“Some Water Works Supply Men I Have Met”
Ex-President of A. W. W. A. May Write a Book on Subject—Speaks on Men, Methods and Materials in the Water Works Field at March Meeting of the New York Section
BEEKMAN C. LITTLE, ex-president of the American Water Works Association and superintendent of the Rochester, N. Y., water works, threatened at the meeting of the New York Section of the American Water Works Association to write a book on the subject of the above heading. Mr. Little’s address, which was on the interdependence of the various branches of the water works field, was easily one of the best of his many brilliant literary efforts. The meeting was held at Brown’s Chop House, 1424 Broadway, near 40th Street, on Thursday, March 2. The luncheon was served at 12:30 p. m., the attendance present being one of the largest of any recent meeting of the section. During the luncheon the members and guests present were entertained by Harry Armstrong, an entertainer who led the party in numerous popular songs. At the conclusion of the luncheon Col. George A. Johnson, president of the section, called the meeting to order and introduced Mr. Little, whose address follows in full:
For fear some of those present may not know the meaning of gallimaufry I will explain that it means “a hodge podge of things or persons—a sort of mixed-up hash” and that I think describes pretty accurately my remarks today. It may be of interest to know’ how I happened to first use this word. Year after year I had been writing what is called an Annual Report of the Water Bureau for the Mayor’s message. I had an idea that nobody ever read the thing, and I wanted to test it, so I hunted through the dictionary for some outlandish word, found gallimaufry and used it in my report as describing an old small water works plant which the city had absorbed in extending its territory. I found out very quickly that the reporters at least read the message and they jumped at that word like trout to a fly and through both the local columns and the editorials of the Rochester papers “it” and I became more or less famous in a short time. I still have the idea, however, that not many people read these reports. Gallimaufry didn’t really do any missionary work.
An Interesting Document
At about the same time as Col. Johnson’s command to appear at this meeting reached me, came also an interesting document from 715 Tremont St., Boston, which as most of you know is the New England Water Association headquarters. Probably many of you saw it—and read it—and then perhaps shot it into the waste basket, but it interested me and gave an impetus which decided me to obey the Colonel’s orders; any way it got me a little excited and gave me an idea of something to write about. The communication from the New England Association was a list of about 100 firms or individuals—called material men—and it stated that these did not advertise in the Association Journal, and that many of them were not Associate Members. Personally I did not like this method of trying to obtain new members or advertisers. It reminded me too much of the reprehensible way certain other organizations employ. All this list needed was to have a heading—“The following arc unfair to Union labor” and it would be exactly like any black list of the labor men. Of course it was not meant to be any thing like as bad as that, but I do like the other way better. Give credit frequently (this means free advertising) to those who do advertise—but don’t censure those who don’t, and I would go further than this: When an occasion offers—praise the product or the work of even a non advertiser, if deserving, and soon he will be led naturally to join the fold.
It must have caused some little amusement if not irritation for the Engineering News-Record, FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING, American City and other publications to find themselves in this list and criticised by the New England Journal for not advertising with them. One would think that a consideration of the Golden Rule or a Reciprocity conscience, would have prevented -putting these periodicals on this list.
What the Technical Journals Are Doing
It seems to me that these technical journals and periodicals —devoted to water works and allied subjects are doing—and already have done—a great deal for our water works associations and members, without our trying to club them into giving us further support. All of us here would be poor indeed if we did not have access to, and make frequent use of, these magazines, and our associations—through our Journals—should freely do all that is possible to further and encourage and enlarge their field of usefulness. I think I may have said before words of commendation along this same line, but it strikes me as a very important truth that can’t be spoken too often—that you and I must see and read regularly these various publications if we desire to keep in touch with the best water works men, methods and materials. There is not I believe an issue of these well known magazines which does not contain something of value to each one here—no matter in what particular line of the water works he deals.
Periodicals Help Water Works to Better Conditions
Our water works systems are vastly improved because of the knowledge imparted through these mediums, and therefore I feel justified in saying a good word for them in this somewhat public way. Any medium which helps our water works to better their conditions, I am for, and this theory brings me to talk about the men who supply us with tlie material things for our plants. I desire—as hinted at before—to give them credit. All of our manufacturers may not advertise in all of our Association Journals, not even in all the general publications devoted to water works topics, but this does not necessarily detract from the quality of their goods nor throw suspicion on their wisdom or judgment, and least of all should it draw any intimation of censure from our Water Works Associations.
Water Works Lines Closely Interwoven
It really is quite astonishing to see how closely interwoven and vital the life of each one of our allied groups is to each of the others. The periodicals could not get along without their advertisers and probably the converse is true; and our Water Works Associations would suffer tremendously without the support of each of these others and they would without ours. Indeed our lines arc so close together that they frequently merge and it becomes hard to distinguish the difference in our activities. We managers, superintendents and consulting engineers oftentimes in our reports and through our organizations have to become publishers and of course many times with perfect propriety become advertisers and even salesmen of something, either brains or appliances, which a water systern may need : What we don’t recognize, however, I am afraid, is that the water works supply man is often a water works engineer through actual experience or by education, or if not exactly that, has through training in his particular line, a special knowledge of some part of water works management or equipment which is of great value to the water works superintendent.
May Write a Book on “Water Wortcs Supply Men I Have Met”
Some day I may write a book on “Water Works Supply Men I Have Met” and then will be able to elaborate on this theme to my heart’s content, but just now it will have to be rather sketchily done. In my somewhat prolonged dealings with these men I have discovered that they have a virtue generally attributed to the poor but honest water superintendent; they often give much more than they get in value received. I really mean it. I think that most, if not all, of our well known supply men have ideas and ideals beyond the mere making of money from their product. There is nothing essentially wrong in the desire to acquire wealth and if our material men have achieved this aim it has not been at the expense of our water systems, but by way of improving them. We should not forget that there are real research men, and engineers and scientists -perhaps in the background—but nevertheless connected with most of our Associate Members Organizations, and we get the benefit of their labors.
Wasn’t Luck That Put on Market Substitutes for Lead.
For instance, it was’nt just luck that put on the market for us to make use of, such a product as Leadite or some of the other substitutes for calking lead. I hope it is not against our ethics to mention by name these soulless corporations because in this plea I find I must break the rule—if one exists.
But to resume, the discovery of this substitute for lead, required much head work and no doubt many long drawn out experiments and the expenditure of large sums of money in producing and making the market for it. Now the manufacturers of this product are urging us to use it not only, and this is my point, not only because it is to their interest but also because they believe it will be very much to our interest. 1 hey are really convinced and have, I think, convinced many of us that it is a distinct advancement in the methods and product used in making joints in cast iron pipe.
Years of Study and Thought Put Into Water Meters
Turning your thoughts in another direction: I doubt if there is any one before me who does not favor the use of water meters; yet how many of us ever stop to realize the years of study and thought that have been put into the making and the improving of this device? We have it on authority that less than forty years ago there was only one superintendent of water works in the country who dared in one of our conventions to state that he” was in favor of metering every tap. So the makers of water meters had not only ability and vision but possessed also courage and diplomacy to a marked degree to overcome this prejudice and make popular this one time discredited measuring apparatus.
At our Cleveland convention Mr. Blanchard of the Neptune Meter Company presented a most interesting report on the progress made in the standardization of meters and this did indeed give us an inkling of the time and energy which just such men as he have been for years devoting to the end that this water meter might be improved. I remember asking Mr. Blanchard if any of the first meters manufactured were still in use. He confessed that he did not know and I think he rather laughed at the idea. But it may not be so absurd. I have looked up our records and we have still in commission on some of our services—meters that were sold to the city of Rochester by John Kelly of the National Meter Company, some forty-two years ago. These may not be the first meters made but they were certainly among the early ones. Ever since these first days of the meter, the men behind their manufacture have been striving to make them better fitted to our needs and perfect them so that our service, yours and mine, to our communities might be more efficient and our water supplies conserved to a greater degree. That has been the result anyway and I like to feel that the meter men did have and do have something of this thought in their minds. While the forty-two years’ service of the meters I mentioned vouches for their excellence and durability, we know that there have been made many improvements in design, adaptability and accuracy. Just a mention of the disc meter, the fire line meter and the compound meter is enough to prove the assertion. The present detector meter was the outcome I believe of the most prolonged investigation and experiments made by Mr. Tilden. of the Hersey Co., aided and encouraged by the Factory Mutual Insurance Company’s experts. This detector meter and the other fire line meters which followed now allow us to check up on these large hitherto unmetered services which for so long have bothered us. We are too prone I think, to take the improvements in our water works materials for granted and feel that they just happened without particular credit to anyone.
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Some Water Works Supply Men I Have Met”
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Some Old Hydrants Still in Use
The same state of mind exists as regards the endurance of those old things like the meters I spoke of, which have given so many years’ satisfaction: yet a little consideration will lead to the conviction that these enduring things lasted and were serviceable as a result of the care and study put into their making by men who were experts in their calling. In 1883 Rochester purchased five hydrants from a certain maker and today we are still using connected to our system some of these identical hydrants, and are buying more of the same general type. I can still remember Mr. Mathews—the designer of the hydrant—though’ he has been rid of this world’s troubles for a long time. He was an alumnus of Union College where he was a student 75 years ago. He was by education and training a civil engineer and, fortunately for us I think, directed some of his abilty toward the desgn of this hydrant. He had faith in his work and it seems as though it were justified for it has lasted for generations and it is distributed widely over the country.
“Beautiful Spectacle of First Water Works Display”
It is a matter of some interest in Rochester at least that we may read in a Report of the Public Works for 1874 as follows: “None who witnessed it can ever forget the beautiful spectacle as the first public display of our water works was made recently and in that scene of brilliancy and splendor can it be forgotten that streams of water of diameters and volumes never before attempted were sent upward from our hydrants to heights unparalleled in the history of hydraulics and in contravention of all formulas hitherto known to science; yet not a pipe was broken nor a leak started.”
The statement just quoted is a little exaggerated no doubt and the language seems somewhat florid in these days. We don’t often now a days hear of a water works having brilliancy and splendor or our engineers providing beautiful spectacles. Phis account of the debut of the Rochester water works may possess no historical interest outside of that city, but I wish to direct attention to the fact that the water for this exhibition was controlled by Ludlow valves, flowed through cast iron pipes from the Warren and K. D. Wood foundries and issued forth from Matthews hydrants and we find that still after nearly fifty years certain of these selfsame valves, pipes and hydrants are now functioning for us, and the corporations which furnished them to us are still in business.
Without proper design, workmanship and material this equipment could not have lasted so long and without men of ability, who possessed the initiative and desire to furnish the best possible for the water works needs, these organizations could not have prospered and endured to this day.
I am sure my audience is big enough not to draw any wrong inferences from my remarks and kind enough to excuse me if I seem to be too personal. I don’t for a moment want you to get the impression that I believe the things or firms I may mention are the only or the best ones of their kind. They are just a few selected at random from those that have entered into my life. I know many of you can, and I hope will go much further than I and cite other examples which will further clinch the argument I am trying to put over, namely: That these supply firms have, back of and in addition to the material they furnish, a valuable fund of experience, expert knowledge and timely suggestion, which is ours for the asking and indeed which is often present without our recognizing or acknowledging it. I have had little to do with pumping machinery as ours is a gravity supply, but surely there is a field in which we could also find much to applaud.
Pumps of Many Years Service Still Running
The pumps of many years service still running with millions, yes billions and billions of gallons of water to their credit, and the immense wonderful, modern pumping machines which are being brought out—these also seem to indicate that in their production, brains and ideals have been at work as well may be as the itching palm. There is no necessity for extending this roll. Kach of you out of his own experience can make a list just as representative as mine. I should like, however, to direct your attention to another class of our associate members. These don’t deal exactly in material things but rather in labor, both manual and mental, and a consideration of their service leads to the same conclusion that I have drawn from the others.
The Cleaning of Water Mains
A typical example is the company some of us employ to clean out water mains. I hese men may have achieved for themselves a certain modicum of wealth (I hope they have), but along with it they have saved much for our various communities. It may well be that besides preserving to us some of our pipes and supply mains which otherwise would have to be abandoned or replaced, they by their work, bettered our health statistics —and prevented the destruction by fire of considerable property. The idea and the method followed in this work is the result undoubtedly of considerable technical knowledge and mechanical ingenuity, and we get much more in results from contact with these men than appears in the mere labor of cleaning the mains.
Conservation by Water Survey
I he water waste survey men are being recognized more and more and very properly I believe, as very splendid and necessary adjuncts to our water supplies. The older and larger the system, the better and more valuable work they can and do accomplish. Don;t—I beg of you—get or continue in, the idea that it is only the poorly constructed or inefficiently managed water plant which can be bettered by such a survey. All of us, I believe, admit that a properly constructed going water system can lower its consumption considerably by metering and from actual experience I know that a good water works system, 100 per cent, metered can be immeasureably improved along this same line by a well conducted pitometer survey.
I confess it took considerable conceit out of me to find out how much discoverable waste, (i. e. discoverable by this method), was going on in the plant under my management. We knew as other managers know, how much water we are sending through our system and from how much of this we derived revenue and there was, of course a great discrepancy. This difference we distributed as is usual. We estimated a great quantity used in sprinkling and washing down our many miles of brick and asphalt streets and in flushing sewers and in street contract work. We allowed considerable to public drinking fountains and watering troughs. A certain percentage in the unmetered water used in our extensive park system, and the under-registration of meters was blamed for some of the other unaccounted for water and so on.
We keep our hydrants and valves in good repairs and go after leaks or breaks, large or small, the moment they give evidence of their presence. And so we consider, or did, up until recently, that other leaks if any must be unimportant. I admit I was skeptical of the wisdom or need of having a water waste survey made, that is in Rochester. We were all metered and our per capita consumption was only around 90 gallons per day and which as I have stated in public is about as low as the larger cities can hope to get with the extravagant use of water prevalent in these days.
I would not let at first a contract for the entire city but experimented on a section covering about % of our system. This first contract resulted in our shutting off a waste of over one million gallons per day, with other incidental benefits: and the leaks and broken mains repaired would not have been discovered otherwise except incidentally. Once in a while we have, and I presume other cities do also, a break in a water main which heaves up and comes through the pavement and when we get the water shut off, we find a large part of the surrounding pavement undermined—with a resulting hole, sometimes actually big enough to store an automobile in. Practically all of the weakened pavement has to be taken up and relaid on a new foundation. We used to think this undermining occurred within the short time between the discovery of the break and the shutting off of the water.
From observations of some of the conditions we find during our water-waste survey I am led to believe that in many cases this undermining has been going on for a long time possibly, before the water actually breaks through and discloses that there is a leak. If this be so, it makes a still stronger argument for a first complete waste survey and also for a periodic checking up of the flow in the different sections and thus we may avoid this expensive damage to pavements and prevent more serious accidents possibly. During the progress of this waste survey work, the most sceptical would have to admit that the men directing it prove by the results and their deductions and suggestions, that theirs is a problem of engineering, and that like a true engineer, they have the interests of their client at heart.
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“Some Water Works Supply Men I Have Met”
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Chlorine in Water Purification
Mr. Wolman, in one of his valuable papers, argued that even the common or garden variety of water superintendent was a scientist. It may be, but it doesn’t make us able to speak in a scientific manner. I don’t therefore dare to enter into the process of manufacture of liquid chlorine or attempt to discuss the merits of the various successful filtration outfits, but I can’t go far astray I am sure in pointing out that continually we purveyors of water are being put under obligations directly or indirectly to the organizations and engineers dealing in and devoting their energies to this part of the water question. In places far distant from here many of us watched with interest developments in the oily taste in the water from which you in New York suffered recently. Mr. Brush has described to us through the magazines very clearly his battle with and victory over the Synura. He has, I am confident, the profound thanks of all water works men for his valuable contribution, and I must again congratulate The Engineering News-Record and FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING, for not only their achievement in getting this description to us at all, but in presenting it in such an attractive manner. I must tell you that all of us outsiders rejoiced with you at the discovery of a cure for this pest. This discovery was not as we know made in a moment nor I venture to say, made alone by Mr. Brush and Dr. Hale. It was the combined efforts of a good many brains and was made possible by a previous long period of research work and. without consulting Mr. Brush, I dare to say that when called upon, probably all the resources of the chlorine manufacturers were put at his disposal to help bring relief to the consumers of water in the city of New York.
I think there is need of no further examples. You will find the same story and reach the same conclusion at most any time you make the test. Get into any difficulty or run into any problem connected with the management of a water works plant and you will always find some one among our associate members, the so-called supply men, who can give you invaluable aid. This will not be advice either springing front snap judgment nor from the desire merely to sell something but it will be the development of years of hard work in overcoming similar troubles to that which you perhaps are just encountering. It is hard work when one gets started on a hobby to quit. I think by now though, you are convinced that I have a great friendship and admiration for the water works supply man, and his aides. I am only sorry that I can’t do business with more of them and play golf with the others. This last is quite a test too of friendship,—but so far those of us Who have met in this way still speak to each other, so the supply men are probably just as good at play as they are at work.
I have just had a horrible thought—I hope unjustified—-1 trust my talk has not signified in the slightest degree that we can ignore or afford to give up in our needs the services of our consulting engineers. Their reputation and past work and our special intricate worries demand continually that we ask their co-operation.
Takes a Crack at Those He Has Been Praising
This talk I know has lacked so far any constructive qualities but possibly I can do something in the way of suggestion even if I do take some of the joy out of life; so with your permission I will just take a crack at some of the men and things I have been praising.
None interprets my previous remarks I hope as meaning that all water works material or methods as presented to us are perfect. The water waste survey is not all smooth sailing for us; I should like it very much better if the company would devise some method of exactly locating the leak after they have discovered its presence. It is of course easily located as being in a block somewhere between two streets, and with the water phone they get a little nearer to it, as being in the water main between two service connections perhaps: But it is not enough to say it is within twenty feet or even ten feet of a certain spot. An unnecessarily long trench or two or three holes dug in a pavement where one would do take up time and cost money and criticism.
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“Some Water Works Supply Men I Have Met”
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When we find leaks in our mains more than often they are in sleeve joints. This implies in a way something wrong with the sleeve, as the percentage of sleeve joints to the total number of joints in the system is very, very small. This leakage in these joints may be due to poor calking or poor lead and perhaps leadite will relieve the trouble somewhat but I have a theory that the pipe foundries with study could change the pattern of their sleeves and avoid some of this difficulty.
The leadite men should not cease their efforts to so improve their product that the joints will take up or get tight within say the first half hour of the pouring. Now, we don’t dare backfill a trench until every joint is tight and it takes sometimes twenty-four hours or more for some of the leadite joints to close up entirely. There are of course a few, just as in lead joints, which won’t or don’t of themselves close up entirely tight, but we can’t tell which these are until we have given them all this long test.
I might say that it is an easy matter to make tight these spurts on jets in the leadite joints by hammering them up with lead wool. The water main cleaning experts ought to figure out how to abate the nuisance of stirring up sediment in the mains and trouble in the households in territory adjacent to the main they may be cleaning The change in direction of flow and the extra large draught of water is of course the cause and knowing the cause we ought to be able to overcome the trouble.
The meter men have given us frost-proof bottom plates, better gears and trains and straight reading dials when we want them, and as Mr. Blanchard reported are striving to standardize the sizes and couplings at least, so that we will say a 5/8 meter of any make can easily replace that of another firm without any extra cutting or fitting of the pipe; but we want still other little minor improvements. Just for example —we have trouble occasionally because a consumer removes a meter, reverses it, lets it run backward for a time and then replaces it; or he may meddle with the dial register so that we get a wrong reading. The meter seals don’t prevent this for they can be broken and, if broken, don’t prove much of any thing and don’t tell us how much water has been consumed or when the crime was committed. Is it not possible to arrange a coupling and a lock on the dial so that if either were tampered with it would stop the flow of water or produce some equally inconvenient annoyance to the house holder which would result in the probably immediate notification to the water bureau?
The makers of hydrants might worry a bit over designing a similar contrivance that could be used more frequently and freely without harming it. Originally hydrants were always called fire plugs and were meant only for use in case of fire. Now the call is most insistent that they be used for many other purposes and if the superintendent were not afraid of having them put out of commission or develop a leak somewhere he would probably allow them to be operated much more than at present for perfectly good and proper reasons.
We all realize that the large gate valves have to be made heavy and strong in order to stand the pressures and shut tightly, but we would like to have them work more easily than they do sometimes. Some of them we don’t use very often. Many of them are opened or closed only in case of emergency and for that reason it is extremely important that they be in readiness to work when thus needed. The great fear of the foreman, too often realized, is that the old gate will not work when he is in a hurry to shut off the water on a broken main. I know this is a difficult problem but it will be solved some day and the valve men ought to get to work on it and carry out the Gold Medal flour slogan. Mr. Dean with his valve operating device helps immensely in a way and some of the motor trucks with inclosed power gearing are excellent contrivances, notably the one the Packard Co. makes; but these are useful only at the particular gate they happen to be working on and do not of course have any thing to do with improving the design and very little towards making easier the manual operation of the valve.
Now at last—in conclusion—If there are any in this kindly audience who feel grieved because I have not touched upon their special product, or because I have, an apology will be gladly forthcoming. I feel deeply complimented at having been asked to address you and very grateful for your attention and welcome.
Discussion of Mr. Little’s Paper
At the conclusion of Mr. Little’s address President Johnson asked for discussion and David A. Decrow said that in regard to Mr. Little’s reference to the test of the water system in 1874 there were two distinct systems, one for domestic distribution and one for fire protection purposes. The system referred to by Mr. Little was that for the high pressure fire service. A four-inch stream was thrown 467 feet and an attempt was also made from a five-inch nozzle, but this was found to throw too great a volume of water.
Mr. Little said that Mr. Decrow was correct in his statement that there were two systems in Rochester at that time.
systems at D. W. French, superintendent of the Hackensack Water Company, in referring to the matter of meters told of a plan which he had adopted to avoid the reversing of the devices, the connection on one end being three-quarter inch and on the other one inch, which effectually avoided any reversing tactics on the part of the consumers. John M. Dtven, secretary of the association, gave some interesting reminiscences of the early day’s of the Rochester system and referred feelingly to the work of John C. Kelley, in introducing meters on the old time systems. R. K. Blanchard, M. E., of the Neptune Meter Company, emphasized the important place that the manufacturer, salesman and engineer occupied in the association and referred to the fact that the manufacturing engineer seldom thought first of the financial end of the business, but rather his first consideration was the matter of efficiency and service in the article manufactured. Dennis P. O’Brien of A. P. Smith & Co. spoke interestingly of the European water works that he had visited. This closed the discussion on Mr. Little’s paper.
New Member of Board of Governors Elected
President Johnson called for nominations to fill a vacancy in the hoard of governors. Frank T. Kemble, secretary of the New Rochelle, N. Y., Water Company, was nominated and unanimously elected. Three new members and one associate were elected.
The subject of an extra meeting to he held in some city’ upstate was then brought up by the chairman, and Mr. Little spoke against the project on the ground that holding it in April might interfere with the national convention to he held in Philadelphia on May 15 to 19. It was then decided to bold the meeting some time in the fall, either making it one of the regular sessions of the section or a special meeting. The section then adjourned. Those present at the meeting were as follows:
Burt B. Hodgman, Oh. Eng. & V. Pres., and Clinton Inglee. General Manager. National Water Main Cleaning Co.; Franklin Henshaw. Engineer & Street Comr.. Scarsdale, N. Y.; Peter H. Glannan. Supt. Commonwealth Water Co., West Orange. N J.; Fred l.uthy. Oh. Kngr. Water Dept., Orange, N. J.; J. M. Diven. Secy.. Amer. Water Works Ass’n. Wm. A. McCaffrey. Superintendent Water Works. Oswego, N. Y.; John C. Churchill: H. P. Stearns and S. M. Purland, Queens County Water Company. Far Uockaway, N, Y ; George C. Andrews. Water Commissioner, Buffalo, N. Y.: C. R. Arnold, Pittsburgh Meter Co.; Beckman C. Little, Superintendent Water Dept., Rochester, X. A .. William Ross; Wm. Oettl, Badger Meter Co., Brooklyn. X. V.; F. La Tourette. Kngr in Charge. W. W . Jersey City; John Bedell. Supt. W. W.. Ossining. X. Y.; K. H. Lott, Supt. Flathush Water Works Co.. Brooklyn, X. Y.; H P. T. Matte. Kngr. Worthington Pump & Machinery Dorp.. Harrison. X. J.; A. C. Ames, Commissioner, and J. A. Carr. Supt. W. Dept.. Ridgewood, N. .1.; Robert H. Lockwood, Kdltor Fire and Water Engineering; H. K Wolhert, Supt. X Y. lulerfrban Water Co., Alt. Vernon. X. Y.: D. W. French, Supt. Hackensack Water Co.. Weehawken, N. J.; L. G. Read. National Water Main Cleaning Co., Bridgeport. Conn.; J. T. Cunningham, Asst. Supt. Flathush W. W. Co., Brooklyn, N. Y.; I). .T. Purdle; R. K. Blanchard, Ch. Kngr. Neptune Meter Co., N. Y.; B. S. Coleman, Chemist, Little Falls. N. Y.; W. C. Hopper. Supt. Acquaekanonk Water Co., Passaic. N. J.; w. H. Hopper; John S. Warde, Mgr. Rensselaer Valve Co., X. Y.: John Ryle, Asst. Kngr., Passaic Water Co.. Paterson. N. J.; Ohas. K. Bassett, Buffalo Meter Co., Buffalo, X. V.; Geo. A. Johnson, C. E., New Vork; John F Reagan, Jr., Neptune Meter Co.; Frank Bachman, Dorr Co., New York; J. M. Dtven, Jr., C. B.; Edmund B. Basselievre, Kngr., Jersey City: Wm. R. Edwards, Asst. Supt. Passaic Water Co.. Paterson, N. .1.; Theo. R. Kendall. Eng. Editor. American City; H. B. Baldwin. M.D., Dept. Health. Newark, N. J.; R. R. Scott; T. H. Barnes, C.E. New York: Ch»s. H. Morris. Supervisor Water Works Xew Brunswick, N. J.; At. N. Baker, Assoc. Ed., Eng. NewsRecord; Ray Armstrong, Supt. Water & Sewer Dept., Rome, N. Y. Daniel D. Jackson, San. Expert, Columbia University, Xew York: Wellington Danaldson, Amer. Water Works & Elec. Co.. Lynbrook, N. Y.; E. S. Cole, Pres, Pitometer Co., New York: Alexander Potter, C.E., New York; H. F. Dunham, C.K., New York; Allen Hazen, C.E., New York; Fred A. Snyder, E. Orange, N. J.; J. At. Goodell, H.K., Upper Montclair. N. J.; W. C. Sherwood, Hersey Aleter Co., New York; F. T. Kemble, Secy. Xew Rochelle Water Co,, New A’ork; ,T. T. Metcalf. Asst. Engr. L. I. Watershed, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Fred B. Nelson. C.K., Highbridge, N. Y.; J. McCullough, Supt. Urban Water Co., Flushing, N. Y.: Chas. K. Wyckoff, C.E., New York; D. A. Decrow, New York; W. S. L. Oleverrlon, N. Y. University, N. Y.; F. H. Luce, Supt. Woodhaven Water Sup. Co., New York; Alan M. K Johnstone, C.K.. New York; A. L. Atwell; A. V. Sims; Mr. Dowd; T. W. Lawler; C. H. Becker, R. D. Wood & Co : D. O’Brien. A P. Smith Mfg. Co.; E. K. Sorenson, N. Y. Font. Jewell Filtration Co., New York; Kobt. Conrow, Central Foundry Co., New York; and H. A. Helling.