Copyright, 1915, by the National Board of Fire Undewriters, New York.


(Continued from Page 76.)

23. Minor Equipment.—Complete minor equipment shall be provided for each company; this to include shutoff nozzles from 3/4inch to l 1/4-inch and open smooth-bore nozzles from l 1/8-inch to l 1/2-inch, short ladders, portable extinguishers, salvage appliances, including waterproof covers, and sufficient small equipment to enable the firemen to perform their work with the greatest facility and despatch. Use 1/5 Deficiency Scale.

24. Fuel.—Good quality quick steaming coal, and gasoline where automobiles are used, shall be provided in sufficient quantities at convenient points and ready for quick handling. a. Poor engine fuel, 5 points, b. Inadequate methods of handling, 5 points.

25. Repair Facilities.—Adequate, preferably departmental, facliities for making repairs must be provided and sufficient spare apparatus and spare parts must be provided to prevent companies being out of service; approximately 1 hose wagon in 12 (1 in 8 for automobiles) and 1 ladder truck in 5 should be in reserve; exercise and supply wagons, if in good condition, may offset in part deficiency in hose wagons. It is particularly desirable to have equipment standardized; wheels, poles, all hose couplings, playpipes, tips, and minor equipment, Sparc poles, wheels and tires should be on hand. Repair facilities and spare apparatus and parts; Use 1/5 Deficiency Scale.

26. Horses.—Suitable horses shall be provided for all apparatus (except automobile) in service; reserve horses shall be provided, equal to 5 per cent, of the number in service, but not less than 2 horses where over 6 pieces of apparatus are in service, nor less than 1 horse where over 3 pieces of apparatus are in service. If hired horses are used or if horses are used for other than fire department purposes (street sprinkling, etc.), grade horses affected as 50 per cent, deficient. Use Deficiency Scale.

27. Fire Stations.—Houses shall be adapted for the service, as applying to ease and quickness of response; each engine or hose company station shall have hose-drying facilities. Houses unadapted for the service: Use 1/5 Deficiency Scale.

28. Regulations and Discipline.—Provision shall be made in complete printed regulations for control of the department and _ authority given the chief to enforce them, subject to review or confirmation by the supervising body or the civil service commission. Discipline shall be rigidly maintained and fines and suspensions impartially imposed and sustained. Provision for and enforcement of discipline: Use ⅛ Deficiency Scale.

39. Drills and Training.—Drills in charge of a competent officer shall be regularly held at a drill tower for all company members of the department. Drills shall be classed as not better than 30 per cent, deficient if only for newly enlisted men, or if no drill tower is provided. Use 1/5 Deficiency Scale.

30.Response to Alarms.—An adequate running card shall be established, providing for first and subsequent alarms, and for outlying companies to occupy vacated stations. Apparatus shall respond to all first (including telephone) alarms in amount commensurate with the normal hazard of the district, but not less than as follows: In mercantile and manufacturing districts: Not less than 2 engine or hose companies and 1 ladder company in cities under 25,000 and over 4,000 population. Not less than 3 engine or hose companies and 1 ladder company in cities over 25,000 and under 50,000. Not less than 4 engine or hose companies and 2 ladder companies in cities over 50,000. In residential districts: Not less than 2 engine or hose companies, except for cities under 4,000 population. For response to first alarms: a. Use ¾ Deficiency Scale for high value districts, b. Add ⅝ Deficiency Scale for residential. Note.—Deficiency to be figured separately for box alarms and telephone alarms, and the points of deficiency applied in ratio of the number of each kind to total first alarms. When the number of companies in service is in excess of the required first alarm response and the running card does not provide for response to second and subsequent alarms, nor for moving in of companies, add: c. No provision for subsequent alarms, 10 points, d. No provision for moving in, 10 points.

31. Fire Methods.—These shall be modern and include the liberal use of chemicals, shutoff nozzles and salvage appliances to reduce water damage, the use of appliances for powerful streams on serious fires, suitable ladder work and ventilation and the general policy of attaching lines to Siamese connections serving sprinklers and standpipes. Use ⅝ Deficiency Scale.

32. Engine Heaters.—Engines shall be on heaters in cities where they are depended upon for first streams. Engines not on heaters (when used for first streams), 10 points.

33. Building Inspections.—Systematic and frequent inspections shall be made by company and department officers to acquaint them with local conditions and records of such inspections shall be kept both by notes and sketches, a. Fair, 5 points, b. Poor, 10 points, c. Very poor, 20 points.

34. Records.—Proper records of all fires, fire methods, losses, apparatus and all department matters shall be kept. a. Fair, 5 points, b. Poor, 10 points, c. Very poor, 15 points.


Note.—Items 1 to 20, inclusive, to apply to a municipally owned or controlled telegraph system for receiving and transmitting alarms of fire. Items 21 to 26 are to apply to the auxiliary service furnished by telephone. Where no fire alarm telegraph system is installed, a total deficiency of 400 points shall be applied and additional points debited for deficiencies in such telephone service as is available, under Items 3 and 4 and Items 21 to 26, inclusive; credit to be given under Item 18, for street telephones accessible to the public, to the extent of ¼ the credit for municipally owned fire alarm boxes.

  1. Qualifications of Management.—Management to be competent and experienced, a. Management incompetent or inexperienced, 10 points, b. Management incompetent or inexperienced, very, 20 points.
  2. Maintenance Force.—Force to be adequate for maintenance or good provision for obtaining emergency help, and to be competent. Maintenance force inadequate or incompetent: Use 1/10 Deficiency Scale.
  3. Operators.—Operating force shall consist of some competent person, controlled by the municipality, but not necessarily at fire alarm headquarters, on duty at all times to handle telephone alarms; provided that in municipalities of less than 10,000 population ½ credit, and in larger cities ⅝ credit, may he given for a telephone operator on duty at the public exchange at all times, with facilities for transmitting alarms giving the definite location of the fire. In cities handling an average of over one alarm a day a fire alarm operator shall be on duty at fire alarm headquarters, and when manual operation is depended upon for transmission of alarms, two operators shall be on duty at all times. An operator of the telephone system, if capable of operating the fire alarm system, may be considered as one fire alarm operator. Operating force inadequate or incompetent: Use 1/5 Deficiency Scale.
  4. Headquarters.—Headquarters apparatus to be housed securely against fire, including danger from conflagration. When service is dependent upon the telephone exchange, application shall be made to the exchange building. Combustible material to be a minimum in mountings, etc. a. Headquarters nonfireproof, 15 points, b. Headquarters exposed and not protected, 15 points. c. Internal hazards severe, 10 points, d. No private fire protection in apparatus rooms, 5 points.
  5. Apparatus at Headquarters.—To be such as to ensure receipt, recording and transmission of all alarms and to be in good condition. Cities having over 100,000 population or more than 350 alarms a year shall have provision permitting transmission manually; if automatic transmission is also provided, means must be provided for cutting out the automatic feature. Telephone service not to be considered under this Item; see Items 21 to 26. a. For incomplete apparatus at headquarters: Use ¾ Deficiency Scale, b. For poor condition add 1/10 Deficiency Scale.
  6. Circuit Protection.—To consist of: Heavy current and sneak current fuse protection and lightning arresters at headquarters, so located as to prevent injury to any operating mechanism; lightning arresters and heavy current fuses at junction of underground and overhead construction, if any, and heavy current fuses on battery rack. Circuit Protection: a. Fair, 5 points, b. Poor, 10 points, c. Very poor, 20 points.
  7. Batteries.—Storage batteries in duplicate or generator sets with sufficient reserve, properly mounted in a well-heated and ventilated room, separate from other apparatus; in single-circuit systems, primary batteries may be used. Provision shall be made for obtaining a duplicate source of supply within 5 hours. Charging shall be normally from current of not over 250 volts, a. Poor type or mounting, 10 points. b. Insufficient, 10 points, c. Not well maintained, 5 points, d. No provision for duplicate source of current, 5 points, e. Charging normally from grounded circuit, 5 points.
  8. Circuits.—All circuits shall be underground; box circuits serving fire stations count as alarm circuits and shall be applied under both a and b below, a. Use 1/10 Deficiency Scale for box circuits, b. Add 1/10 Deficiency Scale for alarm circuits.
  9. Condition and Material of Circuits.— Circuits in underground and aerial cables shall be at least No. 14 gauge copper wire with rubber insulation in lead sheathing. All aerial circuits shall have conductivity of No. 10 galvanized iron wire and tensile strength of No. copper wire, with doubleor triple-braided weatherproof insulation. Poles to be substantial and wires, including box leads, to be well strung and free from injury. Use 1/5 Deficiency Scale. With good underground construction in high value districts, use 1/10 Deficiency Scale for condition of overhead elsewhere.
  10. 10. Circuits Near High Potential.—-Circuits shall not be in same duct or manhole nor on same pole with high potential circuits. Circuits on poles or in manholes with high potential circuits, a. Few, 5 points, b. Many, 10 points.
  11. Open or Grounded Circuits.—All box and alarm circuits and local headquarters’ circuits on which receipt, registering or transmission of alarm depends must be normally closed and under constant test. Normally open circuits: a. For each 10 per cent, of fire stations which may be affected, 2 points, b. And add for each 10 per cent, of boxes which mav be affected, 2 points. Ground return: c. For each 10 per cent, of stations affected. 1 point, d. Add for each 10 per cent, of boxes affected, 1 point.
  12. Circuits Overloaded.—There shall not be more than 20 boxes and/or instruments connected to any box circuit. Box circuits shall have only boxes, except in an automatic system registering instruments may be connected, each instrument counting as a box. No alarm circuit to connect instruments in more than 5 fire stations, a. Use 1/10 Deficiency Scale for box circuits, b. And add 1/20 Deficiency Scale for alarm circuits. Note: Do not apply in single circuit systems, where deficiency has been applied under Item 5, for lack of a repeater. In automatic system, if no alarm circuits are provided, do not apply under b unless more than 5 stations are on any one box circuit.
  13. Circuits to and Apparatus in Fire Stations.—Except where only a single circuit system is required, each fire station must receive alarms over two alarm circuits; in an automatic system, each box circuit must extend to some fire station and may count as one of the alarm circuits. Station apparatus must include a gong, a tapper and a permanent registering device, the register to be on the box circuit in an automatic system. Telephone apparatus not to be considered under this Item. a. For deficient circuits to fire stations: Use 1/10 Deficiency Scale, b. And add for deficient apparatus: 1/10 Deficiency Scale.
  14. Inside Wiring.—Wiring at Headquarters and in stations shall be in accordance with the National Electrical Code; wooden moulding not permitted. Circuits to enter stations in conduit, a. Use 1/10 Deficiency Scale for Headquarters, b. And add 1/20 Deficiency Scale for station wiring.
  15. Boxes.—Boxes, including private boxes, shall be non-interfering, and when more than 20 boxes are on the system shall be of successive type. a. Use 1/10 Deficiency Scale for interfering boxes or boxes of poor design, b.Add 1/20 Deficiency Scale for non-succession boxes.
  16. Conspicuousness and Accessibility of Boxes.—Public boxes and private boxes accessible to the public shall be conspicuous as applying to location and designation, and including red lights at night on or close to all boxes in high value districts; they shall be provided with key in lock, glass panel door or keyless self-acting door. For conspicuousness: a. Use 1/20 Deficiency Scale for high value district considered, b. Add 1/20 Deficiency Scale for other districts, c. Add for each 10 per cent, not adapted to prompt turning in of alarms, 1 point.
  17. Condition and Tests of Boxes.—Boxes shall be maintained in good operative condition. They shall be tested monthly and after electrical storms; tests to include visual inspection, operation, cleaning and repairing; condition of boxes shall be used in judging of thoroughness of tests. F’or condition of boxes and adequacy of tests: Use 1/10 Deficiency Scale.
  18. Box Distribution.—Proper distribution of boxes requires a public box, or a private box accessible to the public, within at least 500 feet of every building in mercantile and manufacturing districts, and 800 feet of every important group of buildings elsewhere. F’or numerical deficiency of boxes: a. Use J4 Deficiency Scale for high value district considered. b. Add 1/5 Deficiency Scale for other districts.
  19. Tests and Records.—(Except box tests.) Circuits at Headquarters to be tested three times daily in automatic, and twelve times daily in manual systems; also frequently in wind and electrical storms. Test for grounds, breaks and current strength. In manual systems, insulation resistance to be tested weekly. Battery cells to be tested for voltage and electrolyte, weekly. Office circuits 3 to 12 times daily. Circuits to be examined monthly and after wind or sleet storms. Complete records to be kept of tests, of apparatus and layout of system and of all troubles. Condition of system to be used in judging of thoroughness of tests, a. For frequency and adequacy of tests: Use 1/20 Deficiency Scale, b. For Records, add 1/20 Deficiency Scale.
  20. Speed of Alarms.—Speed of boxes and of alarm transmission shall not be less than 1 stroke per second in automatic and 2 strokes per second in manual systems. Tower bells, if necessary, to be operated on separate circuits, so as not to delay the operation of the system. Speed of Alarms: a. Slow, 5 points, b. Very slow, 10 points.


21 to 26. Telephone alarms shall be transmitted in all cases to the same place, with someone on duty at all times. Means to be provided in same room for transmitting telephone alarms over the fire alarm system as box alarms. At least one circuit from each telephone exchange to be reserved for fire calls; for cities having more than 5 fire stations, there shall be a private switchboard with separate circuit to each fire station, with provision permitting stations to be communicated with by the operator simultaneously or in groups.

  1. Telephones in fire stations: F’or each 10 per cent, deficient, 3 points.
  2. Telephone fire alarms transmitted from public exchange to any company called, 20 points. Or, b. Telephone fire alarms transmitted from public exchange simultaneously to all stations, 10 points. 23. No circuit from exchange reserved for fire calls, 10 points. 24. Multi-party lines to fire stations, 5 points. 25. No provision permitting communication to fire stations simultaneously or in groups by the chief or fire alarm operator, 5 points.

Telephone fire alarms not transmitted as box alarms, 20 points.


From the standpoint of fire protection, the duties of the police are the discovery of fires and the sending of alarms, the preserving of order at fires, and the reporting of buildings under construction without permit. Adequate service requires a proper signalling and/or telephone system. Municipalities of over 2,000 population should have an adequate number of patrolmen on duty day and night, and if over 15,000 population should have sufficient wagons and ropes and a signalling system.

  1. Co-operation with fire department: a. Fair, 10 points, b. Poor, 20 points.
  2. Insufficient wagons: (1 for each precinct station is considered sufficient), 10 points.
  3. No signalling nor telephone system, 10 points.
  4. Co-operation with building department poor, 10 points.

Note.—Where no police force is maintained, but is required, grade Items 1 and 4 as poor; if a Fire Police force is maintained, do not consider Items 2 and 3, and use J4 deficiency under Item 1.


Adequate building laws, either State or Municipal, shall be enacted. There shall be prescribed fire limits, including all closely built mercantile and manufacturing districts and surrounding blocks on all sides which constitute an exposure to the district or within which new construction of a mercantile or manufacturing character is developing; within these limits, frame construction shall be prohibited. Proper restrictions shall be made for heights and areas, requirements for protection to vertical and horizontal openings of all kinds, thickness of walls, private lire protection, chimneys and heating devices, etc., as given in the National Board Building Code. Wooden shingle roofs shall be prohibited throughout the municipal limits. A properly qualified official shall be in charge, with a requisite number of assistants. Proper records of building permits and operations and inspections shall be kept.

Note.—When enforcement of laws relating to any of Items 1, 2 or 3 is inadequate, grade for deficiency as for inadequate laws; the total under any sub-item for both lack of requirement and lack of enforcement not to exceed the points given.

  1. Fire limits: For each 10 per cent, of area inadequate, 5 points.
  2. Laws in regard to the following subjects inadequate or not enforced: a. Heights, 10 points, b. Areas, 10 points, c. Protection to exposed windows, 10 points, d. Protection to vertical openings, 10 points. c. Protection to communications through fire walls, 8 points, f. Frame construction in fire limits, 10 points, g. Wall thicknesses, 10 points, h. Chimneys and heating apparatus, 10 points, i. Improved construction, 5 points. j. Private fire protection, 5 points, k. Provisions for fire stops, 5 points. 1 . Provisions for fire escapes, 2 points, m. Provisions for parapets, 3 points, n. Provisions for quality of materials and workmanship, 2 points. Total, 100 points.
  3. Wooden shingles permitted: For each 10 per cent, of area, 4 points. Omit farm lands or other territory not subject to building operations; use as basis approximately the area covered by water distribution system.
  4. Records: a. Poor, 5 points, b. None, 10 points.


The passage of laws, either State or Municipal, on this subject and proper enforcement produce immediate results. This subject includes inflammable fluids and their compounds, explosives of all kinds and the care of combustible rubbish of all kinds. Requirements should conform to the suggested ordinances and regulations issued by the National Board of Fire Underwriters. Enforcement shall be strict, and frequent inspections shall be made; the most approved method of inspection is through the members of the fire department:

1.Laws deficient or not enforced as affecting:

  1. Inflammable Liquids of Class I, 20 points.
  2. Inflammable Liquids of Class II, 15 points.
  3. Inflammable Liquids of Class III, 5 points.
  4. Hazardous Chemicals, 10 points, e. Gases (including Acetylene and Carbide), 15 points, f. Garages, 15 points, g. Dry Cleaning, 10 points, h. Nitro-Cellulose and Films, 10 points, i. Motion Picture Machines and Booths, 5 points. j. Explosives, 20 points. k. Fireworks, 5 points. 1. Matches, 5 points. m. Combustible F’ibrcs, etc., 10 points, n. Lumber and Packing Materials, 5 points, o. Rubbish, Trash, Ashes, Bonfires, etc., 20 points, p. Definite requirement for Inspection of Premises, 10 points. Total, 180 points.

Note.—When enforcement of the laws relating to any of the above sub-items is inadequate, grade for deficiency as for inadequate laws, the total under any sub-item for both lack of requirement and lack of enforcement not to exceed the points given. Where very inadequate or no laws, but inspections are made, apply deficiency according to conditions found, but not less than ½ the points for each sub-item.

2.Records, a. Poor, 10 points, b. None, 20 points.


The National Electrical Code is the generally recognized standard for electric wiring. Its adoption by ordinance is of first importance; the laws should also provide that current shall not be furnished until the installations have been inspected and approved. The results may be obtained through enforcement by a properly qualified official; however, good results may be obtained under insurance inspection backed by a city ordinance.

Inside Wiring.

  1. Laws: a. Slightly inadequate, 5 points, b. Moderately inadequate, to points, c. Very inadequate or none, 20 points. Note: If National Electrical Code is not enacted, hut is enforced by ruling of the inspector, grade not better than “Moderately inadequate. If enacted, but not enforced, grade as for inadequate laws.
  2. New inside work: a. F’air condition, 5 points, b. Poor condition, 10 points, c. Very poor condition, 20 points. Note: To be judged from condition of installations. Where municipality docs not exercise control and there is no agreement between underwriters and local electric, light company, grade not better than “Poor.”
  3. Old inside work: a. Fair condition, 10 points, b. Poor condition, 20 points. If reinspections are being made, use ½ points.
  4. Outside Wires.

    There shall be an ordinance, or a provision in the franchise, requiring all outside wires, except trolley wires, but including trolley feeders, to be underground in closely built mercantile and/or manufacturing districts, and all such wires in the designated sections shall be properly installed underground. Overhead trolley wires in streets Under 80 feet wide in closely built sections form hindrance to the raising of ladders.

  5. Ordinance deficient: Use 1/10 Deficiency Scale. Items 5, *>, 7 and 8 to apply only for the district considered. To be figured for per rent, of street length covered, on basis of total street length in the district, including bounding streets.
  6. Telephone and other signalling wires not underground: I’se 1/10 Deficiency Scale.
  7. Light, power and trolley feed wires not underground: Use 1/10 Deficiency Scale.
  8. Trolley wires present in streets less than 80 feet wide: I’se 1/10 Deficiency Scale.
  9. Aerial distribution of service wires, 10 points.


This schedule is designed to be applied to any mercantile or manufacturing district; in the smaller cities it is to be applied to the principal mercantile district, but in larger cities a separate grading may be desirable for each distinctive high value district. Item 1 applies to the entire city; all other items apply only to the district considered. In bounding a district, streets and alleys, sometimes extended, railroads and natural features will be used where practicable and every block or part block shall be included in which approximately 1/8 of the area is of the same general class as the district. Narrow streets, inaccessibility of buildings, congestion of the district and of the individual blocks, poor general structural conditions and exposures from surrounding sections all increase the probability of sweeping fires. Buildings of fireproof construction, sprinkled brick buildings, fire breaks, fire barriers and separate high pressure fire systems designed to deliver capacity at 90 pounds hydrant pressure or more, form important mitigating features.

  1. Street Lavements.—All streets in closelybuilt sections of the city, approximately the district covered by the water distribution system, to be paved and in good condition. Macadam or similar pavements are satisfactory in residential districts. For each 10 per cent, not paved and/or in poor condition, 10 points.
  2. Street Widths in District.—A through passageway, more than 20 feet in width, shall be considered as a street, a. For each 10 per cent, of total length 50 feet wide or less, 5 points, b. Add for each 10 per cent, of total length under 80 feet wide, 5 points. Do not apply b if no deficiency under Item 6.
  3. Accessibility of Blocks.—A block shall be considered inaccessible in proportion to the number of buildings which have only one side accessible from a street, alley, driveway or courtyard and other open spaces readily accessible from the street. All streets, as defined under Item shall be considered as forming block boundaries. For per cent, of blocks inaccessible: Use 1/10 Deficiency Scale.
  4. Per Cent, of Area of District in Streets and Open Spaces: 50 per cent, or over, 0 points. 40 per cent.. points. 80 per cent., 40 points. 20 per cent.. 70 points. 10 per cent., 100 points.
  5. Per Lent, of Block Area (including Alleys) Built Upon: 50 per cent, or less, 0 points. 60 per cent., 10 points. 70 per cent., 25 points. 80 per cent., 45 points. 90 per cent., 70 points. 100 per cent., 100 points.
  6. Heights of Buildings: a. Frame buildings 4 stories and over: For per cent, of total number of buildings, use 2 times Deficiency Scale, b. Frame buildings 6 stories and over: For per cent, of total number of buildings, add 4 times Deficiency Scale, c. Non-fireproof buildings (except frame) 4 stories and over: For per cent, of total number of buildings, add ¼ Deficiency Scale, d. Non-fireproof buildings (except frame) 6 Storits and over: For per cent, of total number of buildings, add full Deficiency Scale.
  7. Large and Excessive Areas (other than frame), but including communicating areas without standard protection: a. Unsprinklered non-fireprof areas exceeding 5.000 square feet and unsprinklered fire-proof areas or sprinklered non-fireproof areas exceeding 10,000 square feet: For per cent, of total builton area, use ½ Deficiency Scale. b. Unsprinklered non-fireproof areas exceeding 10,000 square feet and unsprinklered fireproof areas or sprinklered non-fireproof areas exceeding 20,000 square feet: For per cent, of total built-on area, add full Deficiency Scale, c. Unsprinklered non-fireproof areas exceeding 20,000 square feet and unsprinklered fireproof areas or sprinklered non-fireproof areas exceeding 40,000 square feet: For per cent, of total built-on area, add full Deficiency Scale.
  8. Party and Fire Walls.—Walls shall be of standard thickness, as given in the National Board Building Code. a. Party or fire walls 4 inches or more less than standard: For each 10 per cent., 2 points, b. Party or fire walls in poor condition or 8 inches less than standard: Add, for each 10 per cent., 5 points.
  9. Floor Openings.—Standard protection shall be provided on all communications between stories. Buildings, other than frame, with unprotected openings: For each 10 per cent, of total number of buildings, 5 points.
  10. Exposed Openings.—Openings in exterior W’alls, if exposed within 50 feet, shall be protected in a standard manner: Buildings, other than frame, with openings exposed and not protected: For each 10 per cent, of total number of buildings, 8 points.
  11. Frame Areas: a. Frame areas of all sizes, including sheds and porches: For per cent, of total built-on area, use full Deficiency Scale, b. Unsprinklered frame areas exceeding 5,000 square feet, and sprinklered frame areas exceeding 10,000 square feet:’ F’or per cent, of total built-on area, add full Deficiency Scale, c. Unsprinklered frame areas exceeding 10,000 square feet, and sprinklered frame areas exceeding 20,000 square feet: For per cent, of total built-on area, add full Deficiency Scale, d. Unsprinklered frame areas exceeding 20,000 square feet, and sprinklered frame areas exceeding 40,000 square feet: For per cent, of total built-on area, add twice Deficiency Scale.
  12. Permanent Awnings: For per cent, of street frontage covered: Use 1/10 Deficiency Scale.
  13. Conflagration Breeding Blocks.—When any blocks in a district have a hazard distinctly greater than normal for the district, a deficiency shall be applied. Where such blocks adjoin, a further deficiency shall be applied, if the separating space is less than 100 feet wide. a. For each block, 5 points, b. Add for each group of two or more adjoining blocks, 4 points, c. Add for each additional adjoining block in excess of two in each group, 3 points.
  14. Exposures to District.—In considering exposures, the prevailing direction of winds and the prevalence of frame construction and wooden shingle roofs in the exposing sections and the linear extent of the exposure must be taken into account. Consider each of the four sides of the district separately. When the district under consideration is subdivided by fire breaks or barriers, apply exposures of the largest subdivision, a. Mild exposure, 5 points, b. Moderate exposure, 10 points, c. Severe exposure, 15 points, d. Very severe exposure, 20 points. Add points of exposure of the four sides.


21. Superior Construction and Protection: For each 2 per cent, of built-on area covered with sprinklered or unsprinklered fireproof, sprinklered mill or sprinklered joisted brick, deduct 5 points.

22. Area of District (or largest subdivision).—An undivided area increases somewhat the possible extent of a sweeping fire. In general. it is estimated that the district hazard decreases as the undivided area is less than one mile square. Fire breaks and barriers subdividing a district will include: Rivers, parks, streets, railroad tracks, unoccupied territory, railroad embankments and similar structures, and groupings of mutually supporting fireproof or sprinklered structures which effectively subdivide a district. Fire breaks to be recognized as effectively subdividing a district shall have a total width of at least 150 feet. Deduct as follows: Area of District or of Largest Subdivision: 640 acres or more, 0 points. 500 acres, 4 points. 400 acres, 10 points. 300 acres, 20 points. 200 acres, 32 points. 100 acres, 52 points. 50 acres, 68 points. 10 acres or less, 80 points.

23.High Pressure Fire System.—A high pressure fire system may have gravity supply, direct pumpage supply or a combination of the two. It may be a separate system for fire service only, or may be the extension of a High service domestic supply into a Low service area, in which latter case only 2/3 the total fire flow shall be assumed as available capacity. To be standard, it must comply fully with the various items of adequacy and reliability listed hereinbefore under Water Supply and be capable of delivering full fire flow required about any block at a residual pressure of not less than 150 pounds. Hydrants to be of ample dimensions, with 4 independently gated hose outlets and with 8-inch gated connections to the mains; to be so distributed that the entire area of the district is protected and the average area served per hydrant shall not exceed 40,000 square feet. a. F’or each 10 per cent, of adequacy and reliability of the high pressure system at 150 pounds pressure, deduct 5 per cent. of . the total points under Natural and Structural conditions (after deducting Items 21 and 22). Or, b. For each 10 per cent, of adequacy and reliability at 120 pounds, deduct 2 per cent. Or, c. For each 10 per cent, of adequacy and reliability at 90 pounds, deduct 1 per cent.

Note: The percentage of adequacy and reliability to be determined as under water supply, and to be based on a possible total deficiency of 1,700 points.


Adverse Climatic Conditions.^—Items 1, 2, 3 and 4 to be based on average conditions for at least a 10-year period, if available. Where no weather bureau station is located in the city, use the average for the closest two or three stations.

  1. Winds of 25 miles velocity or over: F’or each 4 times yearly in excess of 60 times per year, 1 point.
  2. Snowfall in excess of 10 inches per month: For each month per year, 5 points.
  3. Severe Cold Weather: Apply only for the months having an average of 10 days or more with a maximum temperature of 32 degrees. For each day having a maximum temperature of 32 degrees or less, 1 point.
  4. Hot Dry Weather: Apply only for the months having an average mean maximum temperature of 65 degrees or more, with an average of 6 or less days of .01 inch or over of precipitation. Deficiency to be based on m t the formula. -=:Points of deficiency.

100 d

m=Average number of months per year. t=tAverage monthly mean maximum perperature. d=Average number of days per month with .01 inch precipitation.

Difference in Grading of Water Supply and Fire Department.—Where the fractional classes corresponding to the points of deficiency of the water supply and fire department, that is, the points of deficiency divided respectively by 170 and 140, differ by 3 classes or more, there shall be added to the total points of deficiency a certain number of points varying with the amount of divergence between the classes of the two features. The number of points to be added shall be determined by the following table, proportioning for fractional divergence in classes.




Copyright, 1915, by the National Board of Fire Undewriters, New York

This is the first half of the Proposed Standard Schedule for Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Conditions, issued by the National Board of Fire Underwriters and reprinted by permission. Owing to lack of Space this important schedule was held over until this issue and the second half will appear in an early issue.


The “Proposed Standard Schedule for (trading Cities and Towns in the United States” has been prepared by the engineers of the National Board of Fire Underwriters and tentatively adopted by the Actuarial Bureau Committee, with the consent and approval of the executive committee of the board. It is obvious that it would be unwise to promulgate this schedule for use by rating organizations until it has been thoroughly tested by application to a large number of cities and towns having varying conditions as to all of the points of grading contemplated by the schedule. In the absence of such thorough test, grave injustice might be done to a number of cities and towns. If it shall be found, as probably it will, that the schedule needs correction in any particular, the matter will have the further attention of the committee.


The grading schedule is based upon the plan of assigning to the various features of fire defense found in cities of the United States, points of deficiency depending upon the extent of variance from standards formulated from a study of conditions in more than 300 cities; the natural and structural conditions which increase the general hazard of cities, and the lark of laws or of their enforcement for the control of unsatisfactory conditions, are graded in the same way. The sum of the maximum points of deficiency totals 5.000 and is divided in accordance with the relative values of the features considered as given below. Relative values: Water supply, 1,700 points; fire department. MOO points; fire alaarm, 550 points; police, 50 points; building laws. 200 points; explosives and inflammables, 200 points; electricity. 150 points; natural and structural conditions. 750 points; total, 5,000 points. It is recognized that climatic conditions affect fire losses, by reason of the frequency of fires due to the heating hazard, by retarding the response of fire apparatus, by hampering effective fire fighting during cold weather and storms, by the increase in combustibility due to hot and dry weather, and fertile greater probability of fires spreading at time of high winds. These elements are to a greater or less degree common to the whole country, and therefore no deficiency is considered in the schedule for normal climatic conditions. Some sections of the countrv. however, are subject to abnormal dim -.tic conditions, and to cities in these sections, a super-deficiency is applied, as given on page #0. This super-deficiency is to be added to the deficiency determined by the application of the schedule proper. A good water supply in connection with a poor fire department, or vice versa, is of less value than if both are good. In recognition of this, a modification of the better one of the two features is made, in accordance with the plan given on pages 60 and fit. provided the divergence exceeds the equivalent of three classes. The subjects considered in grading the various features are given on pages 4 to 8 and the details of grading on the pages following; the total of the points of deficiency is used in determining the class of the citty or own graded, in accordance with the plan given on page 9. In determining the points of deficiency to be applied to the various items, it appears reasonable to use a graduated scale of points depending noon the per cent, of deficiency, with a lesser increment for the first 50 per cent. than for the last; that is, a deficiency of 10 per cent, in good or moderately good conditions has less actual effect than where conditions are jioor. Such a scale has been prepared and is given below; either the full scale, a pultiple or a fractional part thereof is used, depending upon the relative weight or importance of the item under consideration. To save space, this scale is printed in full below, and reference is made to it under each item to which it applies.

Deficiency scale. (Points of deficiency corresponding to per cent, deficient):

In all items, the total required quantity or the total required number must be used as the basis in figuring the percentage of deficiency, except that under Water Supply, if there is a deficiency under Item 6, the quantity available on which this deficiency was obtained shall be used as a basis in figuring the percentage of deficiency of Items 7 to 16. inclusive, except for the Item on which the inadequacy occurs, in which case the total required quantity will be used. In Items 1, 2, 12, 14, 17, 2(>’ 21. 23, 25, 26 and 32 of Fire Department the deficiency shall be on the basis of existing companies. Whi r quantity or numbers cannot be used as the basis, as in Items 2, 7, 10, 11 and 17 of Water Supply and Items 3, 28 and 31 of Fire Department, the degree of deficiency shall be graded approximately as follows: Slight, 10 per cent.; moderate, 25 per cent.; considerable. 50 per cent.; serious, 75 per cent., and total, 100 per cent.


Water Supply.

Items; (!) Appointment of employees. (2) efficiency of Executive. (3) Records and plans. (4) Emergency repair provisions. (5) Receipt of alarms by department. (6) Normal adequacy of entire system. (7) Reliability of source of supply. (8) Sufficiency of reserve pump capacity. (9) Sufficiency of reserve boiler capacity. (10) Condition of equipment. (11) Fuel supply or electric power. (12) Construction of pumping station. (13) Fire protection of pumping station. (14) Hazards of pumping station. (15) Exposures to pumping station. (16) Duplication of supply mains. (17) Reliability of supply mains. (18) Completeness of arterial system. (19) Reliability of installation of mains. (20) Effect of small mains in the high value district considered. (21) Fourinch mains in system. (22) Dead ends—4and 6-inch mains. (23) Completeness of gridiron of 6-inch mains. (24) Quality and condition of pipe. (25) Electrolysis. (26) Spacing of gate valves. (27) Condition of gate valves. (28) Distribution of hydrants in the high value district considered. (29) Ditto in residential districts. (30) Condition of hydrants. (31) Small hydrants. (32) Valves on hydrant branch.

Fire Department.

Items: (1) Number of officers. (2) Number of operators. (3) Qualifications of chief officers. (4) Tenure of office of chief. (5) Appointment and tenure of office of officers. (6) Enlistment requirements. (7) Retirement requirements. (8) Number of hose or engine companies. (9) Number of ladder companies. (10) Distribution of companies. (11) I otal required manual strength of department. (12) Existing manual strength of companies in the high value district considered. (13) Engine capacity. (14) Reserve engines. (15) Condition of engines. (16) Fire-boats. (17) Powerful stream appliances. (18) Chemical equipment. (19) Reserve loaded hose wagons. (20) Amount of hose. (21) Hose larger than 2^-inch. (22) Condition of hose. (23) Minor equipment. (24) Fuel. (25) Repair facilities. (26) Horses. (27) Suitability of fire stations. (28) Discipline. (29) Drills and training. (30) Number of companies responding to alarms. (31) Fire method?. (32) Engine heaters. (33) Building inspections. (34) Records of fires, etc.

Fire Alarm.

Items: (1) Qualifications of Management. (2) Adequacy of Maintenance Force. (3) Operators. (4) Headquarters building. (5) Apparatus at headquarters. (6) Circuit protection. (7) Batteries. (8) Circuits underground. (9) Condition and material of circuits. (10) Circuits near high-potential. (11) Open or grounded circuits. (12) Overloaded circuits. (13) Alarms to fire stations. (14) Condition of inside wiring. (15) Type of boxes. (16) Conspicuousness and accessibility of boxes. (17) Condition of boxes. (18) Distribution of boxes. (19) Tests and records. (20) Speed of alarms. (21) Telephones in fire stations. (22) Receipt of telephone alarms. (23) Telephone line reserved for fire calls. (24) Multiparty lines to fire stations. (25) Provision for simultaneous talking to stations. (26) Handling of telephone alarms.


(1) Co-operation with fire department. (2) Patrol wagons. (3) Signalling system. (4) Co-operation with Building Department.

Building Laws.

Items: (1) Fire limits. (2) Construction and protection of buildings. (3) Wooden shingle roofs. (4) Records. Note.—Lack of enforcement is considered equivalent to absence of law.

Explosives and Inflammables.

Items: (1) Laws. (2) Records. Note.— Lack of enforcement is considered equivalent to absence of law.


Items: (1) Laws (inside wires). (2) Condition of new work (inside wires). (3) Condition of old work (inside wires). (4) Lhidcrground ordinances (outside wires). (5) Signalling wires not underground. (6) Light, power and trolley feed wires not underground. (7) Trolley wires in narrow streets. (8) Aerial distribution of service wires. Note.—Items 5 and 8, inclusive, apply only to the high value district considered.

Natural and Structural Conditions.

Items: (1) Paved streets (entire city). (2) Street widths. (3) Accessibility of block interior. (4) Per cent, of area in streets and open spaces. (5) Per cent, of block area built upon. (6) Heights of buildings other than fireproof. (7) Large and excessive areas other than frame. (8) Deficient party and fire walls. (9) Unprotected exposed openings. (1) Frame buildings. (12) Permanent awnings. (13) Conflagration breeding blocks. (14) Exposures to district.


Items: (21) Superior construction and protection. (22) Area of district or of largest subdivision made by fire breaks or barriers. (23) High pressure fire system. Note—Items 2 to 14 and 21 to 23. inclusive, apply only to the high value district considered.

Additional Deficiencies.

Climatic Conditions: (1) High winds. (2) Excessive snowfall. (3) Severe cold weather. (4) Hot dry weather.

Divergence in grading of fire department and water supply.


A first class city or town is one receiving 0 to 500 points of deficiency.

A second class city or town is one receiving 501 to 1,000 points of deficiency.

A third class city or town is one receiving 1.001 to 1,500 points of deficiency.

A fourth class city or town is one receiving 1.501 to 2,000 points of deficiency.

A fifth class city or town is one receiving 2,001 to 2,500 points of deficiency.

A sixth class city or town is one receiving 2.501 to 3,000 points of deficiency.

A seventh class city or town is one receiving 3.001 to 3,500 points of deficiency.

An eighth class city or town is one receiving 3.501 to 4,000 points of deficiency.

A ninth class city or town is one receiving 4.001 to 4,500 points of deficiency.

A tenth class city or town is one receiving more than 4,500 points of deficiency or without any fire protection.


It is recognized that a so-called gravity system, i. e., one delivering supply directly to the city from a source without the use of pumps, is preferable from a tire protection standpoint, but a well designed and properly safeguarded direct pressure system, such as the high pressure fire systems of some of our large cities, so nearly approaches the gravity system in adequacy and reliability that no distinction is made between the two types. The introduction of storage, either elevated and supplying the distribution system or for suction supply, offsets to a greater or less degree the need of duplication in various parts of a system, the value of the storage depending upon its amount and location; as affecting reliability of supply, it appears to be a reasonabb assumption, that a storage sufficient to meet maximum consumption demands for 5 days and leave a 10-hour fire flow available is sufficient to permit the making of most of the repairs, alterations or additions incident to the operation of a water supply system, and this assumption will be used as a basis in determining the extent of deficiency under Items 8, 9 and 16. The amount of storage and the probable time required to make repairs shall be taken into consideration in deciding on the degree of unreliability of Items 7, 10 to 15 and 17 In general, all storage lessens the requirements of those parts of the system through which supply has already passed. In no case can a rate in excess of the actual capacity of the mains from the storage be considered. Owing to the decrease in pressure when water is drawn down in standpipes, only the capacity ‘of the top 25 feet can be considered as storage, unless situated on elevated ground and supply is to fire engines. Where storage fluctuates as much as 10 per cent, during the 24 hours, the minimum storage maintained must be used in the calculations. Capacity of pumps shall be considered on basis of present capacity, with proper allowance for loss due to condition. The ability to obtain emergency supply through connections to,another system, or from separate source or storage not normally used, must be taken into consideration in charging for deficiencies in the system under consideration; where definite arrangements are made for quickly drawing from the emergency supply, with detail plans on file, showing location of gates and pipe lines, full credit may be given for the supply thus available at such pressures as may be required for adequate fire protection; if no such arrangements and plans, only credit for /j the quantity available may be made. Where a system is supplied from two or more sources or supply works, or where there are two or more systems serving the same area, the deficiency in any item affected shall be determined by the combined protection afforded by all the sources or systems, in respect to the item under consideration. The requirements given hereinafter are based in part upon the assumption that the maximum daily consumption is 50 per cent, in excess of the average, but in all cases of application the actual average consumption for the year previous shall be taken as the average consumption, and the maximum consumption for any 24 hours in the past 3 years taken as the maximum consumption, unless conditions have so changed that this maximum will not occur again. In estimating required fire flow, an allowance is made for probable loss from broken service connections incidental to a large fire. Including this allowance, the total fire flow which should be available is approximately as given in the table below (based on formula G=1,020VP (l—.01 VP), where G=gallons per minute and P=population in thousands); but in all cases consideration must be given to the structural conditions as found in the city and also to the number of companies in the fire department and the amount of outside aid that would be called upon in case of a serious fire. The ratio of the total engine capacity to the fire flow required will be appproximately as 2 to 3.

Over 200,000 population, 12,000 gallons a minute with 2.000 to 8,000 gallons additional for a secoml fire.

In residential districts: For villages or towns under 10,000 population, 500 to 1,000 gallons a minute, where the district is not congested; for cities over this population, or where the district is congested. 1,000 to 3.000 gallons a minute, with up to 6,000 gallons a minute in densely built sections of 3-story buildings.

In considering the adequacy of the domestic water supply under Item 6. the fire flow is assumed in all cases as being delivered to the district considered, at a pressure requiring the use of fire engines; that is, the pressure under full flow must not drop below 20 pounds, except that a minimum of 10 pounds is permissible in districts having no deficiency in Items 28 and 31 and having all hydraants provided with at least one steamer outlet. If pressures are sufficient to permit direct hydrant streams, the quantity thus available is assumed as offsetting, in part or in whole, the need of fire engines and credit is given under Fire Department, Item 13. For direct hydrant streams a residual pressure of at least 75 pounds is required in high value districts, except that where not more than 10 buildings exceed 3 stories, a residual of 60 pounds is permissible. In closely built residential districts, a residual of 60 pounds is considered sufficient for direct hydrant streams, with 50 pounds in thinly built sections of low height. When credit is given in Item 13, Fire Department, for fire flow available as direct hydrant streams. Items s. 16, is, 20, 21, 22, 23 and 28, W ater Supply, shall be considered in respect to the ability to deliver direct hydrant streams at the required pressure.

  1. Appointment.— Empolyecs on municipal systems to be under adequate civil service rules, properly administered, with tenure of office secure. Long tenure of office considered the equivalent. Appointments not under civil service for indefinite terms, 20 points.
  2. Chief executive (Superintendent or C hief Engineer) to be competent and qualified by t xperietice, prefably supplemented by education, to efficiently fill the office. Inexperienced or incompetent: Use 1-10 Deficiency Scale.
  3. Records and plans of the physical structures and operation of the system to be complete. in convenient form, safely filed, in duplicate, indexed and up to date. Records or plans: a. Slightly incomplete, 5 points, b. Moderately incomplete, 10 points. c. Very incomplete, 25 points.
  4. Emergency’ crews shall either he on duty at all times or quickly available; an emergency wagon, preferably motor-driven, loaded with necessary tools, shall he provided. At least one responsible employee familiar with the system shall respond to fire alarms in mercantile districts and to second alarms elsewhere. Emergency provisions: a. Fair, 5 points. b. Poor. 15 points.
  5. Alarms of fire shall sound in some quarters of the department. Alarms shall sound in pumping stations of direct pumping systems; where pressures are raised to furnish hydrant streams, duplicate alarm circuits shall be provided as to fire stations; a telephone line to pumping station shall be considered as 25 per cent, of total requirements. Means of receiving fire alarms: Alarms not received by the department. In direct pumping system use 1-10 Deficiency Scale for deficiency at pumping station, or 1-5 Deficiency Scale if pressures are raised for direct hose streams.
  6. Adequacy, as Regards Capacity, of Source of Supply and Supply Works, to Deliver Required Supply to the’ District Considered.—In this item there must be considered the normal ability of the source of supply, including impounding reservoirs, and of each part of the supply works to maintain maximum consumption demands and fire flow. In considering the source of supply, if shortage of supply in intermittent, apply deficiency under Item 7; if practically constant, as from vills, apply under Item 6, Under Supply Works, which includes intakes, suction lines, pumps, boilers, stacks, air compressors, filters (if not by-passed) and force or supply mains, storage shall be assumed as offsetting only deficiency in ability to deliver fire flow, and not deficiency in ability to meet consumption demands, except that where storage is large and records indicate no shortage in domestic consumption, it shall lie assumed that no deficiency exists, if 10 hours fire flow could he obtained throughout this period for cities over 2.500 population, and 5 hours fire flow for cities under this population. In considering the deficiency under this item, results obtained at fire flow tests in the most favorable location in the district shall he used as a basis in making calculations as to the probable deficiency tinder maximum consumption conditions, due allowance being made for any emergency supply. The extent of deficiency of each part of the supply works must be considered and the percentage of deficiency of the most serious used. a. For average domestic consumption and fire flow: Use 2 times Deficiency Scale. b. And add for maximum domestic consumption and fire flow: Vi Deficiency Scale.
  7. Reliability of Source of Supply.—The effect on adequacy must he considered for such items as frequency and duration of droughts, physical condition of intakes, danger from earthquakes, floods, forest fires, iee dams and other ice formations, silting-up or shifting of channels, absence of watchmen where needed, or injury by physical means. No item to be considered which is covered by requirements hereinafter given. Use full Deficiency Scale in proportion to degree of unreliability, as given on page 3.
  8. Reliability of Pumping Capacity on which supply is dependent, shall be on the following basis: Pumping capacity must be such, with the two largest pumps out of service, as to maintain maximum consumption and fire flow at required pressure; for cities under 25,000 population, maximum consumption and ½ fire flow, and for cities under 2,500 population, maximum consumption and ¼ fire flow. Deficiency, when pumping capacity under conditions given below in a and b is less than maximum consumption, shall be considered as offset by storage when the difference between maximum consumption and the output of the pumps is equaled by 1-5 the storage after deducting fire flow for 10 hours; when pumping capacity is greater than maximum consumption, the excess capacity plus 2.4 times the storage shall be considered as offsetting deficiency if equal to the fire flow in million gallons a day. In cases where both low-lift and high-lift pumps are provided and reliability of supply is dependent on each, they must be considered separately. a. Use full Deficiency Scale for deficiency on basis of one pump out of service. b. Add ⅛ Deficiency Scale for deficiency on basis of two pumps out of service.
  9. Boiler Capacity, with a reserve of onefourth of the entire capacity, and in any case at least one boiler, must be sufficient to operate all machinery and the pumps required, as determined under Item 8, to maintain maximum consumption and fire flow, with allowance made for storage. Use ½ Deficiency Scale.
  10. Condition and Reliability of Plant Equipment.—The following forms and combinations of plant equipment, if of modern design and well constructed and installed, are assumed as approximately equal, advantages of each, if any, being in the order of their naming: a, Centrifugal or reciprocating pumps driven by steam engines; b. Centrifugal or reciprocating pumps driven by electric motor. Generating station must meet conditions of items 10 to 15, inclusive, and deficiency applied; c. Pumps operated by water power; d. Centrifugal or reciprocating pumps operated by internal combustion engines approved for this service. Duplicate ignition parts to be on hand for each engine. Adequate provision to be made for starting engines cold at least six times in rapid succession. All equipment must be of a design applicable to the service; service record in the plant under consideration and in similar plants shall be considered and actual operating conditions observed. Pumps to be free from knock, with low slip, and capable of operating at full speed. Boilers to be well set, in good condition and with proper semi-annual inspection service; stacks shall be substantially installed. Electrical equipment for power to be in accordance with National Electrical Code and not liable to injury by water spray. Water power equipment must be accessible and properly safeguarded. Operating force to be competent. On basis of capacity affected and degree of unreliability use one-half deficiency scale.
  11. Fuel and Accessories for the Transmission of Power.—A minimum of 5 days’ coal supply shall be provided; where long hauls, condition of roads, climatic conditions or other causes make a longer interruption of delivery possible, a greater storage shall be provided. Gas supply shall be from two independent sources, or from duplicate gas producer plant with a storage of at least 24 hours’ gas supply. Oil supply shall be from underground storage of at least five days’ capacity, with force feed to engine or boiler. Unreliability of gas or oil supply to boilers may be lessened by proper provisions for the use of coal. Water for power shall equal at all times that necessary to meet maximum requirements (or other power provided to equalize deficiency) and shall have proper flood and ice control. Steam piping (or gas or oil piping with internal combustion engines or to boilers) or electric transmission lines, shall be so arranged that a failure in any line, or the renewal of a valve (or transformer or oil pump) would not prevent maintaining, in connection with storage, maximum domestic cqnsumption for two days and fire flow for ten hours; for cities under 25,000 population, maximum consumption for two days and onehalf fire flow for ten hours, and for cities under 2,500 population, maximum consumption for two days and one-quarter fire flow for ten hours, a. Adequacy and reliability of fuel: Use one-quarter deficiency scale; b. Electric lines, use one-quarter deficiency scale. For overhead lines, add in proportion to unreliability of installation, one-quarter deficiency scale, c. Steam, gas or oil piping, use onequarter deficiency scale. Items a, b and c may all apply, in which’ case points of deficiencies will be cumulative.
  12. Pumping Station.—12, 13, 14 and 15. Pumping stations and other portions of the plant shall contain no combustible material in their construction; otherwise an automatic sprinkler equipment shall be provided; outside hydrants and hose, inside standpipes and hose and chemical extinguishers shall be provided. Public fire station, if within three-quarter mile shall be considered as giving about one-half protection. If pumping station is not fireproof, the several sections, particularly any with high potential generating equipment, shall be separated by parapeted fire walls and openings protected by standard fire doors and wire glass in metal frames. Station shall be protected against exposures. Electric wiring shall be in accordance with the National Electrical Code and all internal hazards safeguarded.
  13. Note.—Under items 12 to 15, inclusive: Where two or more stations are not dependent upon each! other for operation, apply deficiency to the best station in the proportion of its capacity to the total required, and to the other stations in the proportion of capacity necessary to obtain remaining required supply. Where stations are dependent on each other for operation, apply deficiency to each. Deduct one-tenth the points for each day’s storage in reservoir in excess of ten hours’ fire flow.
  14. Construction.—a. Small amount of combustible material in roof structure, 10 points. Or, b. Small amount of combustible material in roof and floors, 15 points. Or, c. Considerable amount of combustible material in roof structure, floors and wainscoting and/or partitions, 25 points. Or, d. Largely or wholly frame; for each 25 per cent., 10 points. Note— If sprinklered throughout do not consider a, b or c, and charge only one half of d. e. Combustible roof covering, 30 points, f. Sections not properly cut off, 10 points. Note—The deficiency may include e and f in addition to any other one item.
  15. Insufficient fire protection other than sprinklers: a. If 12 a or b applies, 5 points. b. If 12 c, d or e applies, 10 points.
  16. Hazards.—a. Electric wiring hazardous, 5 points, b. Heating by stove or gas, 5 points. c. General care, including storage of oils, poor, 5 points. Or, a. General care, including storage of oils, very poor, 10 points, e. Highpotential generation apparatus; if in non-fireproof building and not cut off by blank parapeted wall, 20 points.
  17. No protection.—a. To moderate exposures, 10 points, b. To serious exposures, 25 points. Note—If 12 d or e apply, use double the points for 15 a and b.
  18. Reliability of Supply Mains as Affecting Adequacy.—Under this heading will be included any and all pipe lines or conduits on which supply to the distribution system is dependent; suction or gravity lines to pumping station, flow lines from reservoirs, force mains, etc., are included and a system may have one or all of these as part of it. Under 6, the adequacy of these lines under normal conditions has been considered. Consideration must be as to greatest effect on maximum consumption and fire flow at required pressure that a break could have; for cities under 25,000 population, maximum consumption and one-half fire flow, and for cities under 2,500 population, maximum consumption and onequarter fire flow. In applying, all mains which deliver from a source of supply or of storage to the principal mercantile district must be considered. Aqueducts, of good design and of substantial construction, such as masonry or concreted steel, if so installed as not to be deficient under item 17 following, shall be considered sufficiently dependable as not to require duplication, and no application will be made as to the effect of a possible break. Under the assumption of the most serious single break, when capacity of mains from the source of supply is less than maximum consumption, deficiency shall be considered as offset by storage when the difference between maximum consumption and the capacity of the mains is equaled by one-fifth the storage after deducting fire flow for ten hours, except as restricted by the capacity of the mains from the storage. When capacity of the mains from the source of supply is more than maximum consumption, the excess capacity plus 2.4 times the storage shall be considered as offsetting deficiency if equal to the fire flow in million gallons a day. The effect of a break in suction or discharge headers, lack of bypassing or poorly gated by-pass or arrangements at any reservoir, filter, etc., poorly arranged cross-connections, etc., must be considered; also features which would tend to cause or prevent an interruption of service, such as length of line, and two or more lines from the same or different sources or from storage. Deficiency for each individual possible break must be considered, and charge made for the case giving the maximum total number of points, including the increase due to distance. For maximum effect on domestic consumption and fire flow of any single break in any main, apply one-half deficiency scale, and increase the points of deficiency by 1 per cent, for each 1,000 feet of main in which a single break would produce this maximum effect.
  19. Reliability of Installation of Supply Mains.—Must be in good condition and reliable; cast-iron, wrought-iron, wood-stave and masonry conduit .have been found satisfactory in various places and under certain conditions; service records and general conditions must be considered. Mains shall be so laid as not to endanger each other, and their failure at stream crossings, railroad ossings and other points where physical conditions are unsatisfactory shall be guarded nst; they shall be cross-connected and gated about once a mile and be equipped with air-valves at the high points and blow-offs at the low points. Use one-half deficiency scale in proportion to degree of unreliability. Note—If more than one main and conditions do not affect all, apply in proportion to the carrying capacity affected.
  20. Arterial System.—In connection with the supply mains, arteries and secondary feeders shall extend throughout the system. These feeders shall be of sufficient size, considering their length and the character of the sections served, to deliver fire floor necessary for the district, shall be frequently spaced (about every 3,000 feet) and looped. Basis of deficiency applied to be the results of fire flow tests and general consideration of the arrangement. a. Fair, 10 points, b. Poor, 20 points, c. Very poor, 50 points.
  21. Installation.—Mains of the arterial system shall not be laid across filled ground, and shall have special construction at railroad crossings and near bridge abutments, and shall be so gated that not more than one-quarter mile within the distribution system will be affected by a break. All mains shall have sufficient cover to prevent freezing, with a minimum cover of 2 feet to prevent injury from traffic, a. Slightly unreliable, 5 points, b. Moderately reliable, 10 points, c. Seriously unreliable, 25 points. Note—Consideration not to be given to conditions already covered by 17 above.
  22. 21. 22 and 23.—Minor Distributers and Gridiron System.—Six-inch to be considered the minimum size satisfactory for hydrant supply in residential districts; to be closely gridironed with 6-inch cross-connecting mains at intervals not exceeding 600 feet, or where initial pressures are high a satisfactory gridiron may be obtained by a liberal per cent, of larger mains cross-connecting the 6-inch at greater intervals; in new construction, 8-inch should be used where dead ends and poor gridironing are likely to exist for some time, and 6-inch only where blocks are 600 feet or less in length. In high value districts the minimum size to be 8-inch with cross-connecting mains at distances as given above; 12-inch and larger mains to be on the principal streets and for all long lines not cross-connected at frequent intervals.
  23. Effect of Small Mains in High Value District Considered.—For deficiency in fire flow in the part of the district where the least supply is available, whether due to weakness in the system or low pressures: Use one-half deficiency scale. Per cent, of deficiency to be based on fire flow obtained at strongest pciint in district, except where this exceeds required fire flow, in which case the latter should be used as basis.
  24. Small Mains in Distribution System.— For per cent, of 4-inch or smaller mains supplying hydrants: Use full deficiency scale for cities over 10,000 population, and one-half deficiency scale for cities under 10,000 population. Note—Not to be considered where laid only to supply domestic consumption and hydrants are not directly supplied by them. Reduce the points of deficiency 5 per cent, for each 10 pounds average normal static pressure above 20 pounds in cities depending on engine streams and 60 pounds in cities depending on hydrant streams.
  25. Dead Ends.—For per cent, of 6-inch and 4-inch pipe dead-ended, on basis of total length of pipe in the distribution system: Use full deficiency scale. Reduce the points of deficiency 5 per cent, for each 10 pounds average normal static pressure above 20 pounds in cities depending on engine streams and 60 pounds in cities depending on hydrant streams.
  26. Gridiron (average condition in closely built residential sections).—6-inch or smaller mains on long side of block, with 8-inch or larger cross-connections: a. At intervals of 600 to 900 feet, 15 points, b. At intervals of 901 to 1,200 feet, 30 points, c. At intervals of 1,201 to 1,500 feet, 45 points, d. At intervals of 1,501 to 1,800 feet, 65 points, e. At intervals of 1,801 to 2,100 feet, 85 points, f. At intervals of 2,101 to 2,400 feet, 100 points, g. At intervals of 2,401 to 3,000 feet, 115 points. If cross-connections are 6,-inch or smaller, increase points of deficiency by 50 per cent. Reduce points of deficiency 10 points for each 10 pounds average normal static pressure above 20 pounds in cities depending on engine streams and 60 pounds in cities depending on hydrant streams.
  27. Pipe.—In distribution system, pipe to be of satisfactory quality and properly tested for soundness and tightness of joints. Use onequarter deficiency scale for cement-lined pipe, and one-quarter deficiency scale for wooden or metal pipe in unreliable condition.
  28. Electrolysis conditions to be ^ studied and methods of prevention applied. For conditions favorable to electrolytic action, 10 points. Note—If there is evidence of recent serious electrolytic action, double the above points.
  29. Gate Valves.—The distribution system shall be equipped with a sufficient number, so located that no single case of accident, breakage or repair to the pipe system, exclusive of arteries, will necessitate the shutting from service a length of pipe greater than 500 feet in high value districts, or greater than 800 feet in other sections, and will not result in shutting down an artery. Spacing in high value districts: a. Average 600 to 900 feet, 10 points, b. Average over 900 feet, 25 points. Spacing in residential districts: c. Average 900 to 1,500 feet, 5 points, d. Average over 1,500 feet, 15 points.
  30. Inspection and Condition of Valves.— All valves to be inspected yearly and large valves more frequently, and be kept in good condition; the presence of some valves operating in opposite direction is to be considered the equivalent of unsatisfactory condition, ranging from fair to poor, depending on the number and importance. Gate valves not inspected regularly or in poor condition, 20 points. 28 and 29. Hydrant Distribution.—Shall be sufficient to give an average area served, in proportion to the fire flow, as follows:
  31. Engine Streams.

  32. Area served in high value districts in excess of requirements by: a. 10,000 square feet, 5 points, b. 20,000 square feet, 10 points, c. 30,000 square feet, 20 points, d. 40,000 square feet, 30 points, e. 50,000 square feet, 40 points, f. 60,000 square feet, 50 points, g. 70,000 square feet, 60 points, h. 80,000 square feet, 70 points, i. 90,000 square feet, 80 points.
  33. Area served in residential districts in excess of requirements by: a. 20,000 square feet, 5 points, b. 30,000 square feet, 10 points, c. 40,000 square feet, 15 points, d. 50,000 square feet, 20 points, e. 60,000 square feet, 25 points, f. 80,000 square feet, 35 points, g. 100,000 square feet, 50 points, h. 120,000 square feet, 65 points, i. 140,000 square feet, 80 points, j. 160,000 square feet, 95 points, k. 180,000 square feet, 110 points. 1, 200,000 square feet, 125 points.
  34. Condition of Hydrants.—Hydrants shall be inspected in the spring and fall of each year, after use at fires during freezing weather and daily in high value districts during protracted periods of severe cold. a. Not inspected, or in only fair condition, 10 points, b. in poor condition, 20 points.
  35. 31 and 32. Size and Installation of Hydrants.—Hydrants shall be able to deliver 600 gallons per minute, with a loss of not more than 2½ pounds in the hydrant and a total loss of not more than 5 pounds between the street main and outlet; they shall not have less than two 2j4-inch outlets and also a steamer connection where steamer service is necessary. Street connection and hydrant barrel should be not less than six inches in diameter; connections to street main shall be gated. Hose threads on outlets should conform to the National Standard. Flush hydrants, requiring chucks to be screwed on, are considered undesirable, especially in sections of the country subject to heavy snow storms, because of delay in getting in operation.
  36. Hydrants too small; to include all with 4-inch connection to main, or with small barrel or foot valve, except those hydrants with steamer outlet in cities using engines and with static pressure of at least 60 pounds; also to include all with single 2J+inch outlet, and all flush hydrants requiring chuck to be screwed on or where covers arc liable to be covered by heavy snow fall, except that flush hydrants, with an adequate number of chucks provided having more than one 2J+inch outlet, are to be considered on basis of one-half deficient, a. Use one-fifth deficiency scale for those in high value districts, b. And add onetenth deficiency scale for those elsewhere.
  37. Hydrant connections to street main not gated: Each 10 per cent, 1 point. If 26 b or d apply, use double the points. If no deficiency under 26, do not apply 32, unless hydrants on main artesies are not gated, in which case use a total of 10 points.


  1. Officers.—There shall be a chief. There shall be an assistant or deputy chief for over two and up to twelve companies and another assistant, battalion or district chief to each additional eight companies. There shall be two officers to each engine, hose or ladder company. Call officers, i. e„ officers who receive some pay for services, but do not devote their entire time to fire department duty, and volunteer officers shall be considered as equivalent to one-half full paid officers, a. Use one-fifth deficiency scale for chief officers, b. And add one-fifth deficiency scale for company officers.
  2. Operators.—There shall be a sufficient number of competent operators (engineers, stokers and chauffeurs) so that one shall be on duty at all times for each engine or motordriven apparatus. Use one-quarter schedule 1.
  3. Qualifications of Chief Officers.—Chief officers shall be experienced in fire service. Inexperienced or incompetent: a. Use onetenth deficiency scale for chief, b. Add onetwentieth deficiency scale for other chief officers.
  4. Chief’s Tenure of Office.—Chief shall hold office for an indefinite term and be removable only for cause after public trial. Chief removable without cause, 10 points.
  5. Appointment and Promotion of Officers. —Officers’ appointment and promotion shall be based on examination, seniority and record, under civil service rules with tenure of office provisions. Method of appointment and promotion of officers: a. Fair, 5 points, b. Poor, 10 points.
  6. Enlistment and Promotion.-—Privates’ enlistment shall be under civil service rules and based on physical and mental examination, with satisfactory age, weight and height limits; permanency to be only after a satisfactory probation of six months. Special training and examinations shall be required for engineers and chauffeurs. Method of enlistment and promotion of privates: a. Fair, 5 points, b. Poor, 10 points, c. Very poor, 20 points.
  7. Retirement.—Full paid members shall be retired at the age of 62, unless unusually efficient at that time; proper and ample means shall be provided for pensioning men for long service or disability. Provisions or enforcement for retirement: a. F’air, 5 points, b. Poor, 10 points. Not to apply if no member is over 55 years of age.
  8. Number of Engine or Hose Companies.—• Number of engine or hose companies to be in conformity with the following formulas: P= Population in thousands. For cities under 50,000: Number of engine and/or hose companies =1.0+0.14 P. For cities having population of 50,000 to 200,000: Number of engine and/or hose companics=4+0.08 P. For cities having population in excess of 200,000 the number of engine or hose companies depends on distribution, as covered by item 10, and on the ability to handle tw’O simultaneous large fires without leaving all sections of the city unprotected.
  9. Note. In certain cities a number in excess of the above will be required, depending on the structural conditions found in the city. Where the topography and general layout of the city require, For proper distribution, a greater number of companies than determined by the formula, deficiency will be applied under item 10. For outside aid available within 30 minutes, the number of companies may be reduced by one-half the outside companies obtainable. ‘flic credit thus allowed shall not exceed 15 per cent, of the required number of companies, except that if hose couplings are interchangeable or adapters are provided, 25 per cent, may be allowed, and if, in addition, adequate arrangements are made for notification and mutual aid, 33 per cent, may be allowed. Where at least 80 per cent, of the required number of companies are fully motorized, the total required number of companies may be reduced by 15 per cent., provided such reduction will not create a deficiency under item 10. Use two times deficiency scale for numerical deficiency.

  10. Ladder Companies.—In cities over 2.500 and under 20,000 population there shall be one ladder company; in cities over 20,000, the number of ladder companies shall equal 1+0.03 P. or approximately one ladder company to each three engine or hose companies. An aerial ladder must be provided in a district where five buildings are four stories or higher and out ladder truck in five shall be aerial. A fully equipped truck in reserve ready for service may be considered as one-lialf value of a truck in service, a. Use one-third deficiency scale for numerical deficiency, b. Add onetenth deficiency scale for deficiency in aerial trucks, c. Add one-tenth deficiency scale for poor condition.
  11. Distribution of Companies.—In general, distribution shall be such as to provide an engine or hose company and a ladder company within the following distance of every point in a district:
  12. The above requirements will vary depending cm the topography and character of the city. If the additional companies required under Items s and !» are sufficient to give proper local distribution as per above table, do not apply deficiency under this item. Eor per cent, of numerical deficiency of companies, and of companies not properly located: a. Lse one-half deficiency scale for engine and hose companies in high value districts, b. Add one-quarter deficiency scale for engine and hose companies in residential districts, c. Add onequarter deficiency scale for ladder companies in high value districts, d. Add one-tenth deficiency scale for ladder companies in residential district?.

    11 and 12. Maintenance of Companies.— Strength of companies-shall be maintained as follows:

    Note A. The above strength of engine companies is based upon the use of steam fire engines; one man less may be allowed in companies having automobile pumping engines. Note li. If drivers do not perform fire duty, the above strength in all companies must he increased hv one. Note C. Where high pressure fire systems are in use and a man is detailed to remain at the hydrant, strength of hose companies in the district served must be increased by one. Note I). The minimum above may be decreased bv one man, in ladder companies having quick-raising aerial trucks. Note E. Where auxiliary squads, or chemical companies equipped with straight Chemical engines, respond to alarms to increase the manual strength of other companies. the minimum above may be decreased by one man per company, the number of companies affected in each district considered being the same as the strength of the auxiliary squad during the time when the strength of the other companies is a minimum. Note E. In departments having call or volunteer members, with tappers in houses and places of business or sufficient tower bells, horns or whistles, four rail or eight volunteer members mav be considered as equivalent to one full paid member, up to one-third the least number required to he on duty at all times. Volunteer members receiving pay for fire service shall he considered on call basis. Note G. With a two-platoon system, if proper arrangements are not made for the response of men on off-shift for large fires, the least number of men on dutv as given in the above table sha he increased one-fourth.

  13. For deficiency in total company membership of the department, based on the least number of men required to he on duty at all times with required number of companies: Use full deficiency scale.
  14. Strength of existing companies (minimum on duty) within or near the high value district considered: a. Average 1 man deficient, 10 points, b. Average 2 men deficient, 20 points. 3. Average 3 men deficient, 40 points, d. Average 4 men deficient, GO points, e. Average 5 men deficient, 80 points, f. Average G men deficient, 100 points, g. Average 7 men deficient, 12.7 points.
  15. Engine Capacity.—A total engine capacity, at least equal to 2-3 of the required fire flow’, shall be assumed as needed in all cases. Where fire streams are available in the district considered from a High Pressure Fire System its capacity shall be considered as engine capacity, except that if residual pressures are less than ISO pounds, actual engine capacity shall still be provided as given in table. In estimating engine capacity available, reserve engines, or engines available from outside within 30 minutes, or fireboats in conjunction with fireboat pipe lines, shall he considered at )4 their actual capacity, as offsetting delay in getting into service, but not to exceed ½ the total engine capacity required. Capacity of engines to be that obtained at tests; where no test Capacities arc available, no engine to he considered as of more than 80 per cent, of its rated capacity, and in no case of more than 1,000 gallons capacity. In districts having a domestic supply capable of delivering any fire flow at a residual pressure permitting direct hydrant streams, the points due to deficiency in engine capacity will be reduced in proportion to the fire flow available at such pressures at the weakest point in the district; where buildings arc t stories or higher, some engine capacity, depending upon the pressures at which direct hydrant streams are available, may still he required, as specified in the table following, and a further deficiency applied:
  16. No engine capacity required where full tire flow is available at 150 pounds; for pressures intermediate between 90 and 150 pounds, proportional engine capacity is required.

    a. For Total Engine Capacity: Use full Deficiency Scale. Deduct 10 per cent, of points of deficiency for each 10 per cent, of lire flow available from the domestic system at adequate pressure for direct hydrant streams, b. Where a deduction has been made under “a” for direct hydrant streams, add, if deficient in engine capacity necessary on account of high buildings, as given in the table above, % Deficiency Scale.

  17. Reserve Engines.—If over 5 engines are in service, at least one shall be in reserve for every 10 horse-drawn steam engines or fraction thereof in service: for motor pumping engines or tractor-drawn steam engines, 1 in 5. In cities with pressures permitting fair hydrant streams in some sections, engines in service in these sections may he considered as reserve for important companies; if the minimum water pressure in the district considered is more than GO pounds, a reserve engine is not required lor loss than 10 engines in service. Where automobile hose wagons are provided, reserve steamers shall have short poles for towing. Use 1-7 Deficiency Scale.
  18. Condition of Engines.—Engines shall be kept in good condition; the absence of annual tests and tests after all repairs, in accordance with National Board of E’ire Underwriters’ rules for testing, may be considered a deficiency. Suction coupling threads shall he uniform on engines and hydrants, a. Lse 1/7 Deficiency Scale, b. Add, for each different thread 3 points.
  19. Fireboats.—A fireboat shall be required where there is an occupied wharf frontage of one mile and additional boats such as to give a proportion of one to each three miles of wharf frontage. Total fireboat capacity to be equal to J4 the required fire flow for the district protected. Credit may be given for privately owned fireboats or tugboats with fire pumps and turrets up to J4 their tested capacity, if operating only in the harbor and if arrangements are made for their regular response to waterfront alarms and for their operation under the chief of the fire department. If not tested allow not over 1/3 rated capacity, a. For number of boats: Use *4 Deficiency Scale, b. And add, for capacity: ¼ Deficiency Scale. This item to be considered only when applying the Grading Schedule to a waterfront district.

  20. 17. Powerful Stream Appliances.—Suitable appliances shall be provided for handling powerful streams, except where less than 1,000 gallons of water are available as direct hydrant streams or from fire engines, or where not more than 5 buildings in the high value district considered are 3 stories or higher; these shall include turret or monitor nozzles, Siamese connections, deluge sets and cellar pipes, properly distributed and in proportion of one to each four companies. A water tower or ladder pipe must be provided where 5 buildings are 4 stories or higher; water towers are required in high value districts having over 10 buildings 6 stories and higher, such that one shall be within 1 ½ miles of every building 6 stories high. a. For each water tower deficient, if needed, 10 points, b. For other appliances: Add 1/7 Deficiency Scale.
  21. Chemical Equipment.—Sufficient apparatus shall carry chemical tanks (chemical engines or combination hose wagons or ladder trucks), to enable two pieces so equipped to respond to each first alarm. Where static hydrant pressures are less than GO pounds, allow only *4 credit for chemical tanks on pumping engines. Use Deficiency Scale for numerical deficiency of large tanks.
  22. Reserve Loaded Hose Wagons.—There shall be in reserve, with provisions for its response on second alarms, one or more hose wagons, equipped with turret pipes and loaded with 1.000 or more feet of spare hose, 3-inch in cities depending on direct hydrant streams. Where more companies are provided than called for under Item 8, a reserve loaded hose wagon is not required, a. No loaded hose wagon in reserve as required. 10 points, b. Where provided, but with .’.“Li-inch instead of 3-inch hose. 7 points.
  23. Hose.—Each engine or hose company shall carry at least 1,000 feet of 254-inch or larger hose and shall be provided with a complete spare shift, a. For average amount of hose carried per company: Use Deficiency Scale, h. Add for average spare hose per company: ¼ Deficiency Scale.
  24. Hose; Larger Than 254-inch.—For companies responding to first and second alarms in mercantile or manufacturing districts where direct hydrant streams are used, at least half the hose carried on wagons shall be 244-inch or 3-inch; if engines are used, and in all other districts, at least 200 feet of large hose shall be carried on each wagon. Large hose not to be required where less than 1,000 gallons of water are available as direct hydrant streams or from engines, or where not more than 5 buildings in the high value district considered are 3 stories or higher, a. Where hydrant streams are depended upon: Use 1/5 Deficiency Scale, b. Where engines are depended upon: Use 1/10 Deficiency Scale.
  25. Condition of Hose.—Elose shall be in good condition; a service of 7 years should be expected before being in such condition as to require discarding; hose over 5 years old shall not be used in important companies, and if not regularly tested such hose shall be considered as in poor condition. Hose couplings and 254-inch hydrant outlet thread shall be uniform, a. For per cent, of total amount of hose in service in poor condition, or over 7 vears in service if not tested: Use 54 Deficiency Scale, b. Add, for each different thread. 5 points.

(To be continued.)