PROTECTING THE FACTORY FROM FIRE

PROTECTING THE FACTORY FROM FIRE

(Written Specially for Fire and Water Engineering.)

(Concluded from page 374.)

Inspection Forms and Bulletins.

In large plants with many employees it is well to keep a close check on the fire appliances. This inventory should be made each month and where appliances are missing the foreman of the department should be called on for an explanation. Any appliances found missing or defective should be replaced at once. A similar inventory of the fire brigade equipment is necessary in order to keep the service at one hundred per cent, efficiency.

Watchmen’s reports (Form No. 5) should be studied carefully by the superintendent of the plant for they will show how well orders are being obeyed and will indicate the housekeeping standard of the plant. Where there has been an actual fire, a copy of the watchman’s report on the fire should be attached to his daily report and another copy turned in to the fire chief.

FORM NO. 5.

Watchman’s Report.

(Name of Company)

Date,……;on duty,…p. m. to … a. m. Work of Cleaners: Waste baskets or cans not emptied,…..Dept; floor sweepings not removed,…… Dept.; refuse bins not emplied,. Dept.; doors found open in,…………. Dept.; windows found open in,……. Dept.; skylights open. Dept.; combustible material not removed from, ………… Dept.

Fire Appliances: Fire discovered in. Dept.; appliances missing, Dept.; appliances damaged,……………………….Dept.; appliances obstructed,…………………….Dept.; aisles obstructed, …… Dept.; fire escapes obstructed. Dept.; fire doors out of order, ………. Dept.; light at sprinkler valve out of order,……………………..Dept.; pressure on fire pump shown by gauge.

Power and Water : ower not shut off,………… Dept.; lights left running in,_. Dept.; water left running in, . Dept.

General: Matches, cigars and cigarette stumps in. Dept.; . Dept, operating until a. m., . p. m.; employees found in …………… Dept, with (out) permission; names,…,………………Dept.; explanation given, ……; clothing not in lockers. Dept.; conditions or occurrences during tour which should be reported,…………………;cause of delay in registering at station No ……. (Signed), ………….., Watchman. Watchman’s report should be turned in each day before watchman leaves factory.

The bulletins, samples of which are given, should be printed in red and black and should be distributed generously about the plant. They should be posted in locker rooms, at foremen’s desks and on stair landings particularly.

This bulletin should be posted in boiler rooms and other conspicuous places in the factory.

To All Employes:

If the Plant Burns Your Job Is Gone.

To protect this factory from destruction by fire it is necessary that everything possible be done by every individual to prevent fires starting. To this end these rules have been made. Violations may be followed by instant dismissal.

Rules.

  1. Smoking is absolutely forbidden (except in room provided for that purpose).
  2. Carrying or using other than safety matches is forbidden.
  3. Burned matches must be deposited in metal receptacles provided for that purpose.
  4. Oily waste cans are provided for use. Waste material must be placed in them.
  5. Wet clothing must not be placed on radiators or boilers or hung on wires to dry.
  6. The use of paper lamp shades is forbid; den. Paper must not be attached to lamps in any way.
  7. Fire appliances must not be moved or used except for the purpose for which they are intended.
  8. Locker must be kept clean and free from paper or waste material of any kind.
  9. Space around waste bins must be kept clean. Bins must be kept clean when not in use.
  10. Floors must be kept clear of waste, refuse and litter of all kinds.

What a Fire Means.

  1. Loss of difference between damage and insurance.
  2. Loss of money for work done on material in course of manufacture.
  3. Loss of orders already taken to competitors through inability to deliver the goods.
  4. Loss of good will from same cause.
  5. Loss of service. customers who are satisfied with
  6. Loss of records, lists, accounts, trade, etc.
  7. Disruption of organization built up by years of work
  8. Loss of profits during period of rebuilding.
  9. Increased selling cost to regain lost trade.

Every Fire Due to Carelessness Is a Crime.Every year of “efficient” Americans burn up $250,000,000 wealth. Every second—every tick of a watch—$8 goes up in flames. Is that efficiency?

To prevent fire one must be prepared. “All fires are small fires first.” Then, when they are small, all fires may be easily put out. In the first vital few minutes one little extinguisher can save more property than a whole fire department can save later, when lurid tongues are licking the entire structure. Every fire due to carelessness is a crime, and most fires are crimes; 90 per cent, are preventable, in the last analysis.

Property destroyed by fire is wealth irrevocably lost. Insurance will repay you for your burned property, but no insurance can recall your scattered employees. No insurance —rent—tenant—good can restore lost business—customers—orders will. No insurance on on earth can possibly pay for the 3,000 lives sacrificed every year on the fierv altar.

Conclusion.

Every waste basket—rubbish bin—oily rag— every furnace—flue—coal bin; every match— all hold potential destruction. At any moment carelessness may rouse the sleeping enemy. If, through neglect to take proper precautions or to recommend that they be taken, the property is swept away, who will be to blame? In protecting the property you are protecting yourself.

Act now, before fire comes.

(The End)

PROTECTING THE FACTORY FROM FIRE

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PROTECTING THE FACTORY FROM FIRE

(Written Specially for Fire and Water Engineering.)

(Continued from page 355)

Construction—(Continued).

Wall Openings—Windows should never be opposite those in another building it wails are less than 10 feet apart. Even then they should have wired glass and approved automatic fire shutters. Wired glass was invented to prevent breakage, but as a means of fire prevention it has performed far greater service. Ordinary glass will crack under slight heat, but wired glass is made to resist very high temperature. The melting point is 1,800 degrees. A lesser degree of heat may crack it, but the wire will hold tlie pieces in place and act as a bar to the flames.

Window and door sashes and frames should be of metal so as to be able to resist fire as long as the window. Fire walls should extend from cellar to roof and then four feet above the roof. Cornices should be cut off in the same way so that flames cannot work their way through into adjoining property.

Shingles—The most dangerous single item of construction is the wooden shingle. Millions of dollars loss is caused each year by it. Even if a building is wood the roof should be covered with metal or other fireresisting material. A new building may not be necessary. The present building may be vastly improved without great expense. It is not necessary to rebuild, only to close useless openings in walls, floors, etc., which invite the spread of fire.

Keep in Touch With the Condition of a Factory.

—Have Written Reports May by

A—The Watchman.

a—On History of His Tours.

B—The Fire Inspector.

a—On “Housekeeping” Standards.

C—The Assistant Eire Chief.

a—On All Fires.

b—On Work of Eire Brigade.

C—On Results of Fire Drill.

d—On Condition of Fire Appliances.

  1. ——Study All Reports Carefully, and Be Guided by them.
  2. — Keep Reports on File.

Inspection Forms.

Following will be found examples of forms and bulletins which arc used in many large plants.

Form No. 1 is that usually adopted where written reports on daily inspections are required. Special hazards may require special blanks but these may he added to this.

FORM NO. 1.

Fire Inspector’s Report.

(Name of Company)

Date.; time of inspection, .; general cleanliness good, indifferent, bad; if unsatisfactory, in what way? .; violations of fire department rules.(give department, foreman and employees); violations of company rules..(give department, foreman and employees); condition of fire appliances.; appliances missing.; appliances defective.; fire alarm O. K., .; are fire doors in proper working order and unobstructed? .; are exits clear? .; water pressure on sprinkler system and standpipe as shown by gauge.; steam pressure on fire pump.lbs.; engineer on duty.; watchman’s tour O. K..; delay at, .; reason for delay, .; name of watchman..; suggestions for reducing risk and increasing protection,. (Signed) . Inspector

Chairman, Fire Prevention Committee of The Safety Firat Federation of America. Organizer and Former Head of the New York City Fire Prevention Bureau. Now Head of the Engineering Bureau of the Pyrene Manufacturing Company.

Form No. 2 for Eire Drills should always be filled out and kept for reference. Comparisons of these reports will quickly show any falling off in drill efficiency.

FORM NO. 2.

Fire Drill Report.

JOHN DO If, Chief Eire Brigade.

(Name of Company)

Date, .19..; weather conditions.; time of alarm, .; time building empty, .; elapsed time.; time employees back at work.; time lost in drill, ……; number stairways used, .; number stairways closed, .; number fire escapes ssed, .; nrmber fire escapes closed, .. .; horizontal exits used, .; horizontal exits closed, .; condition of fire gongs,.; suggestions for improving fire drill, . (Signed) ., Asst. Chief.

A report on the work of the Fire Brigade (Form No. 3 should always be made after every drill. Absence from drill without cause should lead the offender to be dropped temporarily at least from the force.

FORM NO. 3.

Fire Brigade Drill.

JOHN DOE, Fire Chief.

(Name of Company)

Date, ..19..; weather conditions.; time of alarm.; location of “fire,” .; time elapsed from alarm to “starting water,” .; number of hose lines stretched.; length of hose lines stretched, .; number of ladders raised,.; condition of hydrants, .; condition of hose, .; apparatus needing repair or replacement. Absentees: Name.; why absent, .; name, .; why absent, .; name, .; why absent.; name.; why absent, .; name, .; why absent, .; name, .; why absent, .. Additional equipment needed, .; suggestions for increasing efficiency of brigade.(Signed), .Asst. Chief.

Reports should be made on all actual fires (Form No. 4) and each fire no matter how trivial should he investigated and its cause ascertained if possible so that steps may be taken to prevent a recurrence.

FORM NO. 4.

Fire Report.

JOHN DOF., Fire Chief.

(Name of Company)

Date, .; time of fire, .; location, floor.. department, .; foreman in charge,,.; discovered by.; fire in, .; cause’,.; how long burning before discovered (hbout), .; how extinguished and by whom.; was fire confined to point of origin?.; if not, by what means did it spread..; time to extinguish,.; appliances used, .; appliances missing, .; appliances defective.; did sprinkler heads open? .; how many? .; sprinkler heads replaced (number).; by, .; extinguishers recharged (number), .; by.; damage by fire, .; damage by water,.; employees or others injured (names).; injuries, .; remarks. (Signed).. Asst. Chief, E’oreman or Watchman. Fire brigade and drill reports to be attached.

(To be concluded.)