Report on Delaware Waterworks System

Report on Delaware Waterworks System

The Delaware, Ohio, Water company, having employed W. R. Mill, consulting engineer of Albany, N. Y., to report upon its plant, the following is a summary of his report: The source of supply is from a filter-gallery underground, a brick wall and sixteen pipe-wells on the Olentangy river, 2 miles north of the city, where is a pumping station. A 16-in. force-main 2 miles long, connected to a standpipe, leads to the distributing system of 20 miles of cast iron pipe 16in. to 4-in., with 132 valves and 262 hydrants. The filter-gallery, built in 1889, is of dry rubble stone. It is 293 ft. long, l ft. wide and 6 to 7 ft. high, resting on rock about 20 ft. below the surface of the ground, or 14 below low-water level in the river. The gallery is built in sand and gravel, with a depth of 14 ft., overlaid with 6 ft. of loam at the surface. A 14-in. pipe connects the east end of the gallery with the river. It is equiped with a valve and screen with a 3in. mesh. This pipe is to be used only in times of great emergency. At the west end of the filter-gallery is a covered brick well, 32 ft. in diameter and 20 ft. deep, resting on rock, into which water flows bv gravity from the filtergallery. For seven years that gallery and well formed the only source of supply. Sixteen wrought iron pipe-wells have been added. In 18tt6 a 6-in. pipe-well was driven 255 ft., serving for six years. In 1902 an 8-in. 225-ft. well was driven, in 1905 two more 8-in. pipes were driven 225 ft.; in 1908 a 6-in. pipe was driven 100 ft.; and II 4 in. were driven from 20 to 24 ft. The first five were driven through 6 ft. of loam, 14 ft. of sand and gravel and then into the rock; the others, through loam and gravel to the surface of the rock. Hence, the source of supply is from a natural filterhed, which purifies the quality of the water and that is excellent -the State board of health has condunned all surface-water in the neighborhood. The tops of three of the deep wells are so low that water from them must he first pumped up into the brick well; thence into the standpipe. The other 13 pipe-wells are connected with a 10-in., 12 in. and 14-in. suction-pipe 1.400 ft. long, joined directly to the pumps, hence, the water from this system is pumped hut once to reach the distributing system. There is and always has been a constant flow of water from each well. It requires only about half the quancity of coal that was previously used to pump from these 13 wells, which were put in operation on December 8, 1908. and they have since furnished all the water required, without obtaining any from the filter-gallery, brick well and three of the deep wells. Hence, the latter, after sixteen years of service, can now be held in reserve, and, if needed, more wells can he driven front time to time The pumping station is of brick; the boiler-room is 37×38 ft.; the pump-room, 28x 28 ft.; the smokestack, 80 ft. high; its flue, 42-in. The coal-bin is of frame and of 80-ton capacity. I here are also a residence for the engineer and a frame stable and storeroom. There were installed in 1889 two Deane, compound, duplex, condensing engines, having 14-in. suction and 12-in. discharge-pipe.; capacity of each, 2,000,000 gal. in twenty-four hours. There are, also, a SmithVaile 6x4x6 duplex, boiler feed-pump, installed in 1905; a small Deane duplex pump for draining the cellar; and an Ingersoll-Sargent air-compressor. 12×12*4×14, class A. capacity 285 cu. ft. of free air per minute, installed in 1898, to pump from the low wells into the brick well. Two 16×60 return-flue tubular boilers, rated at 75horsepower each, are installed. They have sixtyfour 3 1/2-in. tubes; grates, 64×54-in.: each boilet equiped with high and low safety-alarm columns and pop safety-valves. They were built hv the Frie City Iron Works in 1889 and are still in good condition. The same works supplied a boiler of the same character in 1906, rated at 150-horsepower. These boilers easily furnish all the steam repuired. In the boiler-room, also are a StillwellBierce water-heater, a boiler-feed pump and a Metropolitan injector, with piping arranged to supply all boilers, all in good condition. All the above machinery constituted the pumping plant prior to 1908. There has just been installed a Knowlson-Kelley company 10×30 Corliss engine, with a condenser pump and heater, and a Bethlehem improved duplex power-pump, rated capacity 2,000.000 gal. in twenty-four hours. The pumps is set in a low pit. and its suction is level with Vbc pipe from the wells lately installed. This engine will still further reduce the quantity of coal required, and the plant will be very economical to operate. A brick addition to the pumping station, 18×35 ft., and 8×38 ft., with a pump pit 18 ft. deep, was built in 1908 to accommodate the new engine, pump, condenser and heater. The steel standpipe, adjoining the force-main about one-fourth of a mile from the pumping station, is 20 ft. in diameter and 100 ft. high; capacity 235,000 gal. It was made by a Pittsburg firm in 1889, and is connected with the force-main by a 12-m. outlet discharge into a 12-in. vetrified pipe leading to the river. Its top is 150 ft. higher than tlie intersection of William and Sandusky streets. This would give a static pressure of 65 lb. per sq. in. at that point, when the pipe is full. A check-valve is to be placed in the inlet-pipe. It will work automatically, and close the connection with the standpipe, when higher pressure from the pumps is placed on the distributing system. The distributing system is well designed, with 10-in., 12-in. and 16-in. mains in the principal business streets and 4-in., 6-in. and 8-in. mains in the residential section of the city. The 4-in. mains invariably are connected at street-intersections with larger mains—in fact, at no place does one 4-in. pipe cross another. The mains are well distributed throughout the entire city, reaching the limits of the building district, and are in a good state of preservation. In July 2, 1908, W. J. Sherman, consulting engineer, caused live test-pits to be opened for the purpose of inspection, and he reports “the coating to be practically as good as new and in very good condition”; here and there the “inside coating gone, hut very little scale”; some “in as good condition as when laid, and was found to be in good condition, with coating unbroken.” Hence, there can he but little question as to the good condition of the pipe. As a further proof, not one pipe has hurst, except in cases of interference, and it has never been necessary to dig up the streets to recaulk a leaking joint since the plant has been installed. This is certainly uncommon, and shows a remarkably well laid system. Mr. Sherman reported “too many dead ends.” These, of course, are objectionable: but the most of them are unavoidable, and it would he practically impossible to connect them, without laying pipes through fields, as is in the case on West Central avenue, where there is a dead end 1,900 ft. long, reaching 550 ft. beyond the Hocking Valley railway. There are 262 hydrants, well distributed to afford protection against fire throughout the city. In fact, there are only a few buildings in the city that are over 300 ft. from a hydrant, and these are all on the outskirts. The hydrants are in the best possible locations, and there are no less than an average of 13.1 to each mile of pipe, while in forty-two of the larger cities of the United States there is an average of only 9.2 hydrants per mile. The value of having the hydrants close together is apparent from the fact that water can he turned more quickly upon a fire, and there is less loss of pressure due to friction in shorter lines of hose. Owing to the height of the standpipe, there is an average water pressure of 60 lb. per sq. in. throughout the city—sufficient for fire purposes, except at a time of a great conflagration. or when a fire occurs in the outskirts: at such times the pressure could be increased from the pumps. The question might arise as to the sufficiency of a stream of water from a hydrant supplied from a 4-in. main. Tn relation to this, Mr. Hill would state that the “hydrants are supplied from two directions (except at dead ends)—making it equivalent to two 4-in. pipes, which are reinforced by larger mains at each street corner. This is sufficient’ in the residential district, where there are hut few buildings over two stories high; but in the business section, or in a closely built city, with high buildings, a 4in. pipe would not be permissable. C. W. Keiser, chief of the fire department, spoke in the highest praise of the efficiency of the pressure of water for the protection against fire. He said: “We always get plenty of water and sufficient pressure.” During his incumbency of two vears he has asked but once for pump-pressure, and that was in the case of the fire of the stave factory, which was located 1,000 ft. from a hydrant. I am informed that in all cases the fires in the city have have been confined to the buildings where they originated. I should call the city well protected against fire.’*’

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