26-28.—Nebraska State Firemen’s tournament. York. Neb.

July 28-29.—Second annual convention and parade, Cattaraugua. Chautauqua and Erie Counties Volunteer Firemen’s Association, at Fredonia. N. Y.

August.—New York State Firemen’s Convention. Watertown. N. Y.

August 2-5.—Iowa State Firemen’s Tournament, Red Oak. Iowa.

August 3-4.-—C. O. S. Y. S. Firemen’s Association, Thirteenth Annual Convention; Phelps, N. Y.

August 3-4.—Oswego County Volunteer Firemen’s Annual Convention, Fulton. N. Y.

August 1-6.—Ohio State Fire Chiefs’ Association, annual convention. Toledo, Ohio.

August 8-13.—Western Pennsylvania Volunteer Firemen’s Association Convention, Carnegie. Pa.

August 10-12.—Upper Peninsula Firemen’s Association, Annual Tournament, Sattlt Ste. Marie. Mich.

August 16-18.—Wisconsin Paid Firemen’s Association. Annual Convention; La Crosse, Wis. Aug. 17-20.—National Firemen’s Association, twelfth annual convention, Rochester. N. Y.

August 22.—New York State Fire Chiefs’ Meeting and Banquet, Syracuse, N. Y.

August 23-26.—International Association Fire Engineers’ Convention. Syracuse, N. Y.

August 24-26.—Virginia State Firemen’s Convention. Alexandria. Va.

September 6-9.—Pacific Coast Association of Fire Chiefs, 18th Annual Convention. Stockton. Cal.

September 21-23.— Massachusetts State Firemen’s Association, thirty-first annual convention. Lowell. Mass.

September 5.—Rhode Tstand State Firemen’s League Annual Muster. Manville, R. I.

September 6-9.—Association of Municipal Electricians Annual Convention. Rochester. N. Y.

September 21-23. New England Water Works Association Convention. Rochester, N. Y.

October 6. Wilmington department celebration, fifty companies taking part. Wilmington, Del.

The Waterworks System of Norwich, Conn.

The city of Norwich. Conn., is most favorably situated at the head of navigation on the Thames river, about fifteen miles from Long Island Sound. It had, according to the latest census, 17,251 population. Its waterworks system is gravity, furnished by the impounding of several small streams into a reservoir of 450,000,000 gallons capacity about one and a half miles from the center of the city. The elevation of this reservoir furnishes a satisfactory head, the average pressure being about 02 pounds. By the construction of the new Meadow Brook dam the storage capacity has been greatly increased and insures an ample supply for its increasing population and manufacturing plants. The work of rebuilding the dam at Meadow Brook was commenced in May and finished in October, 1909. Plans were prepared by and the construction supervised by Charles E. Chandler, C.E. The contract for the work was awarded to Thomas J. Dodd at $78,900. The dam at its greatest length is 205 feet: greatest width, 98 feet, and height, from lowest part of core-wall to highest part of embankment, is 20 1/2 feet; the width of top of embankment is 36 feet. It consists of a concrete core-wall about 30 inches thick; an earth embankment, built in layers, rolled with a grooved roller: a concrete spillway from which the embankment is protected by a stone masonry abutment; a concrete screen-house with stone masonry, wing-walls and a 24-inch cast-iron waste-pipe. The screen-house is built at and around the 24-inch cast-iron pipe that connects Meadow Brook with Fairview reservoir. The westerly part of the core-wall and embankment rests on solid ledge sloping toward the meadow. A part of the ccre-wall is on water-bearing gravel, ft cm which a stream of water ran on both sides of the core-wall during construction. A pipe was laid from the down-stream side of the core-wall under the embankment to the brook and a little water runs through it all the time. The water from the gravel on the upstream side is held back by the core-wall and embankment. The new spillway is at an elevation of 255.95, which is 1.3 feet lower than the dashboard on the old dam. The top of the screen-house is at an elevation of 263, or 5 3/4 feet above top of old dashboards. The capacity of the reservoir below new spillway is about 29,000,000 gallons, and provision is made for dashboards, increasing the capacity to 130.000.000 gallons. From the upper side of the new dam to the upper side of the old dam the soil, stumps, roots and all matter liable to decay were removed. No soil or other matter has been removed from the balance of the meadow, the area of which is about 67 acres.


In the distribution system, according to the report of Edwin L. Burnap, for the year ending March 31, 1910, there were 51.71 miles of pipe, 450 hydrants and 577 meters. Considerable extensions and improvements were made during the year, including the laying of 5,460 feet of new mains and the setting of 9 hydrants and 27 gates. A notable feature of the year’s work was that performed by the inspector’s department, which inspected nearly 4,000 premises, resulting in the discovery of 122 defective fixtures. Superintendent Burnap recommends many important improvements for the current year which, when completed, will keep the system up to the highest state of efficiency. The financial condition of the department is also very satisfactory, as will he seen by the following statement of William W. Ives, cashier. The total receipts for the year were $70,708.72, of which $66,831.68 was received for water rates. The disbursements for maintenance and operation were $29,120.40, interest on bonds adding $10,350 to this, making total expenditures $39,470.40, and leaving a net income to the city of $31,238.32. The total cost of the works to date, including $78,900, recently disbursed in connection with the Meadow Brook dam improvement, has been $1,159,918.62. and there is an outstanding net bonded indebtedness of $215,000.

To Check Waste of Catskill Supply.

Mount Vernon and other municipalities in Westchester county will probably not be given free rein in the tapping of the conduits supplying New York city with water, which the Coffey and Wainwright bills now before the legislature would allow. A sub-bill in connection with the Wainwright measure, has been reported to the senate by the cities committee of that body, it provides that a commission consisting of the state water supply commission, the engineer of the New York city gas, electricity and water supply commission, and a person to be designated by the Westchester county board of supervisors shall investigate the water supply condition in Westchester county and needs of New York city. This commission is to report its recommend ations to the next legislature. The committee at the same time reported for passage the Coffey bill, under which the city of Mount Vernon will have the right to tap New York city’s water supply conduits within its territory, but with an amendment providing that such’ tapping shall not interfere with the mains supplying water to the Borough of The Bronx Both bills were subsequently advanced to the order of final passage.

Jersey City New System.

In the water litigation between Jersey City, N. J., and the Jersey City Water Company, a report has been given by Chancellor Magic, to whom had been referred the question of what deduction, if any, should be made to the city in the contract price of $7,595,000 for the new water plant because of the alleged failure of the water company to provide against pollution of the water by the sewage of Boonton, Dover and Hibernia, on the Rockaway river. The report sustains the new process of bleaching the water by use of chloride of lime and is a victory for the water company, which introduced the process for purifying the water. If Vice-Chancellor Stevens sustains the special master’s report the Jersey City Water Supply Company will save $530,000. The city opposed the use of chlorides and advised that the construction of sewers in the three towns mentioned and the erection of a sewage disposal plant at a cost of $600,000. The bleachtng process will cost $20,000 for the plant and about $2,300 annually to operate and maintain it. The report declares that Jersey City has the best water in purity and wholesomeness in the United States.

Artesian Water in Florida.

Florida has a natural water system for irrigation and domestic supply which is permanent and adequate, and the capacity of which is dependent only upon the annual precipitation of rain and snow. Water, which in other sections of the country must be carried to its destination in ditches, flumes and pipe lines, in Florida is distributed through underground channels cut by itself out of solid rock.

The rainfall, which for the last fifty years has averaged 4 1/2 feet, is caught and held by the sandy surface soil, characteristic of the state, and rapidly percolates into the soft underlying limestone through the porous structure of which it runs in channels, large and small, waiting only for man to sink a shaft. This limestone sub-strata or natural reservoir occupies the whole interior of the state, is 100 miles long and from 40 to 50 miles in width, embracing an area of approximately 3,200,000 acres. The elevation of the reservoir is sufficient to raise the water to a height of from 33 to to feet above sea-level, the difference in height being caused by rock fracture and friction. The territory benefited by artesian water, then, must be at an elevation of less than 40 feet, but not so low that it is subject to overflow and incapable of proper drainage.

Fire Disasters in Japan.

Details of a disastrous fire at Aomori, Japan, in which 100 persons were burned to death and 8,000 of the 11,500 buildings were razed, with a loss of $2,000,000, were recently received. The burned area was one and three-sevenths miles long and a quarter of a mile wide. Thirty thousand homeless persons gathered into refuge camps. Great suffering followed the fire, and supplies of rice brought in were eaten raw by the Starving people.


The Kansas City, Mo., council investigating committee had been told by the city auditor that there is $55,000 in meter deposits in the hands (if the city and the water department is using this money without interest. The auditor also said he had been informed that this account has not been checked in fourteen years. He was instructed to check it.

Boston’s public school buildings are to be provided with meters, so as to avoid trouble over water rates. The mayor lias been compelled to waive the water charges against the bath department, because of a lack of funds in that particular branch.

The water board of Baton Rouge, La., is considerably worked up over its meters. It has installed two systems, and is not yet satisfied. The board is trying hard to give the citizens a perfectly fair and honest registration, and it will not intentionally violate the law.

Of the 7,800 services in San Diego, Cal.. 7,100 are metered.

Determined that a stop should lie put upon the wastage or theft of water, the council of Kalamazoo, Mich., has unanimously adopted a resolution ordering meters placed upon all city connections. There are 137 of these, which provide factories with water for fire emergencies. and the authorities are of the opinion that many of them have been tapped illegally. Over half of the supply pumped has been unaccounted for in the past, and has not been paid for. It is estimated that this action will add $50,000 yearly to the city’s revenue.

The daily consumption of water in the metropolitan district of Boston averages, approximately, 15.000,000 gallons less now than a year ago, nearly all of the decrease being in Boston proper. Now that Boston has been extensively metered, the amount of water saved in the city is nearly as much as the entire amount used in the metropolitan district outside of Boston. Metering of the suburban districts had been accomplished in large measure last year, which accounts for the marked decrease in the present consumption in Boston as compared with a year ago, and the lighter percentage of decrease outside of Boston.

The installation of a meter system in Nee mill. Wis., is said by officials to be the only remedy for excessive water waste.

A contract for installing meters has been awarded in Fulton. N. Y

Notes on Filtration.

Officials in Saginaw. Mich., are planning to run a special train to I oledo, Ohio, in connection with the pure water campaign. This action is taken for the purpose of giving Saginaw citizens an opportunity to observe the operation of the Toledo Filtration plant.

Work has been commenced on a new gravity filtration system for the city of Eugene, Oregon.

Included in the annual appropriations for Petersburg, Va.. is $9,000 for an addition to the filter plant.

At Grand Forks changes in the filtration plant will be made, at a cost of about $35,000.

The presence of oil on the water of the Maumee river is the latest obstacle for the Toledo filtration plant to overcome. (>il increases the amount of chemicals necessary for separation, cuts into the sandbeds and renders the water unsightly. The latest report from the plant, however, shows the removal of bacteria to be 99.2 per cent.

llie health board is about to recommend to the city the necessity of a new filtration plant for the waterworks department in Fremont. Ohio, and this matter will be placed before council for action within a very few weeks. The board of health is backed by the state board in their action and it is not unlikely that the council will take other than favorable action toward a better water supply. They will probably put the matter up to the people for their approval or rejection.

The Grand Rapids, Micli., board of public works has been authorized to purchase land near the pumping station for the purpose of constructing an addition to the filtration plant. Preliminary work will be taken up during the present month.

A new filtrering plant has been formally turned over to the city of Fort Collins, Colorado, by the-contractors.

Whether or not it will be possible to supply the village of Maumee, Ohio, with pure water from the Toledo filtration plant will be decided by a committtee appointed for that purpose. The plan regarded as most practicable, is to have Maumee erect its own pumping plant on the filtration plant grounds, receiving the water from Toledo at a fixed rate.

An effort will be made, in Princeton, Ill., to have the proposed tank and filterbeds constructed on a site southeast of the city instead of on the Bryant estate, as has been recommended by engineers.

Water Bids Opened.

JACKSONVILLE, FLA.—Bids for the construction of a 3,000,000-gallon reinforced concrete reservoir were opened by the trustees for the waterworks and improvement bonds on June 6th. Figures were submitted on both the city’s and the bidder’s plans:

PERTH AMBOY, N. J.—The contract for furnishing two 200-h.p. boilers, the bids for which were announced in our issue of June 1, has been awarded to the Heine Safety Boiler Co., New York, at $4,775.

PARKERSBURG, W. Va.—Lloyd E. Smith, of Charleston, has been awarded a contract to install his patented system of waterworks, at $50,000.

ATROKA. ILL.—Twenty-one bids for furnishing pipe and other material have been opened, and all rejected. Further investigation will be made before awarding a contract. The estimated cost of the proposed work is $15,000.

BLOOMINC,TON,~ Ind.—The contract for constructing a dam for the University of Indiana has been awarded to Norris Defrees & Son, of Indianapolis. J. A. Pike, of Bloomington, received the contract for constructing the reservoir.

CALUMET, Mich.—The contract for furnishing and laying pipe, installing fire hydrants and supplying pumping machinery, has been awarded to L. Bartlett & Co. Other bidders were the A. C.

Schirmer Co., of Hibbing, Minn., and Pastoret & Lawrence, of Duluth, Minn.

COLUMBUS, O., AND ROANOKE, Va.—Frederick Gould, a contractor of Columbus, O., has been awarded a contract to erect sixteen water-softening plants along the N. & W. Railroad, at about $10,000 each.

DETROIT, Mich.—The contract for constructing the Fairview pumping station has been awarded to the Carey Construction Co., at $135,520.

Dows. Iowa.—The Des Moines Bridge & Iron Works has been awarded a contract for extending the water system.

ESSEXVILLE, Mich.—Contracts for the installation of a waterworks system have been awarded as follows: Cast-iron pipe, to the United States Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry Co., New York; hydrants. valves and valve boxes, the Darling Pump Mfg. Co., Williamsport. Pa.; lead pipe, the Jennison Hardware Co., and tapping machinery, to the Alert Pipe & Supply Co.

FT. STEVENS, Ore.—Bids for the construction of five reinforced concrete water tanks have been opened as follows: Guire & Jamieson, Astoria,

$3,550; E. Gustafson, Astoria, $3,612, and the Newport Engineering Co., $5,250.

MILWAUKEE, Wis.—R. J. Hickey has been awarded the contract for the installation of a feeder main at $23,657.

NEW YORK City.—The contract for construction of the Breakneck tunnel and other work in connection with the Catskill aqueduct, the bids for which were noted in our issue of June 8, lias been awarded to the Dravo Conracting Co., of Pittsburg, Pa.

NEWARK, N. J.—The following contracts have been awarded: United States Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry Co., of New York, 6 and 16-inch highpressure pipe, on estimated quantity, $11,447.10; Standard Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry Co., of Bristol, Pa., 4 and 12-inch pipe, on estimated quantity, $22,062.50.

NEW YORK City.—Contract for furnishing, delivering and installing sluice gates of various sizes, the bids for which were noted in our issue for June 8, has been awarded to the CaldwellWilcox Co., of Newburgh, N. Y.

NORWOOD, O.—The following contracts have been awarded: To Joseph Koehne, to dig two 10-in. wells, at $4,800; to the Allis-Chalmers Company, Milwaukee, Wis., to furnish a generator for the electric light station, at $3,675; to the Laidlaw-Dunn-Gordon Company, Cincinnati, O., to furnish a cross compound pump for the waterworks, at $7,590; to the Bessemer Gas Engine Co., Grove City, Pa., to furnish a gas engine to run the Harris avenue plant, at $7,200.

MOBILE, Ala.—The bids of the Dimmick Pipe Co., of Birmingham, Ala., for furnishing sixty joints of cast-iron pipe for use in building beacons in the seventh and eighth lighthouse districts have been accepted : For joints weighing 1,260 pounds the bid was $869.40, and for those weighing 1,600 pounds $944.

Fire Bids Opened.

MILWAUKEE, Wis.—The contract for furnishing a combination hose and chemical wagon has been awarded to the American-La France Fire Engine Co., of Elmira, N. Y. Other bidders were the Combination Ladder Co., of Providence; the S. F. Hayward Co., of New York., and James Boyd & Brother, of Philadelphia. No figures were made public.

CHICAGO, ILL.—The contract for furnishing 2,000 ft. of 1-in., 4-ply, chemical fire hose has been awarded to the Voorhees Rubber Mfg. Co., of Jersey City’, N. J.

EASTON, Pa.—The following contracts for fire hose have been awarded : Boston Woven Hose & Rubber Co.. Boston, 600 ft. at 80c., and the Hamilton Hose Co., Trenton, N. J., 650 ft. at 80c.

NEW ORLEANS, La.—Bids for the construction of two fire houses have been opened as follows: J. W. Lennox. $19,350; J. O. Chisholm & Co., $19,540; John Reusch, $19,793: R. McCarthy, Jr., $18,193; F. A. Noullet & Son, $19,490; N. Richarme. $16,480; Robert B. Ward, $19,453; Petty & Erwin, $17,384, and John Minot, $18,456.

POMONA, Cal.—Contracts for supplying 500 ft. of fire hose have been awarded to George H. Miller and J. H. Wilkinson at 80c. and 90c. per ft.

RUSHVILLF., N. Y.—The Voorhees Rubber Mfg. Co., of Jersey City’, N. J., has been awarded a contract for furnishing 500 ft. of 254-in. hose.

ST. PAUL, Minn.—Wm. O. Gorman, secretary of the fire board, informs us that all bids for a second-size steam lire engine, which were to have been opened on May 14, have been withdrawn until further notice.

SAN BERNARDINO, Cal.—Bids for furnishing an automobile fire wagon have been returned unopened. and, after altering the old specifications, will call for new bids.

VIRGINIA, Minn.—-Bids for 1,000 ft. of 254-in. cotton, rubber-lined hose were opened as follows: New Jersey Car Spring & Rubber Co., Edison brand. $l : W. S. Mott Co., Minneapolis, Paragon brand, $1.10.

YONKERS, N. Y.—The contract for a combination auto fire engine, the bids for which were announced in our issue of May 18, has been awarded to the Webb Motor Eire Apparatus Co., at $8,000.

ALBANY. N. Y.—Contract for supplying fire alarm boxes has been awarded to the Frederick Pierce Co., at $85 each.

BUTLER. Pa.—The Rapid Motor Vehicle Co., of Pontiac, Mich., has been awarded a contract to furnish a motor combination chemical and hose truck.

CHICAGO, III.—The following contracts for hose have been awarded to the Republic Rubber Co., of Youngstown, O. : Ten lengths 3j4-in. suction hose, at $2.10 per ft. : 30 lengths 4-in. suction hose. $2.50 per ft.: 20 lengths 454-in. suction hose. $2.90 per ft., and 10 lengths 5-in. suction hose, $3.30 per ft.

Livermore Falls Business Block Gone.

When fire consumes property to the value of $100,000 in a town of 1,200 inhabitants it is a severe blow, no matter from what standpoint one looks at it. This happened to the village of Livermore Falls, Me., on May 13, when the Sharaf block was entirely consumed. The building, which was of brick, four stories high, 60×100 feet, stood in the business centre of the town, and was occupied by the postoffice, bank, opera house, library, dry goods, millinery and gent’s furnishing goods stores, most of the contents of which were destroyed. The flames broke out at 2:45 in the morning, being first discovered by a policeman on the stage of the opera house, but their origin could not be definitely learned. The town is equipped with the Gamewell fire alarm system, and when Chief William A. Clark responded to a call from box 23 he found the fire well under way. The high-pressure system is used, and with seven streams turned on, the chief managed to keep the fire from spreading and got it under control within three hours from the time of its discovery. The only private fire protection on the premises was a line of stage hose in the opera house, which, of course, was beyond use when the flames broke out. There were no special means for saving life, and had the fire occurred during a performance, doubtless there would have been a loss of life. Before the flames were subdued the stage wall toppled over onto the tracks of the Maine Central railroad, interfering with trains for a considerable time. The contents destroyed were valued at $75,000; loss on the same is placed at $45,500, and loss on building, $60,000. The building was eleven years old and had brick partition walls as far as the second story. With the exception of the postoffice the building was completely gutted. __


Permanent Elimination of Fires.

“In this age of conservation, it is amazing that so little has been done to prevent destruction by fire, and to apply the lessons that every great fire teaches us,” says a writer on the effects of lire on building material and permanent elimination. He continues:

“The interest of the entire public in fireproof construction flares up with a great fire, but flickers out before the building permits for new structures are granted. The average owner when rebuilding even finds fault with the authorities whose duty it is to enforce the inadequate existing ordinances relating to noil-combustible construction and to ‘fire-stopping’ in combustible buildings. There must probably be more big fires among buildings now built, but there is no sane excuse for any such loss in the buildings to be built in the future. Within the last six years there have been wonderful opportunities for studying great fires here in our own country. It has been possible to observe the destruction that occurred, to discover why it occurred, and to determine exactly what must be done if repetition of such destruction is to be prevented in the future. The writer has been fortunate in being able to make careful observation of the great fires at Toronto, Sioux City, Baltimore, San Francisco, Chelsea and elsewhere. Having become interested in the effects of fires as observed in Sioux City and Baltimore, ihe observations in San Francisco were made with great care and detail. The ruins of each of the 503 city blocks in the San Francisco fire were visited and studied. This led to the formulation of defintie conclusions which have since been again checked by the Chelsea fire. The conclusions here presented, therefore, arc not the result of theorizing or reading only, but of painstaking and directed observation.

“AH great fires are alike. Building material behaves the same in a fire regardless of the location. In order to hold the place it claims—that of the cheapest and best fireproof construction material—concrete must be able to show itself cheapest in first cost, as well as cheapest in the long run. Concrete materials are obtainable everywhere; stone, ledges, gravel, sand, burnt ballast, slag, brick refuse, terra cotta chips, stone cutters’ refuse and cinders, are all good aggregates for concrete. As far as the cost of the labor of putting the material in place is concerned. much has been done toward reducing that to a minimum. With metal forms and certified concrete, concrete construction is cheaper to-day than that with brick, hollow terra cotta tile or anv other material. The development of the entire concrete building and of the parts of the concrete building have been slow, because it has taken a long time to learn to think in concrete. After the flat-slab ribless type of ceiling, with its low cost of forms, came standardization of the units of forms for walls and columns, with the use of these metal form-units a new problem faced us, namely, slight modification of design to agree with the cheapest labor requirements of the metal forms.

“We come now to the latest developments, the metal form-units that have been perfected, densifiers for compacting the concrete, mechanical conveyors for displacing the wheelbarrow and hand tamping, and the concrete-producuig factory. centrally located. These things have all arrived. Metal molds have reduced the price of concrete to that of wooden construction. For the greatest saving in the cost per cubic foot of the completed building, the methods of construction, as well as the designs, must be standardized. This is rapidly being done. For example, the metal forms are set up and concrete is hauled in large quantities from a centrally located factory and poured at once for the entire story of a building. This does away with the joints between the work of two different days, and permits of figuring the tensile strength of the concrete in design calculation, with a great consequent saving of reinforcement. Such calculations cannot be safely figured unless the whole story is poured out at once. Figuring the cost of furring, lathing, plastering, interest, fixed charges, heating and repairs, concrete is certainly cheaper than wood. If you figure health, concrete is very much cheaper. A concrete building is cooler in summer and warmer in winter than any other kind. It can be cleaned out with a hose. It can be easily, quickly and thoroughly fumigated, room by room, or all alone.

“In a concrete structure there need be little or no combustible material. There are so many good and cheap metal lathings and furrings on the market to-day that wood should be prohibited everywhere. While metal does cost more, in the long run it is cheaper to use. With vaulted concrete walls there is no real need of furring or lathing. Concrete construction is particularly well adapted to plastering directly upon the concrete. Furthermore only, one coat is needed to make the same quality of work as two or three coats upon wood or steel lathing. When the plastering is put directly upon the wall, there is ro space in which the fire can travel.

“The only excuse for using wood construction is its low cost. To-day we have an incombustible material, a material at a less cost than wood that has stood and will stand high temperatures for long periods without injury. Wood must not be used. We do not argue that no other non-comlnistible material shall be used, and that concrete shall be used exclusively. There are many cases where other non-combustible materials have special merits. They should be used when it is advisable to do so. But now that we have a cheaper and incombustible substitute for wood, wood construction, wood trim and wood finish should be legislated and taxed until wood is eliminated from all building construction.

New York Salvage Corps News.

The Salvage Corps of Brooklyn, a lire insurance organiaztion, which, since its incorporation in June, 1905, has maintained a separate existence, is, according to current reports, to be placed under the control of the New York Fire Underwriters, with centralization of the administration of both corps in Manhattan. It is claimed that economy in management and better work can be effected by the amalgamation. Steps have been taken, it is said, for the substitution of automobiles for the present horse-drawn wagons. Chassis have been ordered for several of the companies and it is intended to have the bodies of the present wagons fitted to them for fire patrol service. An automobile has been ordered for the use of the superintendent or other officers. In some of the large cities the Salvage Corps have automobile equipment and the results are reported as highly satisfactory.

Sprinkling Companies Combine.

The Automatic Sprinkler Company of Chicago, has purchased the Niagara Fire Extinguisher Company, the Manufacturers’ Automatic Sprinkler Company, the Standard Fire Extinguisher Company and the entire capital stock of the International Sprinkler Company. This practically reduces the competition in the sprinkler line to the General Fire F.xtinguisher Company, which maintains the Rockwood Sprinkler Company, as a subsidiary, and the Automatic Sprinkler Company.

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