The report of the board of public service of Cleveland, Ohio, is a very comprehensive work of 427 pages, covering all details of the waterworks system and containing many tables of much importance. Prof. Edward W. Bemis, superintendent, who compiled the data, has certainly given a very full statement of the workings of the department for the past year. The statistics of consumption of water are: Estimated total population to date. 519,000. Estimated population on lines of pipe, 517,000. Estimated population supplied. 516,000.

Total consumption for the year. 19,050,118,331. Passed through meters, 15,123,802,000. Percentage of consumption metered, 70.71. Average daily consumption, 52,049,504. v Gallons per day to each inhabitant, 100.3. Gallons per day to each consumer, 101.0. Gallons per day to each tap, 710.0.

Cost of supplying water, per million gallons pumped, figured on total operating expense ($377,878.62), $33.32 (1).

Total cost.of supplying water, per million gallons pumped, figured on total operating expense plus interest on bonds, $44.33 (2).

(1) Including $12.12 depreciation.

(2) Including $0.67 for sinking fund payments. Total pipe now in use, 708.9115 miles Number of hydrants now in use, 8,402.

Number of stop gates now in use, 15,692. Number of service taps now in use, 72,976. Number of meters now in use, 69,598. Percentage of services metered, 93.61 per cent. Percentage of receipts from metered water,

95.8 per cent.

A table of the deaths from typhoid in various cities shows Cleveland fifth on the mortality list of the twenty-nine places given. The lowest is Newark, N. J., with 7 deaths in every 100,000 of population. The total deaths from typhoid in Cleveland during the year 1908 was 64, or 20 less than the number for the year previous. In the introductory summary of the report of the waterworks department for the year 1908 Professor Bemis says, that owing to the industrial depression and to the reduc tion in charges due to the setting of 5,688 new meters, the total assessment and meter earnings fell from $935,413.56 in 1907 to $929,439.08 in 1908, or about $6,000. This was in spite of a larger use of water on lawns during the dry summer of 1908 than in the previous year, and in spite of the fact that a re-assessment ot the 20,000 properties enjoying the $1.25 minimum resulted in the discovery that about 2,000 of them should pay the $2.50 minimum because they would pay without a meter over $3.50 semi-annually on the flat-rate system. This in crease was made in October. Nineteen miles of pipe were laid, making a total of 709 miles. Of this, 64 miles are over 16 inch. The remaining 645 miles are from 16-inch to 3-inch and are those tapped for the direct supply of consumers. Occasionally even a 16-inch main is tapped for such supply. Since there are only 646 miles of street, of which 357 miles are paved, it is evident that, although we have a supply main each side of some streets, we have a supply main in almost every street of the city. Less than four miles are as small as 3-inch. The superintendent further shows tiltresult of using meters on the per-capita pumpage. lie says: “It has now fallen from 172 gallons per day per capita in 1901 to 100 gal Ions in 1908, or the same as it was in 1890, before the large use and waste of water con needed with modern plumbing, the disuse of wells and the use of water for industrial putposes. There are cities which use less water per capita, but they are places where the use for industrial purposes is far less than here or where reliance is had on wells, cisterns, rivers, etc. For example, out of our 75,000 consumers the 1,242 largest users consumed 520,459,000 feet of water during the six months preceding April 1. 1908. This was 41 gallons per day per capita for our entire population of 516.000 along the lines of our water mains. Again, during the six months ending with October 1, 1908, the 1,806 largest consumers used 549,420,000 feet, or at the rate of 42 gallons per day per capita. A still larger daily use by our large consumers occurs during good times. The decline in the average daily pumpage from 67,087,942 gallons in 1900 and from 09,964,742 gallons in 1902 to 52,049,504 gallons in 1908 is the more noteworthy when it is placed alongside of the further fact that the number of connections in use increased from 53,473 in 1900 to 72,976 in 1908—a gain of 34 per cent.” The average number of bacteria per cubic centimeter and the number of days in which B. Coli were found each year since .1904 are given as follows: In 1905, bacteria 245, bacilli coli 12; .1906, bac leria 501, bacilli coli 19: 1907, bacteria 128, bacilli coli 25: 1908, bacteria 172, bacilli coli 37. Referring to the bacterial conditions, he says that the monthly tables show that while the turbidity and the number of bacteria are far greater in the spring than in the fall, yet the deaths from typhoid are far greater in October than in any other month. This would indicate that some other cause than the water supply must account for the typhoid conditions in the fall of the year. The prevalence of flies at the close of the summer and the return at that time of people who have been away on their summer vacations and perhaps some conditions in the milk supply at that time may account for the typhoid sickness in September and October and for the typhoid death rate in September, October and November. Of the total amount of water pumped for the year ending October 1. 1908, only 7.95 per cent, appeared to be lost by leakage of the mains or services in the streets. This is a remarkable showing and is unequaled, -o far as known, in any other waterworks in this country. The following table gives the details:


Relative to expenses, the report states that there was an increase in operating and repair expenses from 1900 to 1908 of 47 per cent., while in the eight yearprevious the increase was 108 per cent., and for the eight year-before that time 75 per cent. The pumpage increased 77.36 per cent, during the seven years ending with 1894, and 70.35 per cent, during the next seven years, ending with 1901. Had the pumpage increased even 75 per cent, during the next seven years, ending with 1908, the pump age last year would have been 44,587,904,482 gallons. This would have been no greater in crease and no larger amount per capita than has taken place in Pittsburg, Buffalo, Detroit and Chicago, where meters have only been placed on large connections. Various csti mates by the department show that in order to provide tor the enormously large pumpage that would have been necessary without meters fully $2,500,000 would have been required for extending the West Side tunnel, enlarging pumping stations and laying more mains. The water rates actually paid under the meter sys lent were nearly $300,000 less in 1908 than they would have been under the flat rate or assess” ment system. In a paper by W. D. K. Gwinn the rates of 375 cities are given. In none of the 162 cities with private plants were the met ered rates as low for the ordinary house consumers as in Cleveland. While they were nominally a little lower in five of the 213 cities with municipal plants, it is known that in most, and probably all of these five, householders must furnish and keep in repair their own meters. This and other conditions make the actual charge for water in Cleveland lower for the ordinary house consumer than elsewhere in the country. This charge, which must he paid whether much water is used or not, is $1.25 semi annually, where the flat-rate charge would be $3.50 or less. All others pay $2.50. This will be better understood by the statement that the 18,000 houses which do not have more than seven rooms and one water-closet without a hath have a minimum of $1.25. The others, which may use no more water, pay the *2 50 semi-annual minimum.

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