Sketches in the “Walled Garden of the Gods.”


How the.New “Promised Land” Has Opened Out its Treasures.


UTAH, the youngest of Uncle Sam’s family of States, and probably the least known of all, is, nevertheless, one of the most interesting in every point of view, and, as Salt Lake City, its capital, has this year been selected as the place of meeting for the International Association of Fire Engineers, it is not out of place to give to its description “ample room and verge enough” in the pages of FIRE AND WATER, and to give some illustrations, not only of its scenery and of Salt Lake City itself, but also of a few other spots that lie along the route of the Union Pacific and the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul railways.

Utah itself has not inaptly been styled a “a mountain-walled treasury of the Gods.” In extent, in agriculture, mineral,and industrial resources, in the magnificence of its scenery it is unrivaled by any other country in the world, and since the days of the. Israelites there has never been any territory to which could more fittingly be applied the same title as was given by the Almighty to the Promised Land—a‘ land flowing with milk and honey.a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills. . .. .a land of wheat and barley; a land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack anything in it. .. . .a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass.” The historyof this “gem of the Rockies” is that of a hardy race, whose energy, perseverence, and thrift have made of the wilderness a garden and the desert to re. joice and blossom as a rose. The State itself, which is almost an exact square, 300 miles each way, has an area of 87,750 square miles (52,601,600 acres), of which 2,870 square miles (1,776,200 acres) are water. It is 11,420 square miles (7,30S,800 acres) larger than Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut,New Jersey, and Delaware, all combined. In comparison with such spacious boun ‘aries the Promised Land of the Jews would about make an ordinary cow lot in Utah. Its population is now only 220,032, yet the assessed valuation of its real and personal property in i8qo amounted to $104,758,750—an increase of nearly 102 per cent, on that of 1889. During the same time the banking capital increased from $1,580,000 to $3,951,500— an increase of 150 per cent.; and the deposits rose from $5,882,213 in 1889 to $9,572,286 in 1890—an increase of 63 per cent. There is virtually no debt, and the total taxation is but seventeen mills on the dollar of an assessment at one-fifth vat uation, or about three and one-half mills on the dollar. In the year ending June 30. 1890, nearly $5,000,000 was spent in new buildings; and the capitalization of the new mining,man ufacturing, mercantile, and miscellaneous corporations organized in the State during the year reached the enormous total of $47,932,000. There are about 1,200 miles of railroad in the State, which are being rapidly added to within its confines. Utah’s mines of gold, silver, copper, and lead in 1890 yielded $14,346,783; its farms, orchards, and gardens produced $10,000,000; its flocks and herds, $5,000,000; its coal, iron, and other minerals, $1,000,000; its lumber, salt, etc., $5,000,000, making a grand total of $36,346,783, or about $160 for every man, woman, and child. Mormon and Gentile, of its population, as the proceeds of one year’s work.


A flying trip over the lines of the Rio Grande Western railroad reveals the glorious scenery along the route, and affords glimpses of the wealth and prosperity of the inhabitants of the State. It introduces the travelers to many a flourishing city lying between Grand Junction, Col., and Ogden, Utah, which sits enthroned on a lofty bench of the Great Satt Lake jn the delta of the Weber and Ogden rivers. Of itself Ogden would repay the visitor for the travail of his journey. It is a youthful giant, a city of miraculous births, whose population grew from 6,069 in 1880 to nearly 20,000 in 1891. Its wealth and resources have increased proportionately, and, with these, its schools, public and private, its magnificent buildings, mercantile, residential, municipal, and Federal. It has water works with a capacity of 10,000,000 gallons a day, a first-class fire department, twenty miles of electricstreetrailway, electric light, gas works and telephone and telegraph service in abundance.

Ogden is of itself an ideal city; but frqm an historical and a scenic standpoint it is far out-classed by Salt Lake City, the metropolis of Utah, the Mecca of Mormonism, the Zion of the Latter Day Saints, the royal city of the kingdom and hierarchy, which derives its name from the Great Salt Lake, the “Dead Sea” of this new Land of Promise. This wonderful sheet of water—a lake from 2,500 to 3,000 square miles in superficial area—lies 1,000 miles inland, at an altitude of 4,250 feet above the level of the ocean, whose waters are six times less salty than those of Utah’s lake, which, while it has no visible outlet, nevertheless, receives into its bosom four large fresh water rivers, whose streams neither add to, nor diminish its level the fraction of an inch or lessen in the slightest degree its indescribable saltiness. Its present length is about 100 miles; its average width between 25 and 30 miles, and its greatest depth about 60 feet. In ages long since gone by it was as large as Lake Huron, and 1,000 miles deep. It differs from the Dead Sea of the olden Promised Land in that its waters are for the healing and refreshment of the people—its sea bathing infinitely surpassing anything of the kind on cither ocean. Its waves are powerful in medicinal virtues, and afford a ready and powerful tonic both to body and mind. Its waters buoy up the bather, arc clear as crystal, with a bottom of snow-white sand. Not a fish or any other living thing is to be found throughout its whole expanse. To sink beneath its surface is an impossibility; its safeness and Us health-giving properties render it an ideal balking place.


Fifteen miles Inland, enthroned upon an ancient beach of the Salt Lake, abut 100 feet above the the present level of Us waters and 4,350 above the level of the sea, with a background of snow capped mountains and at her feet the gleaming waters of the lake, sits Salt Lake City, originally settled by the Mormons in July 1847, with Us vast squares, Us streets 132 feet wide, shaded by venerable fruit and flower bearing trees, and bordered on each side by ever-flowing streams of mountain water. The houses in the city stand each apart, surrounded by green lawns, gardens, and orchards—each a type of the comfort, thrift, and industry which are the characteristics of Mormonism. For years the city remained untouched andun. influenced by the outside Gentile world—it is only within the last half decade that such a spirit has moved over its face. Allusion has been made to Utah’s general increase in population and values. The same may be said of Sait Lake City. In 1880 Us population was 20,678. Ten years afterwards it was 46,259. To-day it is between 50,000 and 55.000. The assessed value of property leaped up from $16,611,752 in 1889 to $54,353,740 in 1800—an increase of 227 per cent, in one year. As the assessment is on a basis of from one-fifth to one-fourth of actual valuation, the true value of real estate and personal property in the city is thus over $200,000,000; or, if put only at double the assessor’s figures, it amounts to $108,? 707,480, an average of more than $2,000 for every one of its 05,000 inhabitants—an average which no city in America, probably in the world can parallel. The city has sixteen banks, seven of which were founded during 1890, with an aggregate capital and surplus of $4,853,000 and deposits amounting to $8,225,o—an increase in a year of over 300 per cent, in capital and nearly 100 per cent. in deposits. Out of sixty four cities in the United States having clearing houses, Salt Lake City outranks thirty-one, including Washington city, with its 200.000 population and the whole Federal Government and Treasury department thrown in. In 1890 $6,226,000 was spent on new buildings and additions to old ones; $549,000 on public works; $543,000 on street railways—total $7,315,000 on these three items of improvement alone. In the city there are 65 miles of electric street railway; 100 miles of well-kept streets, and 20 miles of 20-foot sidewalks; fine gas and electric lighting systems; an inexhaustible supply of pure mountain-stream water; over 200 profitable manufactories; 23 public and 15 private schools, besides the Territorial university, deaf and dumb institute, normal institute, and woman’s home; 35 churches of all denominations, including, of course, the great Temple and Tabernacle; 3 excellent hospitals; 20 benevolent societies; 4 live daily papers, and 12 or 15 weeklies, semi monthlies, and monthlies, including a German and a Scandinavian publication; 6 public libraries; 2 well-appointed theatres; 150 acres in park; large mercantile houses; 6 railways with over 60 passenger trains daily; and many magnificent residences. The people are great patrons of opera and drama, and nowhere do impresarii and managers get together larger or more appreciative and enthusiastic audiences. In the line of hotels Salt Lake City is unexcelled. Among the chief are the Knutsford. with 300 rooms, the million dollar Ontario, the Walker House, the Cullen, the Templeton, the Cliff, the Union Pacific—all handsome and admirably kept.


Among the sights of Salt Lake City the Temple block stands first. It is a io-acre square, in the centre of the city, surrounded by a massive wall 15 feet high and 5 feet thick encircling the Mormon Temple, the Tabernacle, and the Assembly Hall. The Temple, which was begun in 1853 and completed in 1894, cost nearly $6,000,000. Its foundations are 186 1-2 x 99 feet; it is 200 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 100 feet high, with a 200*foot high tower at each of the four corners, The walls are 10 feet thick, and the whole building, crowning one of the highest points in the city and visible for fifty miles round is built of sparkling white granite. West of the Temples tands the Tabernacle, with its vast terrapin-looking back, in an oblong building constructed wholly of iron, glass, and stone. It is 250 feet long. 150 feet wide, and 100 feet high. The roof is supported by forty-six columns of cut sandstone, which, with the space between used for doors,win. dows, etc., constitute the wall. From these pillars the roof springs in one unbroken arch, unsupported by pillar 01 post. I he ceiling of the roof is 66 feet above the floor; the walls are 12 feet thick; and there are twenty huge double doors for entrance and exit. The acoustic properties of the Tabernacle, which will accommodate 13,462 people, are so perfect, that the slightest sound, even to the dropping of a pin, can be heard all over it. The organ which cost $100,000, was built entirely by Mormon workmen. It is 58 feet high, has 57 stops, and contains 2,648 pipes of ail sizes. The music is exquisite and is rendered by a choir of from 200 to 500 trained voices. Every seat in the Tabernacle is free and its services are crowded. Assembly Hall is a gothic building of granite, and will seat 2,500. The ceiling is elaborately frescoed with scenes from Mormon historv. The hail has also a fine organ. Just east of Temple block is another walled square containing the Mormon tithing-house and printing office, Brigham Young’s extensive residence, including the celebrated Lion house and Bee hive-IIouse, where eighteen of his wives lived, the chapel like schoolhouse where his seventy-eight children were edu cated, and the magnificent Amelia palace, which he built for his nineteenth wife, Amelia Folsom, a cousin of Mrs. Cleveland.

Among the public and quasi-public buildings all of which will well repay a visit, are the post office—the model office of the United States,with the perfection of whose several departments Postmaster-General Wanamaker was so impressed when he visited Salt Lake City in company with President Harrison that he requested the photograph of each one to be sent to Washington,to be used as a pattern for other offices—the Chamber of Commerce building, the Deseret Museum, Fort Douglas, situated on a high mountain plateau, just east of the city, the great Zion Co-operative Mercantile Institution or Mormon store, with its acres of floor room for business and manufacturing purposes,where everything is sold and nearly everything created that can minister to the comfort or the wants of humanity—however luxurious.


Salt Lake City has a well organized and efficient fire department under Chief Devine, whose work is greatly lightened by the abundant supply of water fed to nearly 900 hydrants, with a fire pressure of from 115 to 150 pounds.


Mr. W. P. Noble is a member of the present board of fire commissioners of Salt Lake City, and is serving his second term in that position. Mr. Noble was elected by the city council in March, 1894, for the term of two years, and was reelected by the present city council last January, to serve for another two years’ term. Mr. Noble is a wealthy capitalist of Salt Lake City, owning $150,000 worth of real estate in the city, besides being largely interested in mercantile and banking concerns. He is also an extensive dealer in horses and cattle, being one of the largest shippers from the West. Mr. Noble is absent from the city a great portion of the time,looking after his business interests elsewhere; for this reason he has not been as closely identified with the affairs of the fire department as some other members of the board. But his interest in the welfare of both officers and men has been none the less deep. He has always advocated good wages, and generous treatment to the employes of the department, and consulted for their comfort in everyway. He will do all in his power to make the visit of the fire engineers all they can desire.



Mr. M. E. Mulvey is one of the most prominent figures iq the Salt Lake City council,as is shown by the fact that,though a Democrat in politics, he was elected from a pronounced Republican precinct. Mr.Mulvey has large business interests in Salt Lake City,and is the most extensive and prominent liquor merchant in the city. He is chairman of the committee on program and entertainment for the ensuing convention of lire engineers, and will be found a worthy host. He takes an active interest in fire department affairs, and is highly popular with all the members of the department.


1—Lewis P. Webber, Chief Engineer. 2—John W. Regan. First Assistant Chief. 3—W. T. Cheswell, Second Assist? nt Chief. 4—P. F. McDonough, Chief of District No. 1. 5—Charles II. VY. Pope. Chief of District No. 2. —John F. Egan, Chief of District No. 3. 7—John F. Ryan, Chief of District No. 5. 8—John A. Mullen, Chief of District No 6. 9—P. E. Keyes, Chief of District No. 7. 10—John Grady, Chief of District No. 8. 11—Edward H. Sawyer, Chief of District No. 9. 12—W. A. Gaylord, Chief of District NQ. 10, 13—Nathan L. Hussey, Chief of District No, 11. 14—Lewis P. Abbott, Chief of District 12.


Mr. C. S. Varian, the present chairman of the board of police and fire commissioner, of Salt Lake City, was appointed by Mayor Glendinning to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. E. B. Stephens in February last Mr. Varian is one of the best known and most prominent lawyers of the State of Utah. He has lived in the West since boyhood, and has been actively identified with public affairs in Utah for many years. When Gen. Harrison was elected president of the United States, he appointed Mr. Varian U. S. District Attorney for Utah, which position he filled with recognized credit and ability. He was also elected a member of the Territorial legislature in 1864, and later as a member of the convention that framed the constitution for the new State, in both of which positions he served with distinction. The delegates and friends who attend the convention in Salt Lake City will find in the chairman of the board a genial and pleasant associate.



James Glendinning, present mayor of Salt Lake City, is preeminently a man of the people. Born at Cuter-town Farm, near Annan. Dumfrieshire, Scotland, on July 1, 1844, he spent the earlier portion of his boyhood years in imbibing that sturdy independence from the hills and braes that has been so characteristic of his life. His education was acquired at Annan academy, in the old country, in ward school No. 44, and the free academy in New York city,and in 1866, thoroughly equipped for the battle of life, he moved to Montana, driving a six-mule team from Leavenworth, Kansas, to Virginia City, Mont. In the spring of 1867 he crossed the mountains to Leesburg, Ida., where he was associated in business with Senator George L. Shoup for ten years. In 1882 he removed to this city, and becoming a partner of George M. Scott, has been identified in business with him ever since. His career in this city is well known. A strong partisan, he has with it all been intensely American. He has always been at the fore in matters of public interest. Mr. Glendinning was postmaster at Salmon City, Ida., for ten years, and served a term as commissioner of Lemhi county, Ida., in 1870-71. He was elected a member of the Terrritorial Council on the Liberal ticket in 1892 from Lalt Lake county, by a majority of 1,100 and made an able and efficient member.


Louis Cohn, member of the board of police and fire commissioners of Salt Lake, is an old resident of the city, and one of its best known business men, having been extensively engaged in the dry goods business for years in the capital city. Mr. Cohn is also well known as one of Salt Lake’s most trustworthy municipal officials, having served two terms in the city council. He was elected last January by that body as a member of the board of police and fire commissioners. Mr. Cohn is the committee from the board on fire department, and takes a very active interest in every detail of the work of that department. While a member of the city council he was for two years on the fire department committee of the council,and the thorough manner in which he performed his duties made his friends anxious to see him on the present board. AIthough the commission under the present law work without compensation, he has never shirked any duty connected with the fire department. Mr. Cohn is chairman of the committee on arrangements for the entertainment of those who visit Salt Lake at the coming convention of fire chiefs, and has proven a valuable man for that position.


Chief Devine, who has for so long so ably commanded the fire fighting army of Salt Lake City, is too well-known to need a long notice, and his career has so often appeared in the pages of KIRK AND WATER and the American press, that there is no necessity for reproducing it on this occasion. As a fire chief he takes a very high rank indeed. Second to none in this continent for bravery, intelligence, and skill, he has organized a magnificent department at Salt Lake City and has trained his officers and men both by precept and example to be Afraid of nothing save shirking their duty and bringing discredit on their uniform. He has the utmost confidence in them and knows that in their eyes duty comes first. And they in their turn not only appreciate and reciprocate the confidence he reposes In them, but feel for him a respect and affectionate regard which by permeating the whole department serves asa tie to bind its members together by an indissoluble bond In Ins men as in his officers Chief Devine is simgularly fortunately circumstanced. Of these



comes first. Of him it is enough to say that lie is a worthy follower in the footsteps of his chief and that in Chief Devine and Assistant Chief Donovan, the citizens of Salt Lake City possess two as line fire lighters as can be found anywhere. With such officers and such men there is but small chance of a fire gaining the victory when they arc around. They will courteously and heartily welcome their visitors at the forthcoming convention.


consists of nearly thirty men with all the necessary apparatus. The fire alarm telegraph is in a very perfect condition and is directly connected with the central office of the Rocky Mountain Bell Telephone Company By this means the operator at the telephone building can sound an alarm, release the horses, turn on the electric light, strike the gong in the department houses, and communicate the exact locality of the fire simultaneously. Within the city limits are nearly 900 fire hydrants with an average pressure of 125 pounds. The system of inspection of the larger business blocks is thorough, and a yearly return is made of their locations, inside and outside description and use, what fire protection, if any. on the outside, entrances,and exits.contents, fire escapes, and standpipes; if accessible at rear for apparatus, how; location of nearest front and rear hydrants; does area-way extend under sidewalks, if so, is sidewalk safe for aerial truck; is building connected with adjoining buildings; if fire ordinances are being violated.


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