This is the final installment of the series of questions and answers that have appeared in the journal for the past three years on various phases of fire department operation.

The following answers are to questions appearing in the December issue of this journal:

  1. No.
  2. They spread fire throughout structures.
  3. Possibility of dust explosions.
  4. Because of explosion possibilities.
  5. Yes.
  6. For cooling tanks and covering exposures.
  7. Fire foam.
  8. Small streams.
  9. Wires lose their temper.
  10. Yes.
  11. Checking fire in basement.
  12. In the basement near furnace.
  13. Because of flammable construction and unprotected vertical shafts.
  14. In summer, because they are filled with guests at this time.
  15. Yes.
  16. To facilitate rescues and to aid in fire fighting.
  17. At a point to prevent fire reaching main stairwell on ground floor, and elevator shaft, if possible.
  18. Yes. Prevent obstruction of stairway.
  19. Because of helplessness of inmates.
  20. Celluloid film, and ether.
  21. Solution: First reduce the layout to a single line of 254-inch hose. Factor for reducing two parallel lines of 2j4-inch to a single line is 3.6 Factor for reducing a 354-inch line of hose to a 2J4-inch line is 5.8. 800 -r3.6 = 222 feet of 254-inch. 400 -j5.8 = 69 feet of 2j4-inch. Total 291 feet of 254-inch. E.P. = N.P. X (U + K L) Where E.P. is engine pressure N.P. is Nozzle pressure, and is 70 pounds. “K” is a factor depending upon hose and nozzle diameters. For 254-inch hose and 154-inch nozzle, “K” is .505. “L” is the number of 50-foot sections in the line and is 291 -H 50 = 5.82. Then E.P. = 70 X (1.1 + .505X5.82) = 70 X 1.1 + 2.9391) = 70 X 4.0391 = 282.737 or 283 pounds.
  22. At the top of the building.
  23. Yes, because of materials stored therein and presence of electric wiring.
  24. It enables close inspection of chimney.
  25. Yes.
  26. Clearance to exposed woodwork, condition of equipment and storage of fuel and ashes.
  27. Oils, inflammable solvents, fuels, and chemicals.
  28. Yes. This is important.
  29. Because of continual shifting and changing of occupancy.
  30. Pencil with an eraser, inspection cards, a notice book for issuing first notices, and small hand flashlight.
  31. Carelessness of man.
  32. A break of the bone without wound or injury of surrounding structures.
  33. A break of the bone where there is a wound or opening through the flesh to the fracture.
  34. Handle them with extreme care, and do not attempt to set the bone.
  35. Splint.
  36. Sling.
  37. Send immediately for a physician.
  38. Place patient on his back with shoulders and head slightly raised.
  39. Lay patient on his back, and draw legs down straight and place him on a soft cushion with toes pointing upward. Treat wound and apply splint.
  40. Simple reddening of the skin.
  41. Formation of blisters.
  42. Charring of the skin, up to complete destruction of the part.
  43. No.
  44. Right hand.
  45. With hose rope or strap on hose just back of the coupling.
  46. With hose over right shoulder.
  47. By taking leg hold on rungs.
  48. Empty the line.
  49. Two men.
  50. One-third length.
  51. One-length.
  52. Relieve line of water by breaking at street or draining by opening valve at engine.
  53. Because of inflammable volatiles used.
  54. To confine and remove inflammable vapors.
  55. Yes.
  56. Foam and carbon dioxide gas extinguishers.
  57. Presence of inflammable solvents.
  58. Gasoline and benzol (of the volatile inflammable group).
  59. Yes.
  60. Near the floor, for these gases are heavier than air.
  61. Static electricity.
  62. Automatic sprinklers and steam jets.
  63. See that fire is completely extinguished.
  64. He must send to the department surgeon each day a list of all members who are absent on account of sickness or injury.
  65. When his superior officer is not at hand.
  66. When he is the ranking officer present.
  67. He shall see that good order and discipline are maintained and shall take suitable action in the case of breach of discipline.
  68. He shall see that they are relieved and sent back to quarters immediately upon learning that their services are no longer needed.
  69. Report it within twenty-four hours to headquarters.
  70. Investigate and report in writing in full all particulars to headquarters.
  71. He shall examine, correct, and revise such requisitions as necessary before forwarding same.
  72. By sending, or directing a subordinate to send, special call or additional alarm front street tire alarm boxes.




Herein is presented a series of definitions, questions and answers designed to aid fire department officers in preparing themselves for promotional examinations. In this department, which appears monthly, will be included questions typical of examinations held throughout the country.

Answers to these questions will appear in the January, 1941, issue of this journal.

Question 1. Are the smaller flour mills usually built of fireproof construction?

Question 2. In what way are pneumatic conveyors dangerous in connection with fighting fires in flour mills?

Question 3. What is the chief hazard in connection with fighting flour mill fires?

Question 4. Why are gasoline tank fires dangerous?

Question 5. Should water streams ever be used on gasoline tank fires?

Question 6. If so, for what purpose?

Question 7. What fire extinguishing agent other than water is also effective in protecting exposures?

Question 8. Are large or small streams best for fighting brush and grass fires?

Question 9. Why do wire brooms partly lose their effectiveness after operating on a hot brush fire?

Question 10. Are cellar pipes ever used at grocery store fires?

Question 11. If so, for what purpose?

Question 12. At what points in the buildings, do grocery store fires usually originate?

Question 13. Why do old hotel buildings represent a severe life hazard?

Question 14. Do frame resort hotels represent a greater life hazard in winter or in summer, and why?

Question 15. Should ventilation be performed at a hotel fire?

Question 16. For what purpose?

Question 17. Where fire starts in basement of old hotel building, where should first line be placed?

Question 18. Is any precaution necessary when using main stairway for hose line?

Question 19. Why is life hazard greater in hospital fires than in other similar type of buildings?

Question 20. Name two hazardous materials from a fire fighting standpoint encountered in hospitals?

Question 21. An engine is pumping through two parallel lines of 2 1/2-inch hose, each 800 feet in length, siamesed into a single line of 3 1/2-inch hose, 400 feet in length, equipped with a 1 1/2-inch nozzle. 70 pounds is wanted at the nozzle. What pressure will it he necessary to carry at the engine?

Question 22. At what point in a large building is inspection usually started?

Question 23. Should attics be inspected, and if so, why?

Question 24. What other advantage does attic inspection provide?

Question 25. Should power or heating plant in basement receive thorough inspection?

Question 26. Name three points which should be covered by this inspection.

Question 27. Name four substances which should receive special attention at inspections.

Question 28. Need the inspector concern himself with condition of private fire appliances?

Question 29. Why should business establishments he inspected periodically?

Question 30. What equipment is needed by the uniformed inspector in his work?

Question 31. What is the most common cause of fire?

Question 32. What is meant by a simple fracture?

Question 33. What is meant by compound fracture?

Question 34. What precautions should be observed in handling broken limbs?

Question 35. What is the name of a piece of wood used for bracing a fractured limb?

Question 36. What is the name of a piece of cloth used for supporting a broken limb across the chest?

Question 37. What is the first thing to do when called upon to render first aid to a person with a fractured skull?

Question 38. What next?

Question 39. What is the first action you would take in the case of a man with fracture of leg below the knee?

Question 40. What is meant by a burn of the first degree?

Question 41. What is meant by a burn of the second degree?

Question 42. What is meant by a burn of the third degree?

Question 43. Is it good practice to carry charged lines up ladders more than twenty-five feet?

Question 44. When ascending a ladder with a charged line, with which hand do the men grasp the hose?

Question 45. When taking empty line up ladder, how does first man up carry the hose?

Question 46. How do other men carry it?

Question 47. If nozzle man has no life belt, how does he support himself on ladders?

Question 48. In taking a hose line down a ladder from the fifth floor what is the first move?

Question 49. How many men, according to rule, should be permitted on ladders from 20 to 30 feet at one time?

Question 50. When stretching hose up a ladder, how much hose is allowed for each story?

Question 51. Where hose is stretched up stairway, how much hose is allowed per story?

Question 52. When the order is given to take line out of building by way of stairwell, what is the first action to take?

Question 53. Why are paint spraying installations hazardous?

Question 54. What is the purpose of the spray booth and appurtenances?

Question 55. Are automatic sprinklers of any use in reducing the fire hazard of spray booths?

Question 56. What types of fire extinguishers are particularly effective for hand use on spray booth fires?

Question 57. What is the chief hazard in connection with a dry cleaning plant?

Question 58. What two solvents are commonly employed in such establishments?

Question 59. Is automatic ventilation for the removal of inflammable gases, created in a dry cleaning establishment, necessary?

Question 60. At what point, and why, should the intakes of automatic ventilators be placed?

Question 61. State one source of ignition of inflammable vapors in a dry cleaning plant?

Question 62. Name two auxiliary fire protection systems which have proven effective in connection with woodworkers?

Question 63. What is the duty of the Captain of a company (in charge at fire) before leaving fire grounds?

Question 64. What is the duty of the Assistant Chief regarding absences due to sickness or injury of members?

Question 65. When does the Assistant Chief assume command at a fire?

Question 66. When a Battalion Chief arrives at a fire, under what conditions does he assume command?

Question 97. What is the duty of a Battalion Chief with regard to discipline of men in his battalion?

Question 68. What action shall a Battalion Chief take with regard to companies under his command when they are no longer needed at a fire?

Question 69. Where change of address of a man in his battalion is reported, what action should Battalion Chief take?

Question 70. When a meritorious act on the part of a man in his battalion is reported, what action should a Battalion Chief take?

Question 71. What is the duty of a Battalion Chief with regard to requisitions for supplies submitted to him by a subordinate officer?

Question 72. If a Battalion Chief wishes additional apparatus at a fire, how should he secure same?

A Dog, Man’s Best Friend, Exhibits His Loyalty to His Home In spite of the intensity of a four-alarm lumber yard fire which was sufficient to char the front of this wet bedraggled little dog’s home, the dog stayed at his post and refused to leave.