(Continued From Last Week.)

In response to inquiries, the writer was referred to Prof. A. H. Sabin, of New York, and finally succeeded in persuading him to undertake the necessary investigations. Much time, however, was required for the purpose; and as the East Jersey Pipe Works were soon ready to commence making pipe, the proprietors were directed to use meanwhile the same asphalt coating which had been found to be very successful on numerous conduits in California, as well as on the large steel conduit recently completed for the water supply of Newark, N. J. Every effort was made to obtain materials of the best quality for the purpose from California, also to prepare and apply the coating in the most approved manner. The results at first appeared to be very gratifying, but after the pipes had been exposed to the air for several weeks, it was noticed that the high gloss of this coating gradually disappeared, thus leading to the inference that the substance was undergoing a slow change. In water, on the other hand, no alteration was detected, and it was therefore believed that the coating would prove serviceable after the pipes were once filled. It also failed in adhering tightly to the metal, and the contractors were subjected to great expense in painting with costly material large areas trom which the coating had scaled off during transportation and handling. Directions were then given to substitute for the California asphalt, a mixture of refined Trinidad asphalt and the best grade of coal-tar, thereby producing the same coating as had been applied to the old conduit and which has proved to be durable at all events. Although this mixture was, on the whole, more satisfactory than the other one, it nevertheless left much to be desired in the way of toughness and adhesion to the steel. Meanwhile the experiments of Professor Sabin in the direction of obtaining a better practicable coating had resulted in the evolution of a japanning process which, from both theoretical and practicable considerations, gave promise of conspicuous success. Pieces of small pipe, which he had coated in his laboratory, were subjected to numerous tests for determining the durability of the coating; and as it withstood all these tests perfectly, and moreover, adhered remarkably well to the metal, its use for the remainder of the conduit was decided upon. At this time, however, the East Jersey Pipe Works had nearly completed their portion of the work, while the Rochester Bridge and Iron Works was just commencing operations on the pipe. The proprietor of the latter was accordingly requested to investigate the Sabin process thoroughly, and to adopt it if no valid objections could be raised against it by the expert chemists he was to employ for the purpose. As no such objections were forthcoming and nothing better was available, he promptly constructed the necessary expensive plant for carrying out the process under Professor Sabin’s direction, and coated all of his pipe in this manner.

LAYING, CLEANING AND Testing.—After the pipes had been delivered along the route of the conduit, two lengths were riveted together upon the surface of the ground, thus forming a section about 54.5 feet in length, and weighing from 7,000 to 10,500 pounds, according to the class. These sections were then rolled in succession by a large number of men upon suitable timbers placed across the trench, where one or two strong derricks raised them clear of the timbers and lowered them safely to the bottom of the excavation. One end of a section was then carefully fitted into the pipe which had previously been laid, and was temporarily fastened thereto with a number of holts passed through the rivet holes. The exact adjustment of the section to its proper alignment and grade was then done, and after the rivet holes had all been made to coincide, either by reaming or by a slight turning of the pipe, the joint was ready for the riveters. Meanwhile the trench had been excavated truly to line and grade, and wherever the soil permitted, its bottom was shaped to fit the convex exterior of the pipe. Where the bottom could not be shaped as aforesaid, wooden saddle blocks were placed at frequent intervals and brought to grade by tamping the soil underneath. At the joints, the trench was enlarged somewhat, so as to admit of inserting the hot rivets from the bottom and sides, the upsetting and hammering of these rivets being done on the inside ot the pipe. For the greater part ot the route, it became necessary to partially refill the trench soon alter the pipe had been riveted together, in order to prevent the latter trom floating in case that the excavation should accidentally be tilled with water; but wherever practicable, a space was lett open around every field-made joint, in order that any leakage might easily be discovered and remedied on the application of the waterpressure test to the conduit. On the other hand, in places where no appreciable inflow of water could occur, the upper part ot the pipe was left entirely exposed until after said test, thereby obtaining an opportunity for observing the quality of the shop-made seams. Upon the completion ot lengths ot a mile or more of the conduit, each such section was in its turn thoroughly cleaned out and examined to see that all delects in the coating had been made good with paint, whereupon tne ends were tightly closed up, either temporarily with a steel boiler head or permanently with a stop-valve, and the pipe filled with water from a force-pump, the water pressure was gradually raised until it became about 50 per cent, greater than that to which the conduit would afterward be subjected in its normal operation; and while under this pressure the work was closely examined for leakage. By this means all detects quickly manifested themselves and were thereupon promptly repaired. It may also be mentioned that the force-pump was usually stationed at the beginning of the pipe conduit near the village of Hemlock lake, and hence most of the sections above Rush reservoit were thus subjected repeatedly to this severe test. For the portion of the conduit from Rush to Mt. Hope reservoir, the force-pump was not needed, as the static head from the said beginning of the work was amply sufficient for testing purposes.

OVERFLOW ON THE CONDUIT.—A comparatively novel feature of the pipe conduit is the provision of a device, midway in the long stretch of 17.5 miles from its commencement to Rush reservoir, whereby the pressures in the upper half will, under ordinary conditions of operating the works, always be limited to those due to the hydraulic gradient; while the maximum pressures in the lower half, which will result if the inlet valve to said reservoir be closed, will be about 26 pounds per square inch less than those due to the entire available head. The device consists simply of a short standpipe, rising from the conduit on the top of a hill up to the hydraulic grade line for Rush reservoir, and communicating with an adjacent pipe which is continued down the hillside to the creek. With the flow properly regulated by the gates at the lake, and free discharge into said reservoir, the water will not rise in the standpipe quite up to the level of the overflow, and hence no waste will ensue; but if the discharge at Rush is stopped in some emergency, the overflow will at once come into action and carry the entire flow safely into the creek, thereby preventing the head on the upper half of the line from acting on the lower half.

AIR-VALVES AND BLOW-OFFS.—At every summit in the conduit line, an air-valve of peculiar construction has been placed. The function of these appurtenances is both to afford a facility for letting out the air, which may be confined in the pipe before it is filled with water, and to allow air in abundance to enter automatically in case that water is drawn out from blow-offs, or escapes from a rupture in the pipe. Three different sizes affording clear openings of 3, 4 and 6 inches in diameter, were used in the work. The devices consist, respectively, of one, two and four similar bronze valves, suspended from springs and attached to a suitable cast-iron chamber, which is bolted to a horizontal stop-valve, and the latter to a flanged casting riveted upon the pipe. The stop-valve is left wide open, but if the air-valve gets out of order, the former may be closed and the repair made without shutting off the conduit. As it is necessary to keep these fixtures free from frost, earth and mischief, each is enclosed in an iron case deeply covered with earth, and from which a capacious stand-pipe projects about three feet above the surface of the ground. The top of this standpipe is covered with an iron hood in which there is a small opening, also covered with a locked flap, to receive the key whereby one of the cluster of air-valves may be pressed down and opened. For the admission of air, the valves are all opened automatically by the pressure of the atmosphere as soon as the water pressure is removed, since the tension of the springs is only sufficient to balance the weight of the metal.

STOP-VALVES AND CONNECTIONS.—Ten large and heavy 36-inch stop-valves are placed in the line of the conduit from its beginning to Rush reservoir, and six such valves are set between Rush and Mt. Hope reservoirs. Of the former, live are placed in such positions that if a parallel conduit about 2.56 miles in length is ever required through that portion of the valley where the new conduit crosses nine times under Honeoye Creek, three connections can be made between the two, so as to divide this somewhat hazardous part of the route into two sections, either of which can be cut out by means of these valves without greatly impairing the efficiency of either of the two lines. Provision has also been made for connecting with the old conduit at two points, the first at Richmond Mills, where the old pipe may be made to partially supply the new line, and the second near North Bloomfield, where the relative elevations first become such as to enable the new line to feed the old one. There is, however, no immediate necessity for making any of these connections, and facilities therefor have been provided only because it is probable that they will become desirable at some future time. The old and new conduits are also connected indirectly in the new gate house at Rush reservoir, where a complexity of valves is found necessary for the purpose of avoiding grave annoyances in the future, when another conduit from Hemlock lake is built. The pipes and valves have here been arranged so as to allow any of the conduits coming to said reservoir to feed any of the pipes leaving the same for Mt. Hope reservoir. A similar provision has also been made at the point in Pinnacle avenue, about 400 feet north of Elmwood avenue, where the present new pipe deflects abruptly to Mt. Hope reservoir, the intention here bing to treat the deflected line as a branch to said reservoir, while the conduit itself is conducted to a new distributing basin, as previously mentioned. Another large group of valves occurs in the new gate house at Mt. Hope reservoir, where the new conduit is directly connected with two new 30-inch distributing mains. These latter pipes are also designed to take water from the reservoir; but as it may become desirable at times to obtain a somewhat higher pressure in the city than is afforded from said reservoir, it has been planned to equip each of these pipes with a check-valve, which will close automatically when they are fed from Rush reservoir, and will reopen when the connecting valves are shut.

MASONRY CONDUIT AND TUNNEL.—The reasons for adopting a diameter of six feet and a grade of one in 4,000 for the masonry conduit, from Hemlock lake to a point about 12,000 feet northerly, have already been indicated, and we may therefore pass to the description of the work itself. From numerous test borings it was found that the firmest sub-soil, at the contemplated depth below the existing ordinary low water level, occurred over a compartively small area at the northeastern corner of the lake. This place was accordingly selected for the site of the gate-house, and the route of the conduit in earth excavation was governed by similar considerations. From the contract prices, it was found that when the depth of an open trench in earth reached a limit of 30 feet, the cost per lineal foot of the completed structure would be the same as if the work were done in tunnel, and hence this depth of 30 feet became the dividing line between the two classes of excavations. An examination of the profile of the route shows that at the beginning of the conduit proper, which is about 100 feet from the shore, the ground is some four feet above the ordinary low water level, and hence that the excavation would here be about 22 feet deep. From this point northerly the ground gradually rises, until at a distance of 395 feet, the depth of cutting becomes 30 feet. Continuing along the route, the surface rises rapidly to shaft No. 1, which is 68.3 feet deep, and it does not again reach to within 30 feet of the required bottom grade of the conduit for a distance of 7,350 feet, In the remaining length of 4,184 feet to the end of the work, the depths of excavation are all less than 30 feet, the average being 13.3 feet. The contractors were accordingly directed to tunnel the said distance of 7,350 feet and to make an open trench for the remainder of the way, but as they preferred to continue the tunneling for some distance beyond the limits at the same prices as for the work in open excavation, no objection was made. To expedite the tunnel work, six shafts were sunk at nearly equi-distant and favorably situated points along the route, thus affording, with the two end points, fourteen places at which the excavation could he prosecuted simultaneously. The depth of these shafts ranged from 54.7 to 78 feet, the average being 67.2 feet, of which 9.7 feet was in earth and 57.5 feet in dense, shale rock.

The tunnel work was prosecuted continuously throughout the 24 hours of each day, except Sunday, at a maximum rate of 8.33 feet, and an average rate of 5.71 feet per day, at each of the twelve headings. On August 8 the headings met between shafts No. 2 and No. 3, and within a few weeks the other headings met, so that on September 1, 1893, a continuous passage was formed between shafts No. 1 and No. 6, a distance of 5.875 feet. Work at the two ends or portals was begun on August 15 and 24, respectively, timbered shafts 30 feet deep to grade being sunk at these points. From the south portal, the excavation was in clay southerly to the gate house, also northerly for 210 feet, after which it passed into and through soft, shale rock for a length of 130 feet to hard and dense rock; from the north portal southerly, a similar soft rock was encountered for 224 feet, also for 50 feet northerly, when the excavation passed wholly into clay. The work in this soft rock and clay was somewhat dangerous, and both the roof and sides of the tunnel here required heavy timbering and sheathing. In the firm rock, on the other hand, the roof needed no support and but little trouble from the falling of material was experienced. Progress from the portals was, therefore, somewhat slower than from the shafts, the average rate being about 5 feet per day; yet on October 16, 1893, the excavation of the entire distance of 7,350 feet between the portals was completed. All of the brickwork was laid in Portland cement mortar, whereas the concrete was formed with natural cement. The roof was allowed to remain exposed until the concrete had become hard; whereupon the trench was retilled and the original surface of the ground restored, except in a few places where the excavation was very shallow, and an embankment was necessary to protect the masonry from frost. In such eases the embankment was carried to a height of 3.5 feet above the top of the arch, and the Idling was also extended hack to the hillside, in order to avoid the formation of pools. In soft rock excavation, the bottom of the tunnel was lined with one course, four inches thick, of brick; but in eartli excavation two courses, in addition to the concrete, were used to form the tloot. In other respects the construction was similar to that already described, except in places where the rock roof was very thin and loose. At these localities, the side walls and arch were formed of three courses of brick; and at the shaft, where great strength was lequired, the brick lining masonry was made four courses, or 16 inches thick. The aggregate length of the 12inch brick lining is 434 feet, and that of tin 16 inch lining, 132 feet. In each shaft, a brick manhole was built after the tunnel masonry had been finished, which was provided with a vertical iron ladder, resting platforms about 25 feet apart, and a strong iron coping at the surface of the ground. The resting platforms were designed to he capable of being folded hack against the brickwork, so as to afford an unobstructed passage for large buckets from top to bottom, in case of future repairs or cleaning operations in the tunnel; and the top casting was furnished with a tight-fitting locked cover, and a 6-inch ventilating pipe, terminating in a suitable hood.

NEW GATE HOUSE.—Excavation was begun on August 23, 1893, and a timber foundation on a bed of clay was obtained on October 26. As no suitable stone could he found anywhere in the locality, the thick walls were built entirely of brickwork, laid in Portland cement mortar. The masonry of the gate-house was begun on January 11, 1894. and was completed up to the level of the contemplated flooring on April 24, 1894, the work also including the laying in concrete of the first length of 38.6 feet of the five-foot steel intake pipe. The gatehouse is arranged with two sets of passages to the conduit, both to secure ample area of screen surface, and to allow one set of sluice valves to be repaired without interrupting the water supply to the conduit. For the latter purpose, the openings through the partition walls are provided with strong iron guides for stop planks or shutters, so that any compartment may he isolated. A

subterranean chamber was also formed at the mouth of the conduit, in which a weir has been placed for accurately measuring the supply taken to the city; and by removing this weir, room is afforded for launching a boat, cither for making an examination of the tunnel at any time, or attaching a sweeper, it may be mentioned, in this connection, that while the conduit is six feet high and wide inside, the maximum depth of water therein will not exceed four feet, unless it is desired to waste it at the overflow chamber.

LAYING TIIK INTAKE Pipe.—From the character of the work connected with the laying of the large intake pipe, little coukl he done in this direction until the gate house was finished. An agreement for its performance was made on April 14, 1894, with Chambers & Casey, of this city, hut active operations were not commenced until May 10, as the intervening time was needed to obtain materials for building scows for the dredge, the pile-driver and the pipe; also for constructing the various temporary supports and procuring the necessary machinery and appliances. The five-foot steel pipes, with their balland-socket joints, had been delivered and riveted together in lengths of about 100 feet during the preceding fall and winter, and arranged in proper order upon a platform in a convenient field. Their weight ranged from 14 to 18 tons, according to the thickness of the plates, and the number of stiffening rings. To transport these heavy tubes safely, a narrow-gauge railway track was laid between the two rows of pipes and down the gently sloping bank to and over a pile pier, at the end of which a powerful hoisting apparatus or winch was placed on a framework overhead. A pipe was then rolled upon two small trucks and conveyed to the end of the pier, where one-half its weight was transferred from the foremost truck to a pontoon or scow, which was then pushed out a certain distance and held in place; the pipe was then lifted from the rear truck and lowered upon a second scow, which had Teen slipped underneath, so that it now rested on two floating supports; whereupon it was easily towed to its required position between two wellbraced clusters of piles, which had meanwhile been driven in the line of the work and which were provided with winches on their tops. The pipe was then lifted from the two scows and held in place by strong chains at each end. Several thickpiles 65 feet in length, which was sufficient to span the top of the excavation, were rolled along from the south bank, so as to form a bridge or platform over the end of the pipe. A few supports from below enabled this platform to carry a light pile-driver, the engine of which was left on the hank, whereupon a cluster of six piles was driven on each side of the pipe and thoroughly braced. The tops of those piles projected 10.5 feet above the water surface of the lake and were capped transversely with heavy timbers, the caps being in turn tied together by similar longitudinal timbers. The space of about 14 feet between the two groups of piles was then bridged over with other timbers, upon which a winch was placed, whereby the south end of the pipe could subsequently he lifted above the water surface. At its north end the pipe was raised slightly to its required height with jack-screws, and then slid along until the ball of the joint was properly fitted into the socket of the pipe projecting southerly from the gatehouse, whereupon the coupling collar of the ball was securely bolted to said socket, thus completing the first joint or flexible union of the two pipes.

The crib, which completed the new intake work at the lake, was sunk on October 6, 1894, the first long pipe having been put in place on August 14 Dredging was begun on June 25, and on August 2t connection was made with the open excavation at the shore, although only a portion of the channel was at that time finished. As the clusters of piles at the pipe joints could not he driven until the dredge had cut the required channel, progress with the pipe laying was somewhat slow, but after leaving this channel, the floating pile-driver was kept at work constantly, and the pipes were laid as fast as the pile clusters were completed. The work of launching, transporting. connecting and laying each pipe occupied only a few hours, and had the dredging and pile work all ben done in advance, the pipe work alone could have been completed in ten days.

TEMPORARY INTAKE PIPE.—Early in the season of 1894, it was realized that the above described permanent intake work could not be finished before an ample supply of clean water from the lake would be needed for washing out both the tunnel and conduit masonry and the steel pipe conduit, which latter was expected to reach Rush reservoir in June. To avoid delays anywhere in the work between the lake and said reservoir, and in order that the earliest advantage could be taken of the considerably greater discharging capacity of the portion of the old conduit between Mt. Hope and Rush reservoirs, over thal of the portion between Rush and the lake, a tern porary intake was formed early in July, 1894, with a line of 16-inch pipe, about 720 feet long, which was laid as a siphon from a small plank basin on the shore of the lake, and directly com municating therewith, to the bottom of the gate house. This line of pipe was provided with a Stop-valve at each end, and, and by closing the same, the siphon could readily be charged in a short time by filling it with water from a small team pump. By closing the orifice for filling on top, and then opening the two stop-valves men tioned, the siphon was at once set in operation, and was able to deliver clean water from the lake at the rate of about 8,000,000 gallons per day. On August 17 water was first admitted into the steel pipe, which was also thoroughly flushed a number of times before the temporary inlet pipe to Rush reservoir was opened, and the re mainder was treated in a similar manner; and it is fair to state that when the inlet valves at the two reservoirs were first opened, the water issued as clear and clean, so far as the senses could detect, as when it left Hemlock lake, 26 feet be low its surface.

GENERAL STATISTICS.—The material excavated in the performance of contract No. 1, was about 47,400 cubic yards, of which 30,900 were in open trenches, and 16,500 in the shafts and tunnels The volume of masonry built was 12,870 cubit yards, of which 2,030 was stonework of various classes, 3,980 concrete, 1,085 brickwork in the gatehouse and overflow chamber, and 5,775 in the conduit, tunnel and shafts. The brickwork represents about 3,700,000 brick. Over 54 tons oi ironwork was put in place, and the number ol men employed daily ranged from 100 to 400 during a period of sixteen months. The work performed under contract No. 2 embraced ap proximately 62,000 cubic yards of preliminary grading for roadways and reducing depth ol backfilling, of which 2,200 were in rock; 207,300 cubic yards of excavation in trenches for the pipe, of which 1,250 were in rock; 4,650 cubit yards masonry of various classes; 250,000 feet B. M. timber and plank in foundations and bridges; 6,500 lin. feet of piles driven for bridges and pipe foundations; 53,361 lin. feet 1/4-inch plate pipe with single-riveted straight seams; 24,729 lin. feet 1/4-inch plate pipe with doubleriveted straight seams; 34,815 lin. feet 5-16-inch plate pipe, and 24,043 lin. feet 3/8-inch plate pipe both with double-riveted straight seams; 1,350 lin. feet 36-inch cast-iron pipe, special casting; and stop-valves; the total length of pipe conduit thus being 138,298 lin. feet, or 26.19 miles. The first shipment of steel pipe from the East Jersey Pipe Works arrived on April 26, 1893, but laying was deferred until June 8, as a largi amount of heavy grading along the first two miles of the route had to be finished before any pipe could he delivered or the trench opened. On December 21, 1893. the pipe conduit was completed to Rochester Junction, on the Lehigh Valley Railroad, a distance of about 13.6 miles from its beginning near Hemlock Lake, and furthet operations were suspended for the winter. During the preceding period, the average rate of progress in pipe laying was 500 feet per day. Work was resumed on April 6, 1894, and as the weather contnued favorable very rapid progress was made Rush reservoir being reached on May 14, and Mt. Hope reservoir on July 26. The maximum rate of progress in pipe laying was 1,860 feet in one day. and the average for the entire work was 598 feet per day. Much work, however, remained to be done in testing, recalking, attaching air-valves and blow-offs, setting main stop-valves, painting and cleaning the pipe, and making temporary inlets at the two reservoirs; and it was not until August 24, 1894, that the water was first let into Rush reservoir, and Ocober 9, 1894, into Mt. Hope reservoir. The number of men employed daily on the line of work ranged from 300 to 600.

RIGHTS OF WAY.—An important element in the problem was the acquisition of the necessary rights of way for performing the work over a route 27.8 miles in length, where the ground was not already owned by the city. Of this distance 20.6 miles was through private lands, and 7.02 miles in highways. The title to the area occupied by these roads was, however, vested in the adjoining landowners, and hence it became necessary to negotiate with the latter for the right to lay the pipe, precisely as if the line were located in private grounds. Much diplomacy was needed to obtain these rights without causing delay to the contractors, especially as no limit was placed on the number of conduits which the city might lay in the territory sought; also because it was stipulated that no damages to crops grown thereon in the future should ever be paid. Out of a total of 140 landowners along the route, it was found necessary to apply for legal condemnation proceedings and arbitrations in only thirteen cases. The total costs of these permanent rights of way, and temporary land damages, including all legal expenses involved thereby, was about $61,600, or about $2,215 per mile on the average.

COST OF THE WORK.—The total cost of the work up to January 1, 1896, has been $1,776,911.86, the details thereof being given in Appendix No. 3; but as it may be of interest to mention the principal components of this sum, the following general summary is herewith submitted: For the intake works at Hemlock lake, $51,825.25; for the masonry conduit, tunnel, gatehouse and overflow chamber, $268,624.30; for the steel pipe conduit and appurtenances named in the general contract, $1,197,005.83; for stop-valves, air-valves, valve-boxes and buildings not included in said contract, $29,868.88; for prospective damages to mill-privileges on the outlets of Hemlock and Canadice lakes and Honeoye creek, $67,250; for permanent rights of way, temporary land damages and legal expenses, $61,572.30; and for preliminary surveys, examinations, borings, engineering, inspection, printing and miscellaneous expenses, $100,765.30; total, $1,776,911.86. It should also be remarked that in order to complete the new conduit, an additional expenditure of about $60,000 is necessary for the permanent connections at the two reservoirs and for suitable buildings over the several gate chambers at Hemlock lake and Mt. Hope reservoir; and it may furthermore he mentioned that if the aforesaid prospective damages to the mill-privileges had not been charged to the construction account, the work might have been finished within the appropriation. This statement is permissible in view of the fact that the original estimates distinctly excluded any provision for such damages, it having been assumed that these claims would be adjusted after the conduit had been put into operation, and the consumption of water in the city had reached the limit of draft for which payment had previously been made.

ADMINISTRATION.—As the description of a large piece of public work is usually accompanied with the names of those who have been engaged in its performance, and since allusion has already been made to the contractors, it now becomes proper to mention the municipal authorities and employees under whose direction the new conduit was built. The responsibility for the entire work was vested primarily in the executive board of the city, acting as a hoard of water commissioners; and during the three fiscal years occupied iu the design and construction of the conduit, the members and principal subordinate officers of this hoard, for the waterworks department, were as follows: George W. Aldridge, John U. Schroth. Richard Curran, William W. Barnard, George W. Aldridge. William W. Barnard, John U. Schroth, William W. Barnard and John U. Schroth. executive board; Thomas J. Neville, clerk; E. Kuichling, chief engineer.

Toronto Fights Typhoid.

The building of a temporary sand dam across the new Western gap this winter, and the employment of a powerful tug to keep the bay clear of ice—such was the suggestion sent by City Engineer Rust to the board of control of Toronto. Canada, recently, with the object of preventing another typhoid outbreak next winter. Mr. Rust says that many people, himself included, considered that the excessive number of typhoid cases was due to the opening of the new Western gap. and also to the fact that the bay was covered with thick ice all winter.

“The dam and the tug would materially reduce the liability of typhoid,” said Mr. Rust. “The cost of the sand hank would be $6,000. and the cost of the tug would he $25 per day. The dam would have to he 22 feet high. And the gap is 400 feet across. It was suggested that the dam be made a permanent structure.

Bangor Water Plant.

Bangor, Me., located at the head of navigation on the Penobscot River, with a population of more than 25.000—the greatest lumber city, next to Chicago, in the United States, its annual shipments exceeding two hundred million feet—gets its water supply from the river. The water is pumped to a standpipe of 1,500,000 gallons capacity. It is equipped with three pumping engines of 15,000,000 gallons capacity, and Warren filtration system. According to the annual report of the water board for the year ending February 28, 1910, the works pumped 1,276,172,165 gallons of water, or a daily average of 3,508,714 gallons— a daily increase of 600,000 gallons over the amount pumped ten years ago. The filter plant consists of 24 Warren filters, each 10 feet 6 inches inside diameter, having a combined sand area of 2,040 square feet, equal to about 1-21 of an acre. The depth of the sand in the filters is about 24 inches. The filter beds of 18 filters consist of quartz having an effective size of .97 mm. uniformity coefficient of 1.41 with 60 per cent, finer than 1.37 mm. Six of the filters contain sand which has an effective size of .85 mm. uniformity coefficient of 2.00 with 60 per cent, finer than 1.50 nun. The most serious troubles have been due to the inability of the filters to retain the aluminum hydrate. The filters removed 57.47 per cent, of the applied bacteria, the filtered water containing 248 bacteria per c. c. The total combined efficiency of the basins and filters was 85.63 per cent. Of the 1,042 samples of 1 c. c. each of the unfiltered water examined for B. Coli-communis, 044, or 61.9 per cent., gave positive results, while 76 or 7.29 per cent, of the samples of the filtered water gave positive results. From these results it would appear that 88.2 per cent, of the B. Coli-communis was removed. The daily bacterial tests show that the basins remove 66.21 per cent, of the bacteria, the effluent from the basins containing 583 bacteria per c. c. Once a week a complete sanitary analysis is made of the filtered water. Comparing the results of the sanitary analysis of the unfiltered and filtered waters, it is seen that the free ammonia was reduced 34.5 per cent.; albuminoid ammonia, 33.7 per cent.; nitrogen as nitrates, 27.7 per cent.; required oxygen, 65.7 per cent.; iron, 58.1 per cent. A mineral analysis of the filtered water is made every month. A more modern filter is recommended by the bacteriologist.


A bed of fine sand 12 inches in depth was placed in a filter for experimental purposes. It was found that with this finer sand it was possible to retain the aluminum hydrate on the filter, and the results were good. This filter would operate at the rate of 249,000 gallons per day, while the filter with the coarse bed of 24 inch depth would operate at the rate of 327,000 gallons per day. The fine sand required the filter to be washed oftener. At times the filters have to be forced far beyond any reasonable rate of filtration. Comparing the area of the sand beds with that in modern plants, the rate for the Bangor plant should not exceed 4,500,000 gallons per day gross. At the time these filters were installed they operated without any coagulant, and represented an up-to-date filter of that time. These filters require a large amount of wash water, and about 3,000 gallons of coagulated water has to be wasted in washing one filter. During the year, 12,339 filters were washed, an average of 33.8 per day. Filtered water is used in washing the filters, the total amount being 121,129,000, or 8.69 per cent, of the water filtered. The average amount of water used in washing each filter was about 9,800 gallons.

The water board enforces the following rates for dwelling house consumption: For first faucet to be used by a single family, $5; each additional faucet to be used by the same family, $2; where a house is occupied by more than one family, and one faucet being used by all, for each family $5; first water closet, $3; each additional water cicset, $1; where one water closet is used by two or more families in one house, each family $3; first bath tub, $3; each additional bath tub, $1; where one hath tub is used by two or more families in one house, each family, $3; the first two wash bowls, each, $1; each additional wash bowl, 50 cents; set wash tubs, each $1; faucet in cellar for furnace use, each, $1. Hotel and hoarding house rates are: For sink faucet, $8 to $40; each wash howl, $5: each water closet, $5; each urinal, $5; each bath tub, $5; each wash bowl in private rooms, $3; each water closet in private rooms, $2; each bath tub in private room, $3.

Meter rates for water for other than domestic use are established at five and one-half cents per one hundred cubic feet, but the minimum charge for water under meter rates shall not be less than as follows: For elevators and motors, $6 per quarter; for all other uses, $2 per quarter.

The total number of services now connected with the system is 4,850. There was an extension of street mains to the extent of 8,733 feet. The total number of miles of distributing mains connected with the system is 51, and 183 feet. By the addition of 14 new hydrants the city now has a total of 289. The yearly revenue for water service is $81,812.92, and the collector reports that for the thirteenth consecutive year he has collected all water rates due. There have been installed 135 new services, which yield a revenue of $3,903.50. The cost of maintenance was $90,019.25. D. R. Webber is chief engineer; M. A. Sinclair, superintendent; James M. Caird, bacteriologist.

Pacific Coast Chiefs at Frisco.

As was announced in these columns last week, the Pacific Coast Association of Fire Chiefs, at the conclusion of the Stockton convention, went to San Francisco to he the guests of Chief Thus. R. Murphy and the fire commissioners of that city. Here the chiefs were entertained in royal fashion, the principal features of the occasion being demonstrations by the local firemen.

Second Assistant Chief John McCloskey was in charge of the drill, and he showed his sense of dramatic values by working up gradually from the more simple feat to the most thrilling. He was assisted in directing the show by Capt. W. Carcw, truck No. 7, and Lieut. J. Dolan, engine No, 10, ft was at Captain Carcw’s house that the drill was held. Thirty firemen took part, with nearly every company in the city represented. There wasn’t any smoke or flame to contend with, hut even at that the stunts of the athletic and agile picked men stamped them as heroes, ready to perform almost the impossible if duty should call.

A pompier ladder weighs 28 pounds, and yet the young fellows handled it with the utmost ease and grace, too, in ascending from story to story. A long prong on the end of the ladder, resembling a hay hook, gives the hold in the window space of the story above for the climbing fireman. The men worked in pairs in scaling the building, and also in quartets, using first two ladders and then four. Upon reaching the top they hurled themselves to the net underneath by sliding down a rope. They would swing out from the structure by an impetus given by their feet and slip amazingly fast to near the bottom, where they would slow up and land as deftly on their feet as a cat.

Following the pompier demonstrations, there were a few thrilling hits of rescue. Even with a man fastened to his belt the firemen showed they could get out of a building artistically by sliding down a handy rope. In every case the rescuers landed the rescued in good shape at the bottom. The sudden drop front the fourth story only seemed to he the veriest kind of play to them.

There was a brief exhibition with extension ladders, and then P. Pyritz aimed for the hall on top of a flagpole on the roof with an arrow shot out of a rifle, hit it and some of his fellows up there grabbed the arrow and pulled in the cord attached to it. A fatter and stouter rope was then sent up by means of the lighter one. Down this rope to the hard vitumen underneath slid a half-dozen of the most doughty spirits. They alighted just as neatly and ninthly as on a soft net.

Here Chief McCloskey put away his signaling whistle and prepared to direct the next feats with his voice. William Vandervort mounted to the second story, McCloskey cried “Jump!” and .the intrepid fireman hurled himself into the none too suit net held by ten huskies on the pavement. John Jennings went up to the same spot, got the word of command and threw himself below.

William Lee was the youngest of all the men of the department present, but it was reserved for him to take his life in his hands. Pyritz and Vandervort had leaped 50 feet without meeting any harm. Young Lee was to leap 65 feet.

The daredevil looked a hit pale as he clambered tip to the second story to get the small platform which the other two had left there, and then went still further up to the opening in the third story. Lee braced himself only for a second, heard the distant cry to jump and went spinning through the air. The net was small, and the youngster just did strike its edge, hut the holders of the canvas quickly switched it and saved him from the force of the fall as much as possible. In a few minutes the department’s “Desperado” was in just as good shape as ever. The firemen who took part in the drill: L. Morscli. P. Pyritz, J.

Lavaroni, C. White, F. Kelly, C. Dougherty, F. Sullivan, B. Derham, D. Day, E. Sutter, J. Harriott. W. Lynch, P. King, E. Lindcrberg, W. Vandervort, E. Riordan, A. Morrissey, J. Daly, A. Swanberg, D. Mahoney, J. Jennings, W. Mullaney, W. Lee. W. O’Connor, E. Mulligan, E. Bowler, W. Meyers. J. Doherty, F. Hennessy, T. Connord and J. McDonald.

Subsequently the visitors were treated to a spectacular exhibition by the two fireboats. Both vessels were moored on one side of the wharf, with lines of hose extending across to the other side of the structure, where a hundred men looked after the nozzles. Later the circulators,

arranged on a horizontal stand on the end of the wharf, were used, and still later the truck tower was employed to show the height to which water could be thrown.

Fire Chief Murphy was in charge of the exhibition, and Commissioners Dillon, Goldberg, Donahue and Laumeister were present. As guests they had Chief Carlisle, of the Vancouver, B. C., fire department; Chief Metz, of the department at Walla Walla; Chief Meyer, of the Spokane department; Secretary Spottswood, of the fire department at Portland, Ore.; Battalion Chief Short, of the Oakland department, and other visitors, all of whom enthusiastically praised the work of the fireboats.

San Jose Chief Killed by His Auto.

Richard F. Brown, chief of the San Jose, Cal., lire department, was instantly killed on September to near Tanforan, when his automobile skidded on a wet road, turning turtle and pinning him under the heavy machinery. With him at the time was Ivan G. Treadwell, son of the Alaskan millionaire, who was thrown clear of the machine and escaped with a few minor bruises. The two men were returning to San Jose from Stockton, where Brown had been in attendance at the convention of fire chiefs held in that city. He reached San Francisco Friday afternoon and remained until Saturday, when an early start was made for the run to San Jose. All went well until they reached a freshly watered stretch of road near the Tanforan racetrack. The machine was traveling at a high rate of speed, and in making a quick turn to pass a water wagon the rear wheels of the auto skidded on the slanting roadway and overturned, pinning Brown down and crushing the life out of him. Unable to tell whether Brown was dead or alive, Treadwell went as fast as he could to the Six-Mile House and telphoned to South San Francisco for medical aid. Dr. H. G. Plymire, the South Sau Francisco coroner responded. In the meantime a sufficient force of men had gathered to move the heavy machine, and Brown was drawn from under it. It was quickly seen that he was past all medical aid, and steps were taken to have the remains removed to Elder’s undertaking establishment at Burlingame. News of the accident was also telegraphed to Brown’s wife and brother at San Jose, and spread a gloom over the citizens of San Jose, where Chief Brown was held in the highest esteem. Only recently it was cited that the board of fire underwriters had voluntarily reduced the insurance rates in compliment to the reputation Brown had achieved in his handling of fires in the Garden City. He was considered the best fire chief the city ever had. He came honestly by his ability as a firefighter, for his father. “Dick” Brown, had held the same position twenty years ago, when Chief Brown was but a youth, and his youthful ambition had always been to be a firefighter like his father. He first obtained the office of chief eight years ago. He was fearless in his work, and the intrepid manner in which he ran his car was the final cause of his death.

Portland Water Supply Trebled.

Approximately $2,000,000 is being expended this year in reservoirs and a new pipe line from Bull Run river, the source of the peerless supply of pure water at Portland, Ore. The city now consumes 23,000,000 gallons daily on an average throughout the year, but so rapid has been her growth that Mayor Simon and Messrs. Wilcox, Ainsworth and Mackay, comprising the water board, have set in motion the machinery to bring 46,000,000 gallons daily to the city over and above the present supply. The great undertakings of the water hoard for this year are the installing of the second pipe line from Bull Run and the building of two reservoirs at Mount Tabor.

Reservoir No. 5 will have a capacity of 50,000,000 gallons and reservoir No. 6 of 75,000,000— a combined storage capacity of 125,000,000 gallons. There are now four reservoirs, having a storage capacity of 66,749,000 gallons of water. This new pipe line will deliver daily 46,000,000 gallons of Bull Run water every twenty-four hours, which, with the present pipe line supplying 23,000,000 gallons daily, will give to Portland a total of 69,000,000 gallons of the purest water known every twenty-four hours.

The new pipe line is of lock-bar pipe and will cost completed $1,269,782. It will be connected directly with the two huge reservoirs at Mount Tabor, which are scheduled to he finished before the end of this year. The two reservoirs are to cost $450,000 and are to be models of their kind, first class every way. They will he kept filled all the time, so that in an emergency of any kind the city will have plenty of Bull Run water for all purposes for a long time.

Fire at Pratt Institute.

The third, fourth and fifth floors of Pratt Institute, a technical school, located on Ryerson street. Brooklyn, was damaged September 4 by a fire supposed to have originated from defective wiring. The fire was discovered by a watchman, who turned in an alarm. By the time firemen had arrived, it was feared that the whole series of buildings might he endangered and three other alarms were sounded. The flames were controlled an hour later. One fireman was severely injured and a property loss of $40,000 sustained.

Although the third floor of the building contained six classrooms used by the art department. no paintings or other art objects of value were endangered, as the sessions of the department are not scheduled to open until September 26.


Oneida County Firemen Meet in Rome.

The annual meeting of the Oneida County Firemen’s Association, adjourned from July 4 at Taberg. convened Monday, September 5, in Rome, N. Y. The meeting was called to order by President G. A. Baer, of Oriskany, and an address of welcome delivered by Mayor Kessinger. Delegates were present from Boonville, Camden, Clayville, Clinton, Deerfield, New Hartford, Oriskany, Oriskany Falls, Rome, Taberg, Utica, Vernon, YY’aterville, Whitesboro and Yorkville.

An important action taken by the meeting was the appointment of a committee to meet with similar committees from Oswego, Onondaga and Madison counties relative to forming a fourcounty organization.

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: George Baer, president, Oriskany, re-elected; W. H. Williams, New Hartford, first vice-president, re-elected; James L. Miller, Rome, second vice-president, re-elected; A. L. Easingwood, Clinton, treasurer, re-elected; C. R. Sperry, Boonville, secretary, re-elected; William Flemming, waterville, delegate to state convention at Rochester. The location of the 1911 meeting was left to the executive committee.





The most recent anunual report of the executive board of the city of Rochester, N. Y., contains an interesting description of the new gravity conduit from Hemlock lake to Mt. Hope reservoir, which was completed about sixteen years ago. The description, as prepared by Chief Engineer KUichling, is as follows:


The question of providing a public water supply for the city bad been considered for some years prior to 1860, at which time the population was about 48,000: but it never assumed definite form until that year, when a private corporation obtained a franchise for bringing water by gravity from Hemlock lake, which is situated in a billy district about 29 miles south of the city. This corporation, however, failed to accomplish its purpose after spending several hundred thousand dollars in the attempt; and as there was no evidence that the undertaking would ever be properly completed, the city finally resolved to build an entirely independent system of waterworks. A board of water commissioners was accordingly created in April, 1872, and on November 15 of the same year, this board reported in favor of a dual system of supply, selecting Hemlock lake as the most expedient and desirable source for obtaining by gravity an abundance of pure, soft water for domestic and general uses, and supplementing the lack of efficiency of the gravity works for fire purposes in the central and manufacturing districts of the city, by a separate direct pressure pumping system supplied with hard and impure water from the Genesee river, which flows northerly through the town. The final plans for this project contemplated a capacity of about 7,000,000 gallons per day from each of the two systems, to be distributed through about 40 miles of pipe in the city streets; they also provided for the construction of two reservoirs on the line of the gravity conduit, one on the southern boundary of the city for distributing purposes, and the other about nine miles south of the city for storage purposes. The total expenditure for the work was limited to $3,000,000.


The general plan thus outlined was duly approved by the municipal authorities, and early in 1873 the work was advertised for letting. Meanwhile the necessary details of the undertaking had been elaborated under the direction of the chief engineer, J. Nelson Tubbs, and construction was commenced soon after the contract was awarded. As it was anticipated that the long gravity conduit would require nearly three seasons to finish, the direct pressure system was completed first and put in full operation in February. 1874, with 7.32 miles of distributing mains. The gravity works, with the two reservoirs, a compound conduit consisting of 9.75 miles of 36-inch riveted wrought-iron pipe and 18.50 miles of 24-inch pipe, mainly of castiron, and 51.52 miles of distributing pipe, were finished early in 1876. It may be remarked that where these works were planned, the city had a population of about 70,000, and an area of 4,840 acres, with 156 miles of streets and alleys. Few citizens then believed that the population would ever reach 120,000, and those who were bold enough to venture the opinion that this limit would ever be exceeded, were regarded as dreamers. It was pointed out that the proposed capacity of the gravity works would suffice to give 60 gallons of potable water per head per day to 120,000 people, and as not more than four-fifths of the population would probably ever become consumers of the water, the supply was thought to be adequate for a great many years. Soon after the completion of the works, the city boundaries were moved far outward on all sides. A large suburban population was thus added, and the municipal territory was increased to over 11,000 acres, with about 220 miles of streets. This was followed by a period of rapid development, so that in 1888 Rochester had an estimated population of 125,000, with about 190 miles of water distributing mains, and 21,000 house connections from the Hemlock lake system. The capacity of the old conduit from Hemlock lake to Rush reservoir had been carefully gauged several times during the spring and summer of 1876, and found to be about 9,000,000 gallons per day, or 25 per cent, more than had originally been estimated. As a consequence of this large delivery, no restrictions in the use of water were enforced by the authorities up to 1885. In the meantime, the poor quality of the subsoil water, and the drainage of many private wells by sewerage works in almost every portion of the town, had caused such a demand for the Hemlock lake water, that the distributing system was rapidly extended, and soon almost every building in streets where water mains were laid was provided with a water service pipe. The consumption thus became much larger than had been estimated to occur so soon after the works were finished, and as large quantities were lost by defective house fittings and lavish use, it finally became necessary in 1886 to enforce measures for preventing waste, as it was evident that the limit of the conduit’s capacity would otherwise soon be reached.


ADDITIONAL WATER SUPPLY.—With the continued fast growth of the city, however, these restrictive measures could not long be successful, and the climax was at last reached in 1888. In that year the storage in the reservoirs was nearly exhausted, and it was then definitely realized that the demands for the water were greater than the supply. Engineer Tubbs recommended the early construction of a new conduit with a capacity of 15,000,000 gallons per day, from Hemlock and Canadice lakes. The plans outlined in this report, however, did not appear to be generally accepted, and the matter was submitted on February 16, 1889, to the well-known engineers, Messrs. A. Fteley, of New York, and J. T. Fanning, of Minneapolis, Minn., for thorough investigation. Several new surveys were made under their direction, and on May 14, 1889, they reported in favor of either Hemlock lake or Conesus lake as a proper source, and that the new conduit should have a capacity of 15,000,000 gallons per day. While their plans differed in detail from those of Mr. Tubbs, they agreed with the latter as to source and required quantity.

TEMPORARY ADDITIONAL SUPPLY.—A number of sources for temporary use were thoroughly examined in 1889 and early in 1890, but as they proved to be deficient, either in quantity or quality, the only resource left to prevent the depletion of the reservoirs was to make the consumption in the city equal to the delivery of the conduit, by suitably throttling for a portion of the day a few of the stop-valves in the principal mains at the foot of the hill on which the distributing reservoir, is situated. This plan was accordingly adopted in June, 1890, and was retained with some modifications until August, 1894. It should be remarked that up to June, 1890, it had been taken for granted that no appreciable diminution in the discharging capacity of the old conduit had occurred, and that it was still continuing to deliver about 9,000,000 gallons per day. At that time, however, a close gauging of its flow into Rush reservoir was made, which revealed the fact that its actual delivery was then only about 6,730,000 gallons per day. The discrepancy between these two discharges could not be accounted for by leakage or abstraction of water from any portion of the conduit, and hence it was evident that its efficiency had become permanently impaired. Meanwhile, Chief Engineer Tubbs became ill and resigned his position at the end of July, 1890. A few weeks later the writer, who had severed his connection with the waterworks department some years previously, was appointed to take charge of the works. In this state of affairs, the matter of obtaining a temporary additional supply of potable water was considered of chief importance. Some months previously an old artesian well in the town of Gates, about one mile west of the city, gave promise of furnishing a supply of 1,000,000 gallons per day, and contracts had been made for the rental of this well, and also for the delivery of a suitable pumping engine and the necessary quantity of pipe, for the purpose of forcing this water directly into the nearest city distributing pipe. The result of this test was very discouraging. and as the owner of the well refused to allow any new wells to be drilled anywhere on his land, also because the geological characteristics of the region were unfavorable to the assumption that the same vein of water could be tapped by other wells at some distance from the original one, it was deemed prudent to investigate other sources before incurring the large expense involved by the construction of the above-described temporary works, especially as it was very doubtful whether the well would yield even 500,000 gallons per day during dry periods. To complete our outline of this part of the subject, it may be mentioned that none of the various propositions for temporary relief, which were advanced after the failure of the Gates well, met with approval until March, 1893, when an agreement was made with a private company whereby a large quantity of water was to be delivered by them at very reasonable rates. As no other arrangements for the use of this water could he made, the company accordingly caused six 10-inch wells to be drilled and equipped with suitable pumps, and a 16-inch cast-iron force main about 5,000 feet in length to be laid to the reservoir. The first delivery of water was made on June 12, 1893, at the rate of only about 500,000 gallons per day, and although every effort was made to increase the yield of the wells, no appreciable improvement occurred thereafter.


ESTIMATES FOR NEW CONDUIT.—On December 16 and 30, 1890; reports and estimates were presented for permanent works from Hemlock lake, Conesus lake and Lake Ontario on somewhat different plans from the others. Hemlock lake is a beautiful body of water about 6.6 miles long and 0.6 miles wide. It is situated in a hilly region about 29 miles south of Rochester, and lies about 386 feet above the general level of the city. Its area at ordinary low water is 1,828 acres, and its average depth in the middle is 65 feet. Including the water surface, its drainage area is 27,554 acres or 43.05 square miles, a large proportion of which is steep and covered with forest. The only settlement of considerable size on the watershed is the village of Springwater, which is located nearly three miles south of the head of the lake and has a population of about 600. On the rest of the area the resident population is probably about 1,000. Canadice lake lies about two miles east of Hemlock lake, and is 200 feet higher than the latter. It is about 3.13 miles long, 0.33 miles wide, and its average depth in the middle is 70 feet. At ordinary low water it covers an area of 648 acres, and the total drainage area is 8,883 acres, or 13.88 square miles. The territory is occupied wholly by farms and woods, with a population of not more than 400. The stream which forms the outlet of Canadice lake must also be considered in this connection, as it unites with the outlet of Hemlock lake at a point about one-third of a mile below the foot of the latter lake, and has a drainage area of 3,515 acres, or 5.49 square miles. The character of this territory is similar to the other watersheds, and its population is about 200. Hemlock lake can be made the general reservoir for the yield of the three distinct watersheds, whose aggregate area amounts to 39.952 acres, or 62.43 square miles. Conesus lake lies parallel to, and a few miles west of Hemlock lake. It is about 7.8 miles long. 0.63 mile wide, and has an average depth of 45 feet in the middle. At ordinary low water, its area is 3,184 acres, and its elevation is about 308 feet above the general level of the city, or 78 feet lower than Hemlock lake. Including the water surface, its drainage area is 39,980 acres, or 62.47 square miles, and is therefore practically the same in extent as that of Hemlock and Canadice lakes and Canadice outlet combined. Lake Ontario is about seven miles directly north of Rochester, but its average water surface is 266 feet below the general level of the city, and 390 feet below that of Mt. Hope reservoir. To avoid the influence of the roily and sewage-polluted water of the Genesee river, the intake of a conduit for supplying the city must necessarily be located as far distant from the river as possible. For some miles in this direction, a series of swampy bays or ponds, connecting with the lake, are encountered, whose waters are entirely unfit for domestic use, both by reason of excessive aquatic vegetation, and from the fact that they are contaminated by the drainage from nearly the whole of the northwestern quarter of Monroe county. In view of all these circumstances, the nearest available location for an intake on the lake shore is at a point about 8.5 miles west of the mouth of the river, and 15 miles in a direct line northwesterly from Mt. Hope reservoir. By the shortest practical route, without crossing the populous districts of the city, this distance would become about 17 miles. Briefly summarized, the various reports and estimates showed that the long force main, costly intake works and pumping engines, and the capitalization of the annual expenses for lifting the water to so high an elevation, would render the Lake Ontario project far more expensive than either of the other two. Various elements entered into the choice between these sources, but after due consideration, the preferenc was finally given to Hemlock lake by all the municipal authorities, on June 16, 1891.


SURVEYS FOR NEW CONDUIT.—As a large amount of engineering work both in the field and in the office was necessary before the details of any of the general plans could be prepared, and no funds for the purpose being available, the common council appropriated an adequate sum on June 26, 1891. Soon afterward, two surveying parties commenced operations. From the data thus acquired careful studies and comparative estimates of the most feasible routes were then made, and a definite location of the conduit established. The previous hydrological investigations were also thoroughly revised for the purpose of determining the storage volume needed in the lake during a cycle of years of least observed rainfall, and from this the necessary depth of the upper end of the conduit below the existing ordinary low-water level of the lake was fixed. A bill was introduced in the legislature early in 1892 and succeeded in becoming a law on April 20, 1892, whereby the city could bond itself to acquire a new water supply. Work on the new conduit plans was therefore continued energetically. and proceedings were at once instituted to obtain the necessary rights of way in those localities where the route had been fixed.

PRELIMINARY PLANS AND ROUTE.—The plans for the new conduit as finally adopted contemplated the construction of a brick conduit, of horse-shoe shaped cross-section, about 6 feet in diameter, on a grade of one in 4,000 from the northeastern corner of Hemlock lake to a point on the east bank of the creek about 12,000 feet northerly. Of this length, 7,500 feet Was in tunnel, worked from several shafts through the clay and shale rock which underlies the region, while the remainder was in open excavation. A large and deep gate and screen house was to be built at the shore, from which a steel intake pipe, 5 feet in diameter and 1,600 feet long, was to be extended into the lake to a point where the water was about 35 feet deep. The pipe was to be laid in a channel dredged to a depth of about 19 feet below the existing ordinary low water level of the lake until this depth of water was reached, after which it would be laid directly on the bottom and terminate in a submerged timber crib resting on the bottom. At its beginning in the gate house, the invert of the brick conduit was to be about 17 feet below the aforesaid low water level; and at the northerly terminus it was to be a little above the average water surface in the creek in order to provide for natural drainage in case of cleaning or repair. To prevent the masonry of the conduit front being injured by the water pressure which would ensue from improper manipulation of the works, an overflow chamber was to be constructed at the north end, whereby the water surface in the conduit would effectually be prevented from reaching the top of the arch. From the said overflow chamber onward to the storage and distributing reservoirs, the water was to be conducted in either a 30-inch cast-iron, or a 38-inch steel pipe conduit, laid on a continuous hydraulic grade to its terminus at the latter reservoir. This grade was about one in 570 for the total distance of nearly 140,000 feet, or 26.5 miles. It should be stated that the Pinnacle avenue route was chosen because it was foreseen that a new and large distributing reservoir would soon be required; and as the most available site for such a structure is on the elevation known as Cobb’s hill, at the southeastern corner of the city, while Pinnacle avenue is nearly midway between this site and Mt. Hope reservoir, it follows that the said location of the pipe conduit would best serve both places. The enormous difficulties with quicksand which were encountered in the construction of the old conduit in this locality. and the discovery of extensive deposits of this material by preliminary borings along several contemplated routes for the new conduit, indicated that the costs of construction for the latter would be so great that the addition of 1.5 or 2.0 feet to the diameter needed for a discharge of 15,000,000 gallons per day would not make a serious increase in the amount; and as this additional size would give the conduit a capacity for delivering easily about 32,000,000 gallons per day, which was the computed average yield of the entire watershed of Hemlock and Canadice lakes, it was deemed prudent to adopt the larger dimensions in order that no further outlay in this locality would arise, if a second additional water supply should ever be required in the future.

It should he mentioned that Route A for the pipe conduit was located in the alluvial flats through which Honeoye creek meanders, and involved several difficult crossings of the existing and former channels of said creek: while Route B avoided some of these crossings by following the course of a certain lateral valley for some distance, and then returning to the main valley by means of a masonry conduit and tunnel about 1,000 feet long. These two routes were each about 8,000 feet in length and formed a part of the entire length of 140,000 feet of conduit to be constructed in either case. The lowest bid for the mason_____y conduit and tunnel work was made by William H. Jones & Sons, of Rochester, N. Y., its aggregate amount, as computed from the prices and estimated quantities, being $292,518: that for the pipe conduit was made by the Moffett, Hodgkins & Clarke Co., of New York, their bids amounting to $903,324 with 38-inch steel pipe, by Route A, and to $857,552.50 by Route B; for the same work with 36-inch east-iron pipe as an alternative. the only bidders were Whitmore, Rauber & Vicinus, of this city, and a syndicate of east iron pipe manufacturers, respectively, their joint bids amounting to $1,173,110 by Route A. and $1,177,035 by Route B. From the foregoing bids it was seen that by Route A the cost of the new conduit with 36-inch cast-iron pipe would be about 29.9 per cent. greater than with 38-inch riveted steel pipe, and about 37.3 per cent. greater by Route B. Much surprise was caused by this result, as well as by the entire absence of competition on the part of manufacturers of castiron pipe.


DESCRIPTION OF THE WORK.—Early in March, 1893, both contractors for the new conduit commenced active operations on the lines of their respective work, the few preceding weeks having been fully occupied with making the necessary preparations. Arrangements for the speedy manufacture of the steel pipes were then also concluded. The most improved machinery and appliances for the purpose were placed, and the manufacture of pipe began as soon as the steel plates arrived from the rolling mills. For the first-named works the plates were made by the Carnegie Steel Company at Homestead, Pa., and for the second by the Paxton Rolling Mill at Harrisburg. Pa The contracts provided that the steel made by the open hearth process. Chemical anshould be of the class termed “soft.” and be alyses of each melt were required to show that the metal contained not more than 0.60 per cent. of manganese and 0.06 per cent. each of phosphorus and sulphur; while the physical tests called for a tensile strength of between 55,000 and 65,000 pounds per square inch, with an elastic limit of not less than 30,000 pounds per square inch, and an elongation of 22.5 per cent, in a length of 8 inches; also for various proofs as to cold bending, punching, drifting and forging. The thickness of every plate was determined by line micrometer measurements around the edges, and all plates which were less than 95 per cent, of the required thickness at any point were rejected without appeal: furthermore, at least 90 per cent. of the accepted plates were of full thickness at all points. It was contemplated that the pipe conduit should be a continuous riveted tube throughout its whole length, without expansion joints or other mechanical devices for compensating changes in length caused by variations in temperature. By this continuity, such changes are prevented from manifesting themselves, and are replaced by internal stresses in the metal, which are far within its elastic limit for the range of temperature encountered in the the work; hut it becomes essential in this case that the strength of the net section of the plate at the circular seams shall he equal to the shearing resistance of the rivets therein. The joints were therefore carefully designed to meet this condition, and at the ends of the conduit motion was prevented by bedding the pipe in large masses of masonry. Great care was taken to make accurate maps and profiles of the route on a large scale. Upon these the pipe was carefully drawn, and every deviation from a straight line clearly indicated, after which they were handed to the manufacturer. As it was required that the pipe should be made so as to bring all the straight seams in the upper quarter of the circumference, close attention to the work on his part was imperative, and a good check on the computations made by the engineering force was thus secured. Four classes of pipe, formed of three different thicknesses of plate were manufactured and arranged according to the water pressure to which they would be subjected in the line of the conduit. For pressures due to static heads of 120 feet or less, the pipes were made of plates one-quarter inch thick, with the longitudinal or straight seams single-riveted : for heads ranging from 120 to 153 feet, the same thickness was used, but the straight seams were double-riveted; for heads between 153 and 199 feet the thickness was 5-16 inch, and for heads between 199 and 263 feet, the thickness was three-eighths inch, with the straight seams double-riveted in both classes. All of the circular or round seams were single-riveted, except where two different classes of pipe were joined together. in which case these seams in the thinner pipe, including the junction seam, were doubleriveted for a distance of about 200 feet. The object of this provision was to make the efficiency of the double-riveted round seams in the thinner pipe approximately equal to that of the single-riveted round seams in the thicker pipe, as it was computed that in the distance mentioned, the friction of the earth against the pipe, after the trench is properly refilled, would be sufficient to balance the resultant of the longitudinal forces produced in the two classes of pipe by the assumed extreme variation of temperature in the finished conduit, which was here taken at 45 degrees F. Each class of pipe is therefore regarded as being firmly anchored in the soil, except for the said distance at the junctions.


The pipe was generally furnished in lengths of about 27 1-3 feet, consisting of four courses riveted together in the shop with powerful machines, and having all seams thoroughly calked on both the inside and the outside. Changes of direction, either in alignment or grade, were made by slightly beveling, at one end only, as many courses as were needed to make the required curve or deflection. These beveled pieces were then power-riveted in the shop, either to each other or to square-ended courses, according to whether the curve was of short or long radius. In the former case it was found expedient to rivet only two courses together in the shop, on account of difficulties in the transportation of longer pieces; but for easy curves requiring only one beveled course to three square-ended ones, four courses were riveted together, the same as for straight pipe. To avoid multiplicity of patterns, a standard bevel of 2 degrees and 4314 minutes, corresponding to an offset of 1.806 inches in the diameter of 38 inches was adopted and used as far as possible throughout the work. The above-mentioned standard bevel on the end of every fourth course forms a regular polygon which fits closely what railroad engineers designate a 10-degree curve: applied on the end of every second course, it corresponds to a 20-degree 8-minue curve, and on the end of every course, it gives a 41-degree 9 3/4-minute curve. These three curves may also be defined in terms of their radii, which are 573.7, 286.1 and 142.2 feet, respectively; and all changes in direction and grade of the pipe conduit were made in accordance therewith.

COATING THE STEEL PIPE.—As soon as practicable after the riveting and calking on a pipe were finished, it was thoroughly cleaned, heated in an oven to about 300 degrees F., and then placed in a large tank containing the hot coating mixture, where it was allowed to remain for such time as would suffice for the temperature of the metal to become the same as that of the mixture The pipe was then removed front the bath and the surplus coating substance allowed to drip off. after which its treatment by the two different manufacturers varied very materially. At the East Jersey Pipe Works, where the steel pipes were made, a purely asphaltic coating was used which became hard when cold; and hence after having been dipped the pipes were simply placed on skids outside where the material was left to harden. At the Rochester Bridge and Iron Works, where a part of the work was done, on the other hand, a species of japan coating was used, which required the pipe to be placed vertically in a large brick oven after dipping, and linked therein at a high temperature for about ten hours, on an average. Much attention was given to the matter of preparing and applying a coating mixture which should be durable, hard, tough and adhesive to the smooth surface of the steel plates at all ordinary temperatures. Numerous experiments with different kinds of asphalt and other substances had been made by the writer, in the hope of finding a compound which would meet all of these requirements.

(To be continued next week.)