THE CONVENTION OF FIRE ENGINEERS AT DALLAS

THE CONVENTION OF FIRE ENGINEERS AT DALLAS

Stenographic Report of Fire and Water Engineering.

WEDNESDAY PROCEEDINGS CONTINUED.

Former Chief Hendricks not being present, topic No. 6 was passed for the present.

The Chair called for topic No. 7, the first paper on which was read hy Chief O. G. Marjenhoff.

“How to test fire engines to ascertain if they are in good condition for highest efficiency, according to their respective ratings.”

CHIEF MARJENHOFF’S PAPER.

* * * As to my experience, 1 wish to say that I have served with a steamer company since 1870, and always took much interest in machinery. My company had always the good fortune to have practical engineers, who took a pride in keeping the steamer up to the highest standard of efficiency. i am no more a scientific or theoretical engineer than the vast majority of the steam lire engine engineers everywhere, and, therefore, it must not be expected that I should use scientific phrases in giving my experience, but just use common every day language only. When 1 was made chief thirteen years ago, and it became my duty to see that everything in the department was kept in the best condition for its work, 1 studied the construction of the different pumps. We have one second-size Metropolitan, two second-size Silsbys, one third-size Silshy, one second-size Amoskeag, one third size Amoskeag, one singlepump Amoskeag, two second-size Clapp & Jones, and one single-pump Clapp & Jones a total of 10. Wishing to ascertain the simplest and most effective manner to tell when any steamer became lacking in efficiency, I consulted with my best engineers. We then started to make tests with several engines we knew to be in good condition, cither new or lately rebuilt; all tests were made by draughting front cisterns or wells with not less than 10-ft. lift. After a number of tests we found, hy using 150 ft. of good, rubber-lined j’ ;• in. hose, t in. ring nozzle, and from 35 lbs. to 40 lbs. of steam (not over 40 lbs.), each doublepump engine would put up double, or slightly over, of water pressure over the steam pressure, so that, if such engines put up 80 lbs. or over of water pressure, with 40 lbs. of steam, throttle and exhaust wide open, they are in firstclass order. The single-pump engines must not put up less than 65 lbs. under the same conditions. We then made this the standard, and all our piston-engines are tested in this manner once a month. The rotary engines, having no leathers or valves, do not need testing as often, and we test these once every three months. Every new or rebuilt steamer is tested in this manner on arrival, and we have found this standard of testing correct every time. After each monthly test the engineers are required to make report on blanks for that purpose. and, if any steamer does not show up to the standard, the pumps arc examined and necessary repairs made. These repairs should be made only by those who thoroughly understand how to set the pump-valves, otherwise good results cannot be obtained. Upon receipt of new* or rebuilt steamers, our standard test is: Two lines of hose, -‘So ft. each, 1⅛ in. smooth nozzles, safety-valves set at 120 tbs., and carrying too to 110 lbs. steam. Place a correct pysometer at each nozzle not over fifteen inches front its discharge-opening. If the steamer is second-size, it should show a pressure on each line at nozzle of not less than 70 lbs , which will give the actual of 518 gallons discharged. If this test is kept up for at least one hour, and upon examination it is found that every part of engine is in good condition, we consider we have a good machine to do proper work. By using a t’ j-in. smooth nozzle, it will show an actual discharge of 5(18 gallons with 55 lbs. on the pysometer or nozzle. About once a year we test the steamers in the same manner, running each for half an hour. From this I am at all times able to know what continuous work can be expected from each steamer, and I have never had a steamer break down at a fire. We have long ago come to the conclusion that the deliveries of new engines by the expert engineers from the factories are nothing but grand-stand plays for the entertainment of the spectators. They can never do such w*ork at fires as they are made to do on these occasions. It is our opinion that any municipality ordering new engines should stipulate the desired actual number of gallons to be discharged on regular running for fire service from These engines and pumps require to be kept at all times well in oil, and must be turned over once every day to keep them in good order. The pumps running iron against iron, will soon wear out and rust, if not kept regularly in oil, and turned over daily while in quarters. If they showloss of power, and, on examination, it is found that the heads of pumps show wearage, they are made tight by taking out a thin layer of packing, of which there are several layers, and if the gibs show that they do not not seat snugly against the barrel of pumps, they must be dressed to fit snug, the springs examined, and, if any are weak or broken, renewed. If these rules are followed. 1 have found that the Silsby engines discharge more w ater than piston-engines of the same w eight and with the same steam pressure. While 1 have no partiality for any make of engine, so long as it does the required work, I am constrained to say that 1 am amused at times at the seeming ignorance of many supposedly practical engineers, who condemn these engines as inferior to piston-engines, and all for the reason that they either do not know how. or do not w-ant to keep them up on account of some prejudice. In reference to the tests made hy the engineers of the committee of twenty, I wish to say, it is my belief that, if steamers are tested in this manner once a year, they w ill soon be fit for the scrap-heap, and I can see no practical results therefrom for future tests hy the department officers for the following reasons: (1) 1 do not believe there is a department anywhere that will procure all the scientific instruments shown to he necessary in the proceedings of the last annual convention of the National Fire Protection association, and there no necessity tor them for practical purposes. (2) No engine can run at such great speed two lines of hose of not less than 250 ft. each, with such nozzles for the different sizes of engines as give the best results in fire-streams. The rating as now given, as 1 understand, is given by running a steamer at its speed limit, with very little resistance, and according to the number of gallons put out it is rated. It must be understood, however, that steamers working at fires lose from thirty to forty per cent, of this capacity from friction and other causes. Thus a steamer rated at 700 gals, per minute cannot be relied upon to put out more than 500 down to 400 gals., according to circumstances and length of hose, on a fire. We believe any piston-engine of present make should not he run regularly over 250 revolutions a minute, except in great emergencies, when 300 revolutions should be the limit, and that for as short a time only as is absolutely necessary to stop a fire from spreading. Silshy rotary engines can be run at any high rate of speed, so long as they can get enough water. for any length of time at fires, and, therefore, it is necessary to adopt such maximum speeds for each engine as the chief engineer of every department should determine, after posting himself well as to what engines can be worked steadily at fires to avoid them breaking down at critical times, when most needed. At our regular draughting tests, after the engines had been tested by the engineers of the committee of twenty, a second-size Clapp & J ones, which had been rebuilt last year, could not draught water. We have found from long experience that it is necessary to have springs on all the suction-valves to assist in seating them properly when draughting water. We found no springs on this engine, which had been overlooked in being specified. The springs were put in, and it has draughted all right since. Before the committee’s tests the engine draughted all right, and, while 1 do not say that the valves were weakened by the tests, these are the simple facts. A single-pump Clapp & Jones, which had done excellently at the test, would not draught. We found several springs broken, and the discharge-valve in such condition that we had to get new ones; since putting these in, the engine works all right. After receiving the report on our city, I had these pumps on which excessive slips had been found examined, and could find nothing wrong with them. We then tested all the engines again, first*the 40lbs. steam tests, and after that the regular fire tests with two lines of hose. We are indebted to the U. S. Steamboat Inspectors for keeping our pysometers correct. I mailed the pysometer readings to the National Board in New York, and am indebted to the committee on fire-prevention of the National Board for giving me the correct theoretical number of gallons discharged. 1 herewith give a table of the number of gallons discharged, as per report of the committee’s engineers, but do not know if this is the theoretical or actual discharge; also the theoretical number of gallons as given by the committee on fire-prevention; also the theoretical number of gallons as calculated by us, and the actual number of gallons as calculated by us.

CHIRP O. G. MARJENHOFF, CHARLESTOWN, S. C.

Theoretical Discharge.

It will be seen that our theoretical calculations were so near those figures given us by the committee that they are correct for all practical purposes. Our knowledge in making these calculations we derive from the book of Chief Engineer A. P. Leslmre and Geo. A. Ellis, C. E., also from experiments of Capt. Isaac Fiscner, former superintendent of construction of the New York lire department, and others. The explanation to calculate theoretical and actual discharges is given as follows: Theoretical discharge of a pump is obtained by calculating the capacity of pump and number of revolutions per minute, or the velocity of stream or flow at nozzle per second with pysometer. Actual discharge is obtained by filling a tank of known capacity, observing the time taken and computing the quantity per minute b.y the pysometer pressure shown at nozzle. I have given the theoretical number of gallons only for comparison with those given us by the gentlemen of the National Board to showhow near our calculations are correct for all practical purposes, and believing that those given by the committee arc entirely correct. 1 cannot understand why we should bother ourselves with theories, when the difference between theoretical and actual discharges is perfectly useless for putting out fires. This reminds me of a rhyme I learned at school, the substance of which is—A bright son who had studied philosophy and mathematics came fresh from college on a visit to his parents. In elucidating his great accomplishments to his pa, while ma was placing dinner on the table, he illustrated his technical learning by explaining to pa as follows: “Now you see, pa, there are according to your knowledge two chickcns in that dish; philosophy teaches us, however, that there are theoretically three chickens.” Says pa to son, “Yes, my dear, 1 am really proud of your many accomplishments, and we will now practically demonstrate it. We will have this chicken for mama, this for papa, and you, my son, shall have the third theoretical one.” 1 hold decidedly as pa did. Give me the actual number of gallons of water 1 know 1 can put out fires with, and, if the theorists can put out fires with the difference between the actual and theoretical, they are welcome for my part to do so. To get effective fire streams with i^-in. smooth nozzle it is necessary to have 70 lbs. at nozzle for a stream to be very effective at to8 ft. horizontal and 84 ft. vertical. If 250 ft. of hose are used it requires about 200 lbs. at the engine to do the same work. If 500 ft. of hose are used it requires about 200 lbs. at the engine to do the same work. For effective work we always calculate one-third off from the entire distance a stream is thro&ltwn. This is by using 2j4-in. hose. Large hose will reduce the friction and, consequently, require less pressure at the engine to obtain the same results at the nozzle. In corresponding with the committee of twenty after the tests, 1 was gratified to be informed that our engines, as a whole, had shown up well among those of many other engines tested, and I am, therefore, of the firm opinion that our way of testing engines is as simple and effective as any that can be devised. Eliminating the theoretical flow as altogether unnecessary, we get the actual discharge in gallons in the following simple manner: According to Chief Leshure’s book, the calculations in which have been proved correct by many practical engineers, we find that 10 lbs. at the nozzle discharge ninety-eight gals. Every pound up to twenty increases the discharge by four gals and a fraction—making the discharge at 20 lbs. 139 gals. From 20 lbs. to 30 lbs. the increase is at the rate of three gals, to the pound; at 30 lbs. the discharge being 170 gals, f rom 30 lbs. to 40 lbs. the increase is 2)4 gals, per pound; at 40 lbs. the discharge being 196 gals. From 40 lbs. to 50 lbs. the increase is about 2*4 gals. per pound; at 50 lbs. the discharge being 219 gals. From 50 lbs. to 100 lbs. the increase is slightly less than two gals, per pound; at too lbs. the discharge being 310 gals. At over too lbs. ;U the nozzle a fraction less than two gals, can be counted upon at every 10 lbs. All of these calculations are based on using l)4-in. smooth nozzle.

Capt. Curtis, of New York, followed with a paper on the same subject, which was succeeded by a discussion.

DISCUSSION ON MARJENHOFF PAPER.

Captain Greedy S. Curtis, of New York, who was also on the program to contribute to topic No. 7, asked leave to postpone his formal paper till a later session in order to discuss more adequately the form of acceptance test described by Chief Marjenhoff. He then said informally that there were several points in the paper of Chief Marjenhoff which he wished to discuss. He considered the chief’s figures as to the theoretical discharge from a nozzle exceeding the actual discharge by over twenty per cent., very much too small. According to his figures, if a 100-gal. tank were emptied through a pipe with a nozzle, only 82 gals, would be discharged, when, as a matter of fact, the full 100 gals, were actually got. His experience dated back eight years, and such measurements were part of his regular duty during the five years he was hydraulic engineer in the Boston fire department. Possibly Chief Marjenhoff’s figures ought be thus explained. The chief had counted by the English gallon, which is just twenty per cent, larger than onrs—that of the United States; his eighty-two English gallons equaled about 100 United States gallons. Or else the tables of Ellis and Leshure, from which the figures were taken, were seriously wrong, as was. indeed, the fact. Alluding to Chief Marjenhoff’s engine needing springs on its suction-valves after its test by the committee of twenty’s engineers, and his finding it necessary from long experience to have springs on all the suction-valves to assist in seating them properly when * draughting water: It was, consequently, only to be expected that a pump which ought to have suction-valve springs, but was working without them, would need them more vitally after a hard day’s work than it did before. As to the “speeds at which his engines had been tested, and which, according to any instructions, were such that they would knock the engines into a scrap-heap at the end of the year,” he would answer that he knew from experience in the Boston department that engines can stand the speeds at which they are tested by the committee of twenty, and even higher speeds and come out in excellent condition at the end of an indefinite number of seasons. The good results from rotary engines evidenced the chief’s engineering skill, as shown by his ability to keep such engines in good condition. His experience was exceptional as other departments have not been able to succeed so well. Acceptance tests are different over the country. Sometimes a new engine is required to play over the top of the flagpole of the city hall. If it cannot, it is considered no good. In other places, it is made to run at a certain number of revolutions with open butts. It is then supposed to pass for a fire engine, whereas such a test shows only what it can do in the way of pumping out cellars, not putting out fires. Such comparisons do not form a fair criterion. Under such differing conditions, one can compare only the effective work done by the different engines. The effective work that an engine does,—that is, how much water the engine will pump, and the amount that it will raise in pressure. “If it takes water from a hydrant at 20 lbs. and discharges it at 120 lbs., it is doing considerable work; but, if you get the water at 90 lbs. at hydrant and discharge it at 100 lbs. you are practically holding the same pressure as before.” Therefore, the only fair way is to make the two engines raise the pressure a like amount in each case. “If one engine receives water at 20 lbs. and discharges it at 120 lbs. and you have another engine tested at draught, you must make that second engine put up a pressure of about 100 lbs. before it will equal the first one. In each case, the pressure must be raised a like amount. Chief Marjenhoff’s method for a condition test is a very simple one; but it may not show all the faults in an engine. It will show whether the steam distribution is good and whether there are any serious defects in the steam valves or the steam-valve setting; but will it show up many of the other defects which can be found out only by some form of test which will show the amount of water actually obtained at the nozzle, compared with the amount which the engine would pump, if the pumps were in perfectly good condition? If a valve is lost out of the pump, only a part of the pumpage that ought to be got is obtained. A scientific method of finding out just how much water is being got you arc getting proportion to what ought to be needed. It was resolved that the convention should grant Captain Curtis time to prepare an addition to his paper, to be furnished a copy of it to the secretary and to be printed in the proceedings.

Chief McConnell said that the speaker spoke of the capacity delivered at the nozzle. Would that denote the capacity of the engine? How would he multiply what the gauge showed?

Capt. Curtis said that, if the discharge were through a single nozzle, the gauge would show directly how many gallons per minute the engine was actually pumping. Jf it showed 75 lbs. pressure on the gauge at a Ij4-in. nozzle, that would show that they were getting 400 gals. Captain Curtis was asked what he would give that engine credit for pumping, if it had another line on the other side doing the same work, and replied that the engine would be discharging double the first amount—getting 800 gallons per minute. In order to measure the discharge from any two lines with a convenient nozzle-gauge device. Capt. Curtis explained that all one had to do was to insert the point of a device, which he had with him and made use of in the first stream where it leaves the nozzle, look at the gauge and read off the discharge as shown directly on the gauge-dial. It might show, for example, 350 gals. Then, holding the gauge in the same way in the second stream, if the hand pointed to the same discharge one would give the engine credit for 700 gallons actually coming out of the two nozzles, and so a 700-gal. engine would come up to the builder’s capacity requirement. On being asked how much pressure would be lost in friction in a certain length of 2j4-in. hose, with a iJ4-in. nozzle attached, the answer was that 200 ft. of ordinary hose would take up just about half of the pressure at the engine when used with a nozzle. Two hundred

and fifty feet would but absorb more than half the total pressure, as shown by experience. On Chief McConnell alluding to t apt. Curtis having mentioned an engine working from a hydrant and one at suction, taking the water out of a canal or river, the engine working from the hydrant having 20 lbs. pressure at the hydrant, and said that, with a gauge on the engine showing 120 lbs., she would he credited with too lbs. actual working pressure, as against the engine taking suction out of the river: Capt. Curtis replied that was correct. Chief McConnell once more asked, if an engine taking suction showing 100 lbs. pressure on the gauge going through a line of hose, while the other engine is on the hydrant receiving 20 lbs. pressure and she shows 120 lbs. pressure, would he credited with only too lbs. pressure? He was answered: A hundred pounds credit for actual increase in pressure in both cases. If an engine is put on a too lb. hydrant, and she shows only 120 lbs. the engine would not be doing much work. “Then (said Chief McConnell), if .your engine works up to 75 lbs. pressure on the line, and for some reason or other the pressure of the hydrant runs down to zero or even draughts 4 lbs. or 5 lbs., then you should not take off that 20 lbs. for the hydrant.” Capt. Curtis agreed; and added that a number of cases had happened in New York. Cambridge and elsewhere, where the fire department had plenty of water, when the engines were not drawing, but, when the engines were drawing, they sucked the hydrant dry. A gauge on the suction-side of each fire engine s pump will show right off where the trouble lies, and, in many cases, will put it squarely up to the water department to furnish larger mains, bur this reason he considered a compound gauge on the suction an essential part of every fire engine Chief Marjenhoff said that, if an engine were run at 150 lhs., he had never found out what length of hose and what size nozzle to put on there, because, if he put 250 ft. length of hose on an engine and i)4 m nozzle, lie could run her over 150 lbs. A chief engineer ought to know what length of hose and what kind of hose to put on there, and what kind of nozzle to make a test. Capt. Curtis pointed out that the size of hose and nozzle depended on the size of the engine being tested. The question was simple; but it was difficult to explain the mathematics of the problem off hand. In reply to hief Mooney, Capt. Curtis said that, if an engine were in good condition it could show as high pressure at the nozzle when supplied from a hydrant as when lifting its water. Chief Mooney then said that they were testing with siamesed lines. I he engine made 140 lbs. at the nozzle from the hydrant. On putting her into a well, she made the same pressure—could not do any better. She did as well with suction as on the hydrant. He, therefore, came to the conclusion that the steamer capable only of making so many revolutions. The 140-lbs. pressure was at the en gine. The nozzle pressures were the same. With 100 feet of hose and a l|4-in. Eastman nozzle, she did as well on the hydrant as she did taking suction. It was tried both ways. On Chief Marjenhoff asking what kind of engines these were. President Stagg said he thought the discussion all out of order, as the gentleman was not yet through with his paper. The convention then adjourned till the evening.

WEDNESDAY NIGHT SESSION,

The convention met pursuant to adjournment, First Vicepresident Chief George M. Kellogg, of Sioux City, la., in the chair.

THE 8TANDARD THREAD.

Previous to the reading of the first topic for the day. at the request of F. M. Griswold, C. If. Campbell was heard.

He said that at the Duluth convention last year the International Association of hire Engineers adopted a standard thread; but the specifications were not full. It specified that there should be 7[4 threads to the inch, and that the male nozzle on the hose coupling and of the hydrant should he 2j4-in. internal diameter, the external diameter to he 3 1-16 in.; but the full specifications were not adopted, such as the angle of the thread, etc., w’ere not given. He, therefore, asked to present a resolution making the specification full, not changing in any way the specifications as adopted, except to make them more explicit. The requisite leave being given, the following resolution was read by Mr. Campbell:

Whereas, in view of the fact that since the convention of this association, which was held at Duluth, Minn., in .August, 1905, many associations of national influence in the matters of lire prevention and fire extinguishment have formally adopted as the “national standard” the full specifications for Standard thread for hose and hydrant couplings; and,

Whereas, as the action taken by the International Association of hire Engineers in relation to this important matter at the Duluth convention did not enter into this subject further than to specify that 754 threads to the inch be adopted as its standard for hose, with an external diameter of 3 1 16-in. and an interior diameter of 354-in., be it

Resolved; That the International Association of Fire Engineers adopt as its standard for hose and hydrant couplings, the “National Standard” as imbodied in the following specifications: The above to be of 60 degrees V thread pattern, with one-hundredth-inch cut off the top of thread, and 1100-in. left in the bottom of the valley in 254-in., 3-in., and 354-in. couplings, and 2-100-in. in like manner for the 454-in. couplings, and with 54 m. blank end on male part of couplings in each case. Female ends to be cut %-n. shorter for endwise clearance. They should also be bored out ,03-in. larger in the 2}4-in., 3-in. and 354-in. sizes, and ,03-in. larger in the 454-in. size, in order to make up easily and without jamming or sticking. The operating nut for hydrant stem and nozzle caps to he pentagon in shape, and 1 ‘•in. in diameter, measured flat to point. The hydrant should open by turning the operating stem to the left, and the size of branch connection from service main to hydrant should not be less than six inches as a minimum.

Mr Campbell moved the adoption of this resolution. As the standard was fixed last year it was not specific enough in its details to do the association the proper credit to which it is entitled, and because it ought to go on record that the International Association of Eire Engineers completes its work as thoroughly as any organization which has since adopted the standard.

DISCUSSION ON STANDARD THREADS.

Chief MarjenhotY asked if that were the national standard adopted by the American Waterworks association. Mr. Campbell replied that it was, and that it had been adopted by the American Waterworks association, the New England Waterworks association, the National Eire Protection association, the National Board of Fire l nderwriters, the Pennsylvania State Firemen’s association, the North Carolina State Firemen’s association, the National Firemen’s association and the irginia State Firemen’s association.

Mr ! M. Griswold added that there had been held in the latter end of the convention year meetings of municipal organisations in both the financial and mechanical line, which have also indorsed this standard. In Chicago on the 24th of September the League of American Municipalities, and at Atlanta, Da., the American Public \ orks association met and approved as a whole just what was in the resolution. Every organisation 111 the United States which carries power to control these things was in absolute approval of it. 1’he lire departments, as well as citizens generally throughout this country, ought to congratulate themselves that, through this standardisation, they will be in a position to secure help when the most urgent occasions require it. Chief Sandidgc seconded the motion. Chief Pearce asked how far the adoption of this resolution would go to affect the members of the association that were present. If his equipment does not conform to the requirements of that resolution, is he required to go to his corporation and recommend and insist upon the adoption of the special standard thread, and change some 785 hydrants and probably 15,000 feet of hose to conform to those hydrants? If not, then he wanted to be in a position to state that he preferred, as a matter of economy to his city, tnat he provide emergency couplings with the same thread that he has now. to conform to the surrounding territory in which he might be called upon to render assistance, and likewise couplings to connect with the cities which he might call upon for assistance. That matter brought up quite a little discussion last year, and he would like to have the matter thoroughly discussed as to whether it is advisable for the association to recommend that all the hydrants in a particular city must be changed to conform to this standard. Surrounding his city for some thirty-live miles there are hydrants that do not conform to the standard given, and the couplings do not conform, lie is provided for that, in case they call upon him, to meet the emergency. Chief Haney said it was not, nor would be obligatory upon any city to change its couplings. It may provide bushings, if it desires, so that the city provided with standard couplings may render service. It will be of great service, though, to have one standard coupling throughout the country. I hc fire in Baltimore was sufficient evidence of that fact. St. Louis is now re-building 9,000 fireplugs in conformity with these specifications. It lias at present forty-four engine companies, of which number twenty-eight engine companies have been changed over to the new thread. St. Louis is so situated that it cannot expect very much assistance from any large city, because it is quite a distance from Chicago and from Kansas City, but, notwithstanding that fact, it wanted to be in line, and was not satisfied with providing bushings, but changed over to the new standard. Any city that does not desire to change over to the new coupling can arrange by means of proper bushings so that any city may assist it. So far as changing over, that is an easy matter; when new hose is purchased, let the standard coupling be got, and before any one knows it the department will be provided with an entire set of couplings that are standard. Chief MarjenhofF thought the remarks made by the other speaker did not apply to the question at all, because the resolution was only to the effect that the International Association of Fire Engineers comply with the requirements of the National Board of Fire Underwriters who have made that standard. The other question as to what is to be done by chiefs afterwards, will come afterwards; consequently, the motion to adopt the resolution does not bind the association to anything at all as yet. Chief Sandidgc seconded the motion on the understanding that it was discretionary with the cities who chose to adopt the thread, whether they are to take it up at once or let it remain until they are able to adopt the thread, and then go ahead and take it up. A new corporation putting in an equipment will adopt this thread, and the old cities will gradually introduce it. If we adopt this resolution as to standard thread, each city as it feels able to do so will adopt it. If it does not feel they can do so, it need not; there is nothing to compel anybody to do it. Chief Johnson, of Wisconsin, asked former ex-Chief Hendricks whether that resolution conformed with the specifications as published in the Insurance Engineering for this year? and Mr. F. M. Griswold said the resolution only completed the work which it was intended to include in the resolution at Duluth— namely. to place the association in line with all the others that have adopted this standard. As it stands now, there is a /54-in. thread. The resolution simply corrected an error of omission in the former resolution that was adopted at Duluth. St. Louis is the principal city that has changed over to 754 threads to the inch. She has spent already a large amount of money, and will spend more if necessary. Chief Higgins hardly thought it policy for the members of the Association to put themselves in the same position that St. Louis—that of spending $150,000, and $150,000 more to he spent. In a large department it takes a large amount of money.

1 he chief at Troy and himself came together some time ago and agreed that each should always carry in their supply wagons, two or three >ets of the other city’s couplings. Chiefs in other cities adjacent to each other should adopt a similar plan. All could then use their couplings to connect with each other’s hydrants, the same as to hose, without any extra cost to their respective cities. He did not propose to be hound by any such resolution, because he did not think the Association had any power to tell a city what it must do. It may lx* assuming too much, i hc chiefs were there only as representing their cities, not to spend their cities’ money or to tell them to spend it. He thought the resolution entirely out of order. C hief Doane pointed out that the resolution did not compel any city to adopt the coupling; it simply recommended it for adoption, when possible or needed. The only way to get at it right would be to have the respective States pass laws giving their cities a certain number of years to straighten the matter out. It would be done so gradually, that he did not think any city would feel it. He would not go to his city today and ask it to make a universal change. It could be so arranged as to be done so gradually, that a city, large or small would not know it had made the change. The association wants simply to recommend this coupling, and had already passed resolutions adopting it. The association was trying to straighten that out. There was a mistake made in the resolution as adopted last year. The proposed resolution simply corrects the mistake. Chief Rozetta, who is already provided with standard coupling, saw no danger in adopting the resolution as offered. There was nothing compulsory about it, and its intention was simply to cause cities to set a good example in the matter. Dr. Berntheizel, while not impugning the honesty of the resolution or those who proposed ⅝ being positively opposed to classlegislation from any point, opposed the resolution, because of its discriminating and dictatorial spirit. He moved, and Chief Johnson (Wisconsin) seconded the motion that the resolution he laid on the table.

The motion not admitting of debate, was put by the chair, and lost, and the resolution was finally adopted.

F. M. GRISWOLD’S

paper on “The equipment and maintenance of fire departments in cities of 5.000 to 10,000 inhabitants” was then read. It shall appear, with the other papers in these columns as soon as possible. At its conclusion, Mr. Griswold said that the statistical information given did not absolutely convince him of its entire correctness in every detail. He could not verify it other than through the publication from which he obtained it, which is supposed to be made up from reports sent in by each town of what it has got. To him, it appeared almost nonsensical that any town should feel satisfied with a force of five paid men, with the apparatus as shown in the report; yet, on going back for four years through the inception of that publication, lie found it repeated constantly, five full paid men. He thought it an error. He found one case where the annual expense was reported as $29. He went backtwo or three years and found that at one time that town’s expense was $2,900; so he made up his mind that the last named amount was propably the right one. He found that seventvfour per cent, of the 115 towns he had analysed did not approximate to the necessary theoretical amount of hose, and that about fifty-eight per cent, of the total 115 towns reported, that they were using the electric fire alarm system—which a very encouraging showing, and one that ought to he more encouraging, because there ought to be more general use of that very valuable and reliable means of advice of fire. Chief Fred Morrison of Watertown, N. Y., read his paper on the same subject. Each paper was received and ordered to be printed in the proceedings. A vote of thanks was also returned to the respective authors.

CHIEF FRED. MORRISON’S PAPER.

I lie subject, which is offered for our consideration 1 he establishment, equipment and maintenance of fire departments in cities of from 5.000 to 10.000 population’ —is one that is much more far reaching in effect and of deeper significance to the future of fire protection throughout the country than a mere statement of the subject at first suggests. When a community casts aside its village form and assumes the garb of a city, there is always existent some type of organisation for fighting fire, which, from the nature of things, is based upon a system of volunteer service. The change in methods of local government does not at once affect this particular department, on which the safeguarding of property is largely dependent. As a result, the continuance of the existing organisation is necessary, f his condition remains for few or many years, according to the growth, the wealth and the enterprise of the little city; and the customs and practices, which have grown up in the village department, become more or less established in the municipal department. The effect of this unavoidable continuance of the village method of tire protection, is to impose upon the city a system, which has grown up under different volunteer chiefs, whose experience is slight or extensive. according to their terms of service and the number of conflagrations which they have been called upon to extinguish. A chief, who is a student of conditions, and appreciates modern methods, may inaugurate a system, which, looking to the future efficiency of the department and the probable needs of the community, is on a sufficiently broad scale to provide adequate protection ; but the next chief, inexperienced and without a general knowledge of the subject, elected because of his popularity, rather than his capability, fails to carry out the plan, which his more intelligent predecessor had set in operation. The result is manifest; consistency in action, harmony of purpose, the steady progress of the department, vanish; and. when the village enters upon its life as a city, its fire department is employing obsolete methods, and is organised along the primitive lines in vogue when it was a small hamlet. The great evil lies in the persistency of the village type of organisation, and the wonderful tenacity with which volunteer departments cling to their existence. Long after a city has outgrown its swaddling clothes in every other branch of the public service, its fire department is still an infant, with old clothes and old methods. There are certain causes for this undesirable condition, which are apparent: (i) There is the lack of general knowledge on the part of the public as to what is, or what is not efficient fire protection. That this can be overcome directly seems doubtful; but its effect may be offset indirectly. (2) There is frequently the lack of proper knowledge by those who are in charge of volunteer departments. This can be directly overcome, if recourse is had to a source of information, recognised as authoritative and based upon the observations of a number of practical and experienced men, whose life-study is the extinguishment of fires and the efficiency of a fire department. (3) There is generally, though not invariably, a failure in small departments, to provide a definite policy for the increasing of their efficiency proportionate to the growth of their communities and the resulting increase of their responsibilities. This, too, may he avoided, if a clear and precise declaration of the needs of a department can he formulated, which takes into consideration such general conditions as the extent of the fire-area, the water supply and pressure, the climate, and the character of construction of the buildings which demand protection. From this source of information, this declaration would appear to he the peculiar need of volunteer chiefs in our villages and smaller cities. There are, undoubtedly, many other conditions in different localities which directly affect the organisation and operation of small departments. To meet these or even to enumerate them, would be impossible. No plans for increasing fire protection in small communities should attempt to cover all these. Tt should he general in statement, with an avoidance of details not uniformly applicable, and should he drafted with peculiar reference to clearness and brevity. That such a definite plan, based upon practical knowledge. could he issued by a committee of this association with manifest benefit, to our fellow citizens residents in the smaller cities and villages cannot be denied. T11 my opinion, its practical use would he far greater than the commission, selected by the National Board of Underwriters to investigate and report upon the conditions and needs of certain cities. Furthermore, such a committee, giving its attention to this particular subject would form a bureau of information which could be advantageously consulted in regard to special needs or unusual conditions, and its opinion and advice would carry a special weight, as that of men competent to judge as to the best, the cheapest, and the most satisfactory methods of fire protection and the requirements of any particular case. Tn the earlier portion of this address T called attention to the fact of the importance of this subject to the future of the departments in larger cities not yet in being. The continuance of the volunteer system far beyond the time when it should give place to a paid fire department is the chief evil. Tt may require the hand of Providence laid heavilv upon a community and the loss of hundreds of thousands of dollars to awaken it from its lethargy to an appreciation of the peril from fire which has surrounded it for years. In fact, I believe that, in the majority of our smaller cities, the need of quick service, of a sufficient water pressure, and an up-to-date equipment is not realised until a great conflagration has swept away property of a value which for a time prostrates business and retards prosperity. If the history’ of paid departments could be gathered and analysed. I venture to assert that nine-tenths of them owe their establishment to the destructiveness of a single fire, which has demonstrated the inefficiency of the volunteer service to cope with conditions existing in a city extensive in limits and closely’ built up with business blocks and manufacturing plants. But the awakening conies too late; the flames have accomplished the destruction, which foresight and knowledge and a judicious expenditure of public moneys might have prevented. Thus, where fortune has favored a city, and the opinion of the public, influenced by its freedom from fire losses, is that the property of the city is sufficiently protected by’ its volunteers equipped with apparatus, which in other cities of equal size has been cast on the scrap-heap. In such a case, the suggestion of installing paid firemen is received with general disapproval, and the system of volunteer service continues until the people are converted by a great disaster. Nor is this condition of inadequate service confined to cities of a few thousand; it exists in municipalities, whose populations are numbered by’ the tens of thousands. Charge the fact, if y’011 please, to lack of progressiveness, to the community’s pride in the volunteers, to the penuriousness of its taxpayers. Charge it (and in some instances you will he right. I am sorry to say) to the jealousy of the volunteers themselves, whose prejudice against their paid rivals blinds them to the best interests of their city. But, however true these charges may he. 1 believe the principal one to he ignorant of the danger, and the absence of a well formulated and rational system of improvement in fire service. There is bound to come in the history of all growing cities, a period of transition from the old methods to the new, from the volunteer department to the paid department. Tt may come slowly -that is the proper way; it may come suddenly -that is the improper, but usual way, and the usual way is the expensive way. Much of the apparatus and many of the enginehouses that are entirely suited the needs of the volunteer sor vice are utterly worthless for the use of paid fire companies. How many thousands of dollars could have been saved, if cities had appreciated these facts and purchased their equipment with the idea of the ultimate installation of a regular force! Tt seems to tne that a committee or bureau such as T have suggested —a committee on a departmental system for communities of less than 20.000 -could furnish a plan of gradual transition from the volunteer system to the full paid system, which would keep pace with municipal growth and needs, and would command popular approval because of its economy and reasonableness. Where such change should begin is a matter of careful consideration: but mv own views are that it should start at the head. The chief of a fire department should he a man whose entire time and thought should be directed to the one purpose of protecting the property within his city from fire, and doing this, by adopting such a system as shall provide the best protection, not onlv for the present, but for the future as well. Such a man can carry out a definite plan in the organisation of a department nnd in the purchase and housing of its apparatus. T mav he wrong in this opinion; but. if T am. it is because it is impracticable. If. however, a change in this particular could be accomplished, the adoption of a general scheme of gradual change from volunteer to paid service would be much easier^ of accomplishment. Further consideration of the details of the idea which T have endeavored to present briefly to you time will not permit, nor do I feel competent’ to carry’ them to their limit. Others far more experienced than T can profitably discuss this subject—those for whose opinions T have the highest regards and to whose judgment T most willingly submit. Any plan that will introduce paid firemen in a citv’s service as soon in its history as is compatible with the valuation of its property, its taxes and expenditure is for the best interests of such city. A plan that can accomplish this. T .believe to be the appointment of a committee, such as the one T have suggested, clothed with such powers as to give it authority to take up and present a complete scheme for the constitution and operation of small departments. That such a thoroughly digested plan would receive the full approval of the National Board of Underwriters 1 feel convinced, and the value of such co-operation cannot be overestimated. 1 have hesitated, 1 confess, to submit an idea of this nature to a body of men who are better able than myself to present this topic for their consideration. 1 do it tentatively, though con vinced in my own mind of the beneficent effect that it would have upon many cities, if adopted. 1 know what it would have done for my own city, if it had been in practice ten years ago. And now, with a due appreciation of your generous attention 1 leave the subject to the convention, hoping that my words, if they do nothing more, will arouse a deeper interest in that critical period in the history of all fire departments which precedes the establishment of a fully paid and efficient body of firefighters.

COMMITTEES.

The chair announced the appointment of the following committees, viz.:—Memorial Committee.—Chief Fillmore Tyson, Louisville, Ky.; Chief J. E. Maguire, Savannah, Ga.; Chief John M. Mullen, Boston, Mass. Committee on Nominations.—Chief B. J. McConnell, Buffalo, N. V.; Chief T. O. Doane, Plainfield, N. J.; Chief T. W. Haney, Jacksonville, Fla.; Chief John Kendall, Detroit, Mich.; Chief E. V. Farley, Petersburg, Va. Committee on Resolutions.—Chief Charles Little, Rochester, N. Y.; Captain John J. Cashman. jr., Brooklyn, N. Y.; Chief A. M. Prescott, Waco, Tex.

President Stagg then called on Vernon Bcggs, of the Dallas Commercial club, who invited all the members to be present at the opening of the State Fair of Texas on the following Sat urday, and Chief Boyd moved that the associa tion should extend its apreciation of the invitation by a rising vote, which was done.

CHIEF P. D. SHAUOHBSSY’S PAPER

of San Francisco, being absent, his paper on “Some lessons from the San Francisco earthquake and conflagration” was read by the official reporter. A vote of thanks was accorded and the paper was ordered printed.

Secretary McFall announced that Chief llodgkinson, of Orange, N. J., had been very ill while on his way thence to the convention by steamer. The secretary read the following telegram:

“Orange, N. J., Oct. 10, 1906. “Chief John Stagg, President I. A. F. K., Dallas, Texas.

“Chief Hodgkin son is in Jefferson Hospital, Key West, and is improving. Mayor Shocnthal.” | Chief Hodgkinson died on hoard the steamer just as it reached Jacksonville, as was announced in these columns last week. F.n. F. AND W. ENG.]

Chief Doane: I move that the secretary should send a telegram of sympathy to Chief Hodgkinson, which was done. Captain Curtis then concluded his paper which lie had left unfinished on on the preceding day.

J. C. GRISWOLD’S PAPER

of the Texas Fire Protective association, then read a paper on “Responsibility of fire depart ments in fire-prevention,” and received a vote of thanks.

To say to you that 1 deeply appreciate the honor conferred upon me in the privilege of addressing you today, is but expressing my feelings mildly. J say this advisedly, as I have never before had the pleasure of speaking to so large an audience composed of distinguished men of such wide and varied experience in the matter of firefighting and in the construction or use of devices employed for such purpose. Hence, 1 hesitate to enter into a discussion of subjects that pertain to the technical side of firefighting, and prefer to confine my remarks to the general consideration of fire-prevention. Since tlie opening of this convention I have been a very interested spectator and have had the pleasure of listening to many able papers on various subjects and have had the opportunity to talk to many of you assembled here, with the result that 1 am very deeply impressed with the spirit that prevails with regard to the matter of fire-prevention. We all heard with a great deal of interest the very able address of Attorney Atwell in which he placed prevention at the head of his list of the three great principles to be observed in our endless campaign against fire. We heard our good friend, Mr. C. (». Smith, deliver his irrefutable statements as to the necessity of due precaution in the matter of building construction, hy adopting a code that is compiled for tlie purpose of regulating conditions as they are today. This precautionary measure of erecting buildings under careful and skilled supervision from their inception to their completion is one of the greatest strides that could possibly be taken in the direction of prevention. I am here today as a representative of the Texas Fire-Prevention association, composed of the leading companies in the world, that have devoted a vast amount of time, talent and money in a desire to solve problems that lead ultimately to the prevention, rather than the extinguishment of fires. We all know that the success of an insurance company is determined in the greater part by the ability of its officers and others in direct charge of its underwriting facilities, so to distribute its liability as to he reasonably assured of a moderate amount of loss. To accomplish this, midi rwt iters must have a basis from which to work a standard to guide them, and full knowledge of the nature of each hazard, whether common or special, in their efforts to reach definite conclusions as to the relative value of any property as a fire-risk. And. with this end in view, the insurance companies have called to their aid men who have given deep consideration to the cause and effect of lire and have devoted their energies in the direction of eliminating the cause and reducing the effect. t the present time, these efforts are well directed, as is evidenced in the results obtained hy the National Hoard of Fire Underwriters through its various departments and subsidiary organisations, such as the laboratories at Chicago, committee of twenty, inspection departments and bureaus, likewise the National Fire Protection association, all of which have at their disposal, the combined talent and experience of all of the most noted insurance engineers, and underwriters in the United States. Standards thoroughly setting forth the very best methods by which the great tire-waste may be reduced, either through preventative measures or bv means of prompt extinguishment, are carefully compiled, and freely distributed to all who care to show anv measure of interest in this verv vital subject, these same standards, together with specific sug eestious are presented verbally and in printed or written form to thousands of property owners yearly, and. in numerous cases, they are repeated it various intervals in an endeavor to secure a • ••rtain measure of safety that is so neccssarv to the protection of valuable property and a comparative •surance to the prosperity of all classes » f businesss. Vet. with all this, we must continue to experience the disastrous effects of great fires and conflagrations, the ill results of which are far reaching, and are a constant and increasing menace to our large commercial centres as well as a stupendous drain on the resources of the country. The false sense of security and the general apathy of the public, as well as its apparent indifference to the vital necessity for constant watchfulness, have combined to lead us into such a condition that at the present dav. we cannot point to any town of 10.000 or more population where the possibilities of disastrous fires or conflagrations are not glaringly prominent. even to the casual observer. And this state of affairs cannot be remedied until the property owners are caused to consider carefully the dangers confronting them, and are brought to the realisation that they must resort to preventative measures in the construction, occupancy and protection of their property which composes such a vast portion of the wealth of any community. This mav he accomplished only hy education: hy bringing forcibly and conclusively before the public, the basic principles of fire-prevention, lit this endeavor the fire departments that are under the direct supervision of you gentlemen can 1K and in many instances are of incalculable service, inasmuch as you are enabled to inspect systematically all important properties with the determination to detect conditions that mav he the cause of fire, or the means through which a fire may spread, and then with equal determination to insist upon an immediate remedy, either hy direct instructions to the property owner or hy anneal to the various departments of your municipalities, that have such matters under more direct charge, and through the channels of ordinance or law. are cquirmed with the means whereby the defective conditions may he caused to be eliminated. In other words, a fire department can establish a relative value to the community that supports it, in the same manner as a competent insurance inspector can, and does establish a value to the company or organisation that supports him. I use the word competent, advisedly in this case, as an inspector, who merely inspects and is not prompt in devising means of eliminating undesirable conditions, and notifying his company and the property owner promptly is not rendering all of the service due those who support him, and this similarly applies to a fire department that holds itself in perfunctory readiness to extinguish fires and. in its moments of comparative inactivity, fails to devote its energies to seeking out defective or hazardous conditions, and promptly applying the necessary remedy, thereby increasing to an almost incalculable degree its value and usefulness to the public that maintains it for the purpose of protection. And I think you will agree with me, when 1 say that detection of serious conditions, followed hy their prnmnt removal, is of as much value as the extinguishment of a fire that may readily have been prevented through careful inspection. Merely as an example, permit me to call your attention to the fact that to-day we arc deprived of the presence of one of your distinguished and highly esteemed members, Chief Swingley, of St. Louis, who has been prevented from attending this meeting because of a very regretable incident, where a number of firemen in his department were seriously injured bv an explosion and the resulting fire in a shoe-finding house, where an excessive number of barrels of rubber cement were stored in a cellar, without knowledge of the tire department or inspection bureau, and the extent of this very dangerous condition was discovered only after a serious explosion caused by a lighted lantern carried into the cellar igniting the explosive vapor which had most naturally accumulated in this confined space. This is only one instance among thousands that prove the necessity for most rigid supervision hy a department, as it is here plainly shown that, even with the most excellent system of inspection now in vogue in St. Louis, such disastrous occurrences are possible, as T understand that this cement was stored in the building between the time of regular monthly inspections. I trust you will not consider my remarks as being in direct criticism of the general methods of conducting tire organisations, as, of course. vc all realise the great service that is rendered to the public through well organised and drilled fire departments (indeeed. we have only to turn to some of our great cities to see the general results of careful and systematic organisation and maintenance) : but it is my desire, to bring again to the notice of those assembled here, the crying need of systematic inspections with a view towards enforcing the law’s that may have been created for the purpose of preventing fires, or, if such laws arc lacking, the doubly urgent necessity of striving for a means to establish, and then to enforce such laws. With these points in mind. I will recall to your consideration the fact that the fire underwriters and insurance engineers of the United States, stand ready individually, or as a body, to lend you their aid and counsel in all matters pertaining to the improvement of any condition, that may in anvwdse point towards the reduction of fire-waste; therefore, I will not attempt here to suggest any definite or detailed course of procedure in the matter of organising and maintaining efficient inspection departments, as you are no doubt familiar with each and everv condition that would constitute a serious hazard, or he a menace to the safety of the lives and property of the public that hears the expense of supporting fire departments for the purpose of ample protection. ‘Phis feature of prevention which, if it is not an integral part of the general system of fire protection, certainly should he now a paramount issue in the minds of the insurance interests, and it should appeal most strongly to the public at large, not onlv in the State of Texas, hut throughout the entire country, as it needs hut little investigation on the part of anv persons who mav he interested, to learn that only thirty to thirty-eight per cent, of the money value of property, is covered hv insurance, as has Keen clear1v evidenced hv the large conflagrations that have so recently occurred. Our efforts to assist fire departments and to create conditions that will tend to decrease the enormous tireloss (a great measure of which is not borne by the insurance companies) is evidenced by the results accomplished in the past by the Texas Fire-Prevention association, which is supported solely by insurance companies and stands ready to co-operate earnestly, primarily with every tire chief in this State and to lend its counsel to the national organisation, in a concerted endeavor to make full use of each and every opportunity for the prevention of fire. In closing, 1 desire to say, that if there is an obstacle in the way of accomplishing this earnestly desired harmony of interests, you make it known to us, and we will prompty and gladly do all that lies within ous power to assist you towards the desired end. The convention then adjourned till io a. m. the next morning.

THURSDAY MORNING SESSION.

The convention met, with First Vicepresident Kellogg in the chair.

Vicepresident Kellogg announced, with groat regret, the dangerous illness of Mrs. Stagg in the hotel, which prevented the president from being present. A paper was then read by

FORMER CHIEF HENDRICKS,

of New Haven, Conn., on the subject, “Should fire departments be called from their legitimate duties for the purpose of assisting the police and militia in suppressing riots?” It was clearly against doing so, and was followed hy additional words of the author, who said he had been in hopes that the chief from Pittsburg would be in attendance. “Several years ago a mob destroyed a vast amount of property tlierc, and burned up a great deal. The fire department was called upon to suppress those incendiary fires, and had encountered a great deal of difficulty. They responded, for that was part of their duty. There arc other cities that he would have liked to have heard from.” The paper was adopted and spread upon the minutes.

In the discussion which followed

FORMER CHIEF JOYNER

said: T just recently had a little experience on that line. 1 agree with Chief Hendricks as to most of what he has said; but I think certain conditions and the surroundings will have a great deal to do with a matter of that sort. I certainly would not approve of the fire department answeringthe riot-calls and he regularly on the list for such purpose. The little experience that I had in Atlanta a few days before leaving home was of the character that required action. ‘1 hat mob gathering came up like a flash of lightning. Tt was all unlooked for. Nobody expected it in any manner, shape or form. -Tt started more in fun than anything else, but turned out to he something rather serious. I have been living in Atlanta all my life. and. when T got out to that mob, 1 pledge you my word I could not recognise one of the crowd. It was made up of a lot of factory hands—“kids.” as you might call them. 1 am thoroughly well satisfied that eight out ot every ten was not twenty-one years of age. Nine tenths of them were a lot of young toughs. They rot down in the negro district, and the mayor happened to be near by, and, hearing the noise and excitement went down there and found possibly a half dozen police absolutely overpowered. Those young fellows ran round there chasing the negroes, and then the negroes began to organise and get together, and he telephoned to me and said : “Hell’s to pay down here! Can you heln us?” T said, “Well. T can do whatever you think is best in the matter.” He said, “The police are nowerlcss. Before we can get them together there is no telling what will happen; those people will destroy property, break in those houses, and they will he killing each other. Something has to be done, and done quick. Suppose T pull 42 box ?” He referred to the box at the corner right in the middle of the riot. T said. “Anything for Atlanta. Whatever you think best I will do.” Now. T look at the different branches of the city governernment differently from some people. I look upon the city as if it were 0 large department store. Tliev are all employed for the city’s interest. and are expected to protect each other. If one branch in a large store is overburdened with work, they can call upon another to heln them out. We all should he devoted to the business we represent and the city that we arc employed hy: and. in an emergency case where it requires absolutely nuick action, without any regularly organised force for that particular riot-call, T do not sec v hv we should not help each other. Now. when that alarm was turned in, the disturbing element did not know anything about the department being mixed up in it at all, the}’ thought we were coming down there for a fire. We got right in the middle of them. They were running in every direction, breaking in windows and doors, and their numbers constantly increasing. None of them really were armed, except with rocks, sticks and pocketknives. There was no firing at that time. We had pretty good hydrant pressure in that particular district, and I had six streams laid out from six different hydrants, covering the territory pretty well; and we turned the six streams of water into them. I tell you now, gentlemen, if we had not done that, the riot would have increased to such an extent that there would have been many more people killed than there were, and a lot more property damaged. I do not believe in organising to go directly into the riot-call business with the police; but we got down there in a few minutes and dispersed them. We broke up the mob, and, in the meantime, the riot-call having been sent in, the military and police got control of the situation. The action of the fire department practically put an end to the trouble. A few little squads organised after that, and, when the street cars would go down through those negro districts, they got to shooting into them; hut nobody was killed on these occasions. During the trouble there were some negroes and a sergeant of police killed, and one lady dropped dead from fright. It was a serious matter, and one that the entire city regrets. All the good people of the town deplore it; but it was not as bad as would appear from the sensational stories in newspapers. That is just the shape that Atlanta was in. and T honestly believe that, if the fire department had not come to the rescue on that particular occasion, there would have been a great deal more harm done, and a great many more people hurt; but everything was got under good control, and the military and police, as soon as they got together, handled it in nice shape. There were no people of any prominence at all had anything to do with it. We felt as if we were fighting for our own families, and wc did the best we could under the circumstances. (Applause.) Dr. Berntheizel said he came from a city in Pennsylvania where they are accustomed to coalminers’ riots; and the proposition in that State was made as to the feasibility of calling out the fire departments in those riots. “Now, there may be cases where the fire department possibly is the only available course; but I consider the fire calling too sacred a calling to be used thus. (Applause.) T say that, When a State or municipality has not sufficient backbone to preserve order by its police force or its constabulary, let them look out themselves for the results. In our State we positively refuse to answer any call for the suppression of riots. We have in our State available a constabulary which is distributed all over Pennsylvania and liable to immediate call—just as responsive as the’ fire department would be; and we do not treat rioters to cold water. We give them the lead; and we quiet our riots. The calling of a fireman is dignified; a good fire department is of inestimable value to a city, and I claim that to call upon the department to suppress a riot as a general thing would degrade the department. T admit that, m a case where there is no other force available, it may he called on; but I hold the municipality or the State responsible for the preservation of order, without calling upon our good old noble firemen to suppress riots. Let them suppress riots by the proper forces—not by calling on the old firemen.” (Applause.) Chief Hunter thought all depended on the spirit shown by the mob, which may be a goodnatured mob and out just for a little time; or it may show a determination to destroy property. His city had three days of it. The entire department was out on a constant run—nearly ran the horses to death. Fires were started all over the city. The department got there before the militia would get there, and the mob would shout. “Cut the hose! Shoot them full of holes.” “That was what T was up against. They would say. ‘Get hold of the line and pull them hack! Turn them out! Get rid of them!’ The point in my mind is that the best class of citizens stay away from such unlawful assemblages. and the man that forms a part of such a mob. whether he takes an active part, or not. is one of that mob. Let the good citizens keeo away from such gatherings. (Applause.) Keep the mob scattered.” Chief Boyd had had an experience with one mob during a car company’s riot, which had reached a formidable height. “It was a riot in the populous part of the city, and the mayor conceived the idea of pulling a fire alarm box, which he did. The fire department responded, laid three lines and went to work on the mob. The consequence was that the lieutenant of police had to kill one negro. Another negro struck the chief of the fire department in the head with a pick handle, and laid him up for six months, and, before it was over, there were three or four people killed; but it suppressed the mob. Now, in consequence of that, for nearly a year afterwards, whenever the fire department went to a fire in that section where those negroes reside, they would stick a knife in the hose. They had it in for the department, claiming that, when they wanted to work, the city would not let them. ‘J’he department had considerable trouble for a year or more, through having hose cut. in consequence of what was claimed to be its interference. There was a case where the people were taking absolute control of the city’s streets and as the few available police were not equal to the task, the department was called out, and it was the only means at that time that would suppress it.” Former Chief Benedict’s opinion was that some of the remarks that had been made brought up the question as to what civic duties the fire department has to perform. Those who are of a riotous nature are generally opposed to the police department: but they “generally have a good feeling towards the fire service.” Because of that good feeling, we, as firemen, often get their help: but the reverse is the case, when their animosity is aroused against the fire department, when it responds, to a riot-call. “In that case, you will find the same condition existing that was referred to by the last speaker. That was the case in Paterson at the time of the riot there. The rougher element of Paterson had a good feeling for the fire service until after that riot, and then a similar condition existed to that described by mv friend. They said that the fire department had no business to interfere; that it had its own duties to perform. T believe it is to the best advantage of a city to take care of riots themselves, and not call out the fire department until fires are started. Then you are doing the duty that you are expected to in putting out fire. If a fireman is killed in suppressing a riot, is there any provision made for him? T think not. In any well governed municipality, if the police force cannot take care of those things, let the mayor or the governor call on the police, and. if the police fail to do their duty, call on the military. and not upon the firemen.” Chief Mooney stated that during the trolley car strike at Bridgeport, Conn., some four years ago, on a Sunday, when everybody wanted to ride, the cars were sent out with a deputy sheriff in every car. As soon as a car was started, it was turned over. The sherifT prevented by the mayor from shooting the strikers down. The latter at once sent in an alarm from the firebox at the car stables. That brought the fire department there, and the firemen were told to turn a stream on the strikers and disperse them. The firemen could not disobey the orders of the mayor, and did as they were told. By that action they saved human life, and the mayor was re-elected because of that ‘•erv fact.

Former Chief Hendricks, on asking former Chief Benedict if the firemen at Paterson were not ordered out by the mavor, was told that thev were, and on being asked if the latter had authority to order the fire department out for such purpose. said that he thought, if it had been his case he would have stayed at home. “Of course (he added), each chief is situated differently oftentimes with respect to his appointment. Sometimes politics governs the appointment, and the apoointee must work in with those from whom he receives his appointment. Some chiefs govern themselves bv that; they want to keep in with the heads of municipalities, the mayor, council and fire commissioners, and they like to obey orders; but T think, as T said before, that firemen have a specific duty to perform. When they are sworn in. they are sworn in to perform fire duty, and that is their specific calling. T do not think that they have any right to listen to the advice of the mayor to get out and perform a duty that puts them in a light with a certain class of people detrimental to the interests of the department. Chief Higgins, who some three or four years ago had seen a trolley strike in his city, said emphatically that the fire departments of this country are composed of men—not cowards. (Applause.)” When they are called upon to perform duty by the municipality that they are employed by, it is their duty to perform it. Any man who is afraid to go out and fight a battle is not a fit man to live in any community. (Applause.) If, in my case, in my paid fire department, we are called upon to go out and protect our homes and firesides, why should we respond any quicker than if a negro, a thief, or any other class of such people should come forward to destroy not only our homes hut our city? Your duty is to your people, and as heroic men you should perform it without asking any questions. I agree that it is the duty of the fire department and of all other public officers, when a rabble seems to be in control and wants to destroy the government, to protect that government at all hazards; and this is equally true of firemen, policemen or of other good citizens. You all owe a duty to the community in which you live? (Applause. While former Chief Benedict held that that there was “no nobler set of men in God’s world than firemen,” yet. “when they are called outside of their calling, they are asked to do what they should not be called upon to do. Municipal governments are provided with a police force, supplemented by military force to perform a specific duty. When the members of the lire department are called out two or three thousand times a year to risk their lives, it is not for the public interest to ask them to perform an additional military duty. This is an injustice to those who are under your control; you are asking too much of them; yon are placing them in a position in which they should not he placed There is no nobler hand of men, or any that will sac ritiee more and risk their lives, if there is a fire as the result of a riot. They will respond and go through that riotous mob and will protect what they are called upon to protect, and not fear the mob.” ( Applause.) Chief Thompson agreed with Chief Higgins. lie believed firemen had no right to he called out in a case of that character; lutt, if tbc necessity arose, as officers of the corporation, of the municipality or of the State they bound were to observe and protect law and order and to support the police or any otltcr lawful authority acting for the best interest of the whole community. “I am prepared to go (while I d not want to do it) and to take my men with me and see that riotous conduct shall not prevail in the municipality in which I have some little jurisdiction. A man who, as a citizen, much more one who is appointed and paid by the municipality, who would stand by and see rioters run over a whole community and not lend bis band to sup press it. is not a good citizen; he is not a good member or a good official of the department or of the community in which he is employed.” (Applause.) Chief Hunter did not think there was a fire chief there who was a coward. Chief Higgins thought that if the convention were to go before the United States on any question of that kind it would show cowardice. He was of opinion that tbc paper just read was one unfit to be read, at all events, before a body of firemen anyway. Chief Hunter told how in Spring field, Ohio, he and his firemen did their duty unarmed in the face of loaded pistols. He ordered bis men to lay a line of hose. It was threatened, if they did, that they would he “filled full of holes.” He gave the order. “Lay that line! You arc not working for this mob, you are under my orders.” “In the face of pistol bullets, stones and brick-bats they laid it. The mob hit policemen in the head with stones and brick-bats, and some of them went home. They were standing there armed. My men were not armed, but we played the water on them just the same.” (Applause.) (Cries of “Question!”) On Vicepresident Kellogg putting the question that the paper he accepted and spread upon the minutes, Chief Quigley moved as an amendment that the paper be not concurred in. The motion having been seconded, and stated by the chair, Chief Doane suggested that the motion should be withdrawn, and the mover should let the paper be spread upon the minutes. After that Chief Quigley should he permitted to offer a resolution that it is the sense of this convention that it did not agree with the paper. Something like that (he thought) would he all right; -hut it was not courtesy former Chief Hendricks, after inviting him to read the paper, not to have it spread on the minutes, or to say that the association did not concur in it till the paper has been received. Chief Quigley accepted that suggestion, and former Chief Joyner also thought it should he re reived and spread on the minutes. Chief Kellogg, on the original question being again before the convention, stated that he wished to add to that motion so that it should appear in the proceedings following the paper that it was not concurred in. I he original mover stated that he would accept the above amendment, and when the chair put the question, on the adoption of the amendment, it was lost, after which, on motion of Chief Doane, the paper was received and spread upon the minutes by unanimous vote. Then Chief Quigley moved that the association did not concur in the paper. The motion was seconded bv Chief 1 mane. Dr. Berntheizel sincerely hoped that, after the association had invited an individual to speak before it, it would not insult him directly. It mattered not what his arguments were, “you the members had no right to put upon the record that, as an association, they did not concur in them. They had invited the gentleman to make the address. He hoped they were not only not cowards, but, also, all gentlemen, and that they will not send home the good old man saying to himself, “My paper was not worth anything.” Let the association take the arguments that the essayists had advocated, whether the members believed them, or not. I’hcy had now advocated spreading the paper upon the minutes. Let them chew their own cud and tell him that, as a convention, they did not concur in his remarks. Let them not he cowards. (Applause.)

I he question was then put by the chair and lost.

THU NEXT PLACE OF MEETINO.

When the question of the next place of meeting came up, Chief Higgins, in the interest and welfare of the organisation, pointed out that members were present from all parts of the t nited States and Canada. The journey to Dallas was a long one to a point where the loss of time and the expense to the members’ municipalities was large. ” I bis convention has been junket ing round the country for twenty years that I know of; it has not got a home. I believe it is the duty of this convention to establish itself in a permanent home, centfalh located, where we ariunder no obligations for invitations; where, when we get to the city, we can stand on our own footing. We are able to pay our share, we are not looking for two dollars’ worth of fun here and there. I believe that we should he above that, and that this organisation should be on tlie highest plane imaginable. We could select a central city and make that the convention city. It we do not want to wait for invitations from this or that commissioner; if we do not want the chief engineer going round a citv with his hat in his hand to help to entertain us. we can come prepared to entertain ourselves. 1 am speaking of conventions in general. This is an international organisation, but national, so far as this country is concerned; and I believe, that it is its duty to locate in a central city where the people front the North, the South, the Last and the West can concentrate. The capital of this country belongs to ns, belongs to every State in this l nion. It is not a State government, it is simply a territorial government owned and supported by every member of this organisation. That should he our home. We should have a larger attendance, with manufacturers exhibiting their goods where they would have good means f communication and could get rates. It would IKan advantage to the fire service and to the community at large.” He had no particular choice in the matter; he had friends from his own State that wanted the convention; but he would vote for Washington, he hoped the convention would feel disposed to concentrate for the gootl and welfare of the society. He placed the good of the organisation over anti above everything else. and. therefore, moved that the city of Washington he named as the convention city and the permanent home of the association, hornier ( hief Benedict seconded the nomination at the same time, reminding the members that they had met at Washington some eighteen or nineteen years ago. and had made Southern trips since then a large number of times. He believed today that to return again tv* Washington and the attractions there of the National capital was right. Chief Joyner proposed that a vote should first be taken as to whether the association should select a place permanently, or not. Then they would know how to proceed. Personally he was thoroughly opposed to Chief Higgins’s motion. It was explained by the chair that it was out of order to ask for a vote on a permanent local habitation. instead of the question before the convention the next place of holding the next convent.on. No proposal to choose Washington as a permanent place of meeting had been made. After Wheeling, W. Va., Niagara Falls, N. Y., Washington, 1). C„ Milwaukee. Wis., Norfolk, Va., Peoria, Ill., and Boston had been proposed. ( Former Chief Joyner begging for Atlanta, Ga., in 1908, when he would he mayor of that city), tellers were appointed, and the cities nominated were balloted on by call of the roll, all those ahead mentioned being in nomination. The whole number of votes east on the first ballot was 129, distributed as follows: Wheeling, 14; Niagara I-alls, 4; Washington, 46; Milwaukee, o; Normlk, 2; Peoria. X; Boston, 55. There being no election, on motion the lowest two cities were dropped, and the cities of Wheeling and Peoria were withdrawn, leaving the cities of Boston and Washington to be voted on. The result of the ballots was as follows: Whole number of votes cast, 132; necessary to a choice, 67; of which Boston received 64 votes, and Washington 8 votes. Washington was, therefore, selected for 1907, and, on motion of Chief Mullen, the choice was made unanimous.

THE ELECTION OF OFFICERS.

Chief Haney nominated for president for the ensuing year Chief George M. Kellogg, of Sioux City, la., who was unanimously elected.

President-elect Kellogg spoke as follows: I desire to thank you very kindly for the honor that you have conferred upon me. To be elected by such a body of men as are here assembled today, I consider a compliment to any man.

Chief Little nominated for first vicepresident, for the ensuing year Chief M. E. Higgins, of Albany, N. Y., who was unanimously elected.

First Vicepresident-elect Higgins: Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I thank you sincerely. There are many men here more able to fill the office of first vicepresident; but to be selected by a body of men of my own calling to fill such an office is certainly an honor to me and to my city. I thank you.

Chief Butler nominated for second vicepresident. Chief George W. Horton, of Baltimore, Md.

Chief Hunter nominated Chief John Kendall, of Detroit, Mich., who at once declined the nomination. Chief Haney, referring to the wellknown sympathetic nature of Chief Fillmore Tyson, of Louisville, Ky.. placed his name in nomination, whereupon Chief Horton respectfully withdrew his nomination, in favor of Chief Tyson. Chief Fillmore Tyson thereupon was unanimously elected as second vicepresident.

Chief Higgins nominated for secretary, Chief James Me I-‘all. of Roanoke. Va., who (he said), had been a very faithful officer in endeavoring during the last year to build up the organisation. He thought it due to him, since he had proved himself so efficient that his services should be continued. Secretary McFall was nominated by acclamation and unanimously re-elected. Chief Farley, who cast his ballot, remarking: “He has made a good officer, and 1 think he will continue to do so.”

Chief D. C. Larkin, of Dayton, Ohio, was also unanimously re-elected treasurer.

Secretary McFall read the report of the committee on Nomination of State Vioepresidents, and the report was on motion unanimously adopted, as follows:

STATE VICEPRESIDENTS.

T. F. Price. Alabama; Chas. F. Hafer, Arkansas: Edward Mooney. Connecticut: Terry Owens. Colorado; George W. Sasse. Delaware; W. T. Belt, District of Columbia: H. G. Fulford. Florida; George W. McDorman, Georgia; A. R. Tendering. Illinois; Chas. E. Coots. Indiana: R. C. Alder. Indian Territory; Orlando Lind, Kansas; W. A. Jessie, Kentucky; Chris. O’Brien, Louisiana: John A. Mullen. Massachusetts; M. W . Jordan. Maryland; John Kendall, Michigan; John T. Black. Minnesota: P. P. Kane. Missouri: J. C. Waters. Mississippi; D. C. Garrett. Nebraska.

THE REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTION?.

lo the president and members of the International Association of Fire Engineers, in convention assembled at Dallas, Texas: Your committee on resolutions begs leave to report and recommend for adoption the following:

Resolved: That a vote of thanks be tendered to his honor, Mayor Curtis P. Smith, the Commercial club of Dallas, and the Ladies’ reception committee, for the kind and hospitable treatment accorded to this association during our sojourn in this beautiful and progressive city, which will remain with us as a fragrant memory,

Resolved, further: That the thanks of this association are due and are hereby tendered to the Rev. J. I*’rank Smith and the Cumberland choir, for their part in the beautiful and impressive memorial services conducted in honor of our departed comrades.

Be it further resolved: That the thanks and well wishes of this association be extended to our comrade, Chief H. F. Magee, his officers and men, for their untiring and successful efforts to make this our thirty-fourth annual convention profitable and pleasant, and for their constant attention to our comfort and convenience.

Further resolved: That the thanks of this association be tendered to the National Board of Fire Underwriters for the interest manifested by them at all times in our deliberations; also, to Secretary Charles G. Smith, of that body, for his laudable expressions of good will, and his appreciation of membership in our organisation.

Resolved further: That the thanxs of this association be returned to the press of the city of Dallas, and to the technical press, for full and accurate reports of our proceedings; also, that our thanks are due and hereby tendered to the Southwestern Telephone and Telegraph company, to the Western Union Telegraph company and to the Postal Telegraph company for courtesies extended us.

Resolved further: That these resolutions be spread on the minutes and copies furnished to the press of the city.

Respectfully submitted,

CHARLES LITTLE,

JOHN J. CASHMAN, JR.,

A. M. PRESCOTT.

Committee.

CONVENTION NOTES.

The exhibits were very meagre, only a few of the leading manufacturers having displays on hand for inspection. This was to be expected, as the distance from manufacturing centres was so great, and the expense and difficulty of transportation so considerable, that those anxious to nv*ko a good display of their wares were prohibited from doing so on that account. In the report of the exhibit committee printed last week, the exhibit of the Fabric Fire Hose company was omitted. It consisted of a large assignment of the wellknown wax and Para gum-treated hose in charge of C. H. Campbell, Southern manager of the company.

D. A. Barton, member of the fire and police l>oard of Denver, Colo., was one of the most popular men at the convention.

The test of the Wenig fire escape was successful.

The only fire journal represented at the convention was FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING. Its fine special edition issued for the occasion was praised by every one.

The Barton snaps are in great demand. A good thing always is.

John McElroy. representing S. F. Hayward & Co., distributed a very neat porcelain ashtray, which was much appreciated.

Chief Magee is deserving of the greatest praise for the excellent program provided for the entertainment of the visitors. The turn-out of the department showed that the Dallas boys are not a whit behind the best firemen in the land, and that their discipline is of the highest standard.

James E. Prindle. traveling passenger agent of the Norfolk & Western railway, who had charge of the transportation arrangements from New York, accompanied the party organised by FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING, and looked so well after the interests of the fifty odd delegates to the convention, that he was presented at Dallas with a handsome silver loving cup. in recognition of his valuable services.

Frank P. Holland, publisher of Farm and Ranch. Dallas, was one of the most enthusiastic entertainers on the . reception committee, He showed some of the visitors the fine printing plant he owns, where thousands of his publications are run off, and the modern perfecting printing presses, with which his establishment is provided. ‘I’he enterprise of this gentleman would keep many large Eastern publishers guessing.

W. S. Tiffany, sales manager of the Robinson Fire Apparatus Manufacturing company, of St. Louis, Mo., is popularly known to a large number of people interested in the fire service of the country. He was seen everywhere at the convention discussing the merits of the Stempel fire-extinguishers, and, no doubt, the further publicity he gave these reliable appliances will bring forth good results.

A full list of the delegates present, active and associate, was given in last week’s issue of this journal.

Joe Gilbert, manager of the Firestone Tire and Rubber company, was a conspicuous figure at the meeting. He made himself as pleasant as he usually does, and handed out nice leather pocketbooks, with the name of each chief printed thereon, to every active member of the association.

The exhibition of the Marine Torch company with its water lights, was interesting.

The Seagrave wagon, made for the city of Dallas and shown in the exhibit room, received many favorable comment. And so it ought, as it is a very fine piece of apparatus.

The familiar faces of Cyrus Robinson and D. A. Woodhouse were missing among the faithful exhibitors who seldom miss a convention.

THE CONVENTION OF FIRE ENGINEERS AT DALLAS

0

THE CONVENTION OF FIRE ENGINEERS AT DALLAS

Stenographic Report of Fire and Water Engineering.

The thirty fourth annual convention of the International Association of Fire Engineers was held at Dallas, Texas, on Oct. 9, 10, 11, 12 under the most delightful conditions as regarded the weather. The sun shone brightly; the sky was cloudless, the temperature, that of summer. The city opened its gates to the members with true Southern hospitality, and the proceedings opened with every promise of a bright and pleasant gathering. This earlier promise, however, was blighted by the terribly sudden death of Mrs. John Stagg, the beloved wife of Chief John Stagg, of Paterson, under whose presidency the convention assembled. This sad event upset the program and cast a dark pall of sorrow over all those in attendance, which was fairly large— letter than at some previous conventions, and certainly better than was expected, considering the long distance that had to be traveled by the majority of the members, active and associate. The opening proceedings were as follows:

FIRST DAY.

Promptly at ten o’clock the parade formed in front of the Oriental hotel, ami proceeded down Commerce street, headed by a platoon of mounted police under Chief Brandenburg, and accompanied by Chief Magee and members of the Dallas fire committee to the rooms of the Dallas Commercial club, which were handsomely and appropriately decorated for the occasion. Prior to the opening of the business session, the chair was occtmied by M. 11. Thomas, president of the Dallas Commercial duh, who in behalf of that organisation called the convention when the Rev. J. Frank Smith led in repeating the Lord’s Prayer. Chairman Thomas then addressed the convention. After a few words of preface, he said that, while they had seen many conventions in Dallas, they had never had a gathering such as he then saw before them -“one of men, whose whole life is given to preserving and saving the property of other men, the making of losses as small as possible in the stresses of city life.” He then adverted to the earlier methods of fire protection in Dallas, when Chief Connor, now president of the Terminal railway, was head of the volunteer fire department and “any man could take a red shirt and a nozzle, run for about 300 yards and be a fireman. He had to run only about 500 feet to get outside of the city limits. Generally they got to a fire when the log house had been in ashes about half an hour.” The “city grew, and you see today that, just as your association has grown, it has become the best thing of its kind in the United States. We are glad to have you and you may have anything we have got as long as you want it.” . Mr, Thomas then introduced the mayor of the city, his Honor, Curtis P. Smith, who delivered the address of welcome, in which, like the preceding speaker, be adverted to the growth of Dallas, which thirtyfour years ago was a struggling village of 1.200 souls and hardly known upon the map of Texas. Just as thirty-four vears ago the International Association of Fire Engineers was struggling into life and had now attained its present growth, so Dallas had progressed and been developed. After a few words as to the immense size of the State of Texas. Mayor Smith spoke as follows: “Brave as are the soldiers who storm cities ‘through the imminent deadly breach,* I am sure 1 do not magnify the dangers attendant upon your duties when I assert that thev fully equal that of the warrior’s. For the soldier knows, when he meets his foe hand to hand and foot to foot, it is then a case of the most fearless eye and the boldest heart that has the best of the situation. Not so with a fire chief. He must confront a foe that will not yield an inch to human valor. He must battle with the fierce flames and that still more dangerous, stifling, choking smoke, which, like the terrible python, congeals with poisonous breath before it proceeds to strangulation. Doubtless many of you gentlemen now recall the sound of those ‘Brazen Bells’ which Poe so strikingly describes and so often has awakened us all from pleasant dreams to the fiery realities of terrified wakefulness. In my opinion the fire chief is appreciated more and more as the world grows older, and our own chief is no exception to this rule.” The mayor added some further words of greeting—this time to the lady visitors, and after making the members free of the city, concluded with the following words: “I hope that your deliberations will be of practical benefit to each one of you personally, and when you return to the loved ones at home I trust that you will have realised that this is one alarm that you have answered and found things just to your liking from the start to the finish.”

ATTORNEY ATWELL’S SPEECH.

The chairman then introduced United States District Attorney W. 11. Atwell, who, in welcoming the members, styled them a “high-class body of men.” He then alluded to some of the great fires of the past. Beginning with that of Nc ro, who, according to popular report, fiddled while Rome burned, he passed on to the great fire of London, and thence to those of the nineteenth century and its loss of $50,000,000; that of Moscow in 1812; of New York in 1835, with its $15,000,000 loss; Hamburg’s, in 1842, with $35,000,000 loss; of San Francisco and St. Louis in the very early fifties, with the loss of $10,000,000 each; of Constantinople, at the very beginning of the seventies, followed in rapid succession by the conflagration of the Commune at Paris, those of Chicago and Boston and others of greater or less destructiveness up to the beginning of the twentieth century, during which liave occurred the Toronto, Baltimore, Rochester, Mont Pelee, San Francisco and Valparaiso conflagrations, each with its own heavy loss.

lie added: “These great conflagrations appear to have no historical significance; but by them and lesser fires have been taught lessons for the protection of concentrated city property. These lessons may he classed under three heads. First, prevention, such as rigid fire ordinances, proper inspection of new’ structures, wide straight streets, convenient and numerous fireplugs, inside and outside faucets, with affixed and convenient hose; second, extinction, under which head come all the modern firemen’s apparatus, electric bells, electric alarms, chemical and up-to-date engines, hose that will not burst, trained horses and last, hut greatest of all, brave, fearless firemen! The third head may be called limitation, under which come all the scientific methods for confining fire when it is ascertained to be beyond control. By the use of gunpow’der, dynamite, axes and water, the fire is kept from spreading and its territory limited and confined. In this connection it will he interesting for you to know that in 1905, which was a normal year, we spent $500,000,000 for new buildings, and burned old ones to the value of $200,000,000. We paid $300,000,000 for fighting fire and $195,000,000 in fire insurance premiums, of which we got back $95,000,000 from the companies in payment for losses. The authority from which 1 get these figures also announces that the unburnable Underwriters’ Laboratory in Chicago cost only twelve per cent, more than a building that would shrivel up at the first breath of an advancing fire. The lesson from these facts is that the builder should, as near as possible, build what will not burn. The fireman is savior of both life and property. The purpose of your annual conventions is to better the methods by which these objects are consummated. The fraction of a minute may mean the loss of life or the destruction of much property. The man who risks his own life to save the life of another man, or who risks his own life to save the property of another man, is necessarily brave, fearless and unselfish.” The learned gentleman concluded with a few remarks to point his moral.

REPLY OF CHIEF BENEDICT

President Stagg. on behalf of the association, called on former Chief Benedict, of Newark, N. J., to respond. He said: “We, the International Association of Fire Engineers, wish to return many thanks to you for your kind and cordial greeting. You see here the representatives of the firefighting force of this nation. Where duty calls they go—even as far South as Dallas. And having arrived here and been so handsomely received, 1 wish again to return thanks to you and the president of the Commercial club, and the district attorney, for the kind greetings given to us.” (Applause.)

Chairman Thomas than resigned in favor of President Stagg, who thereupon declared the association open for business. Routine business succeeded consisting of the appointment of the following committees: Credentials—Chief J. P. Quigley, Syracuse, N. Y.; Chief Chris. O’Brien, Shreveport, La.; Chief D. C. Garratt, South Omaha, Neb. Exhibits—Chief E. S. Hosmer, Lowell, Mass.; Chief George W. Miller, Reading, Pa.; Chief J. J. Mulcahey, Yonkers, N. Y.; Chief II. F. Magee, Dallas, Texas.; Chief J. J. Strapp, St. Paul, Minn. On motion the reading of the minutes of the previous convention were dispensed with; the reports of special committees not being ready were passed for the time. The announcement was made as to a trolley ride for the ladies and that the badge of the association would entitle all wearing it to free rides on the trolley cars; several communications were read. Adjournment was then taken till 2 o’clock p. m.

REPORT OF CREDENTIALS COMMITTEE.

The convention reassembled at 2 p. m., with President Stagg in the chair. Secretary McFall read the report of the credentials committee and the following members were elected:

ACTIVE MEMBERS.

Otto Gramm, Laramie, Wyo.

Reube Freedman, Corsicana, Tex.

R. M. Shultz, Pine Bluff, Ark.

James M. Glenn, Perth Amboy, N. J.

John A. Mullen, Boston, Mass.

Phil. Wright, San Antonio, Tex.

A. V. Bennett, Birmingham, Ala.

A. J. Stout, Hutchinson, Kan.

Frank Drake, Long Branch, N. J.

W .C. Lucas, Meriden, Conn.

Win. Tooniey, Chattanooga, Tenn.

James Dunleavy, Evansville, Ind.

J. M. Roe, McAlister, I. T.

C. T. Sullivan, Memphis, Tenn.

J. Q. Hawk, Moline, Ill.

Chas. A remit, Sioux Falls, S. Dak.

T. J. Paine, Ogden, Utah.

R. C. Alder, Tulsa, I. T.

Jos. D. Featherengill, New Albany, Ind.

T. H. Ryan, Harrison, N. J.

J. J. Little, Ft. Smith, Ark.

Carl Harrison, Evanston, Ill.

David W. Sharp, Elgin, III.

Sars O’Farrell, Waukegan, Ill.

Walter E. Price, Champaign, Ill.

Fred H. Wilson, Jamestown, N. Y.

Peter Jacobs, Springfield, Ill.

M. S. Lanier, Rome, Ga.

J110. C. Watters, Jackson, Miss.

C. L. Woodward, Austin, Tex.

O. J. Cottle, Roff, Okla. Ter.

T. D. Branin, Danville, Va.

Tom L. Miller, Amarillo, Tex.

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS.

M. J. P. Lacy, Dallas, Tex.; Henry H. Cypher, New York, X. Y.; H. H. Alvis, Dallas, Tex.; John McElroy, New York, N. Y.; C. F. Ahrens, Cincinnati, Ohio; G. W. Bremer, Wheeling, W. Va.; Clarence Morris, Columbus, Ohio; Arnold Neuenschwaunder, Louisville, Ky.; J. Hunter Taylor, Jackson. Miss.; M. A. Dunn, Hoboken, N. J.; J. H. Mullen, St. Louis, Mo.; V. M. Robinson, St. Louis, Mo.; W. S. Tiffany, St. Louis. Mo.: A. H. Fiske. South Framingham, Mass.; Geo. C. Tidsbury, Boston, Mass.;

THE MEMORIAL MEETING.

The Memorial meeting took place in the evening of Tuesday, October 9, in Bush temple, which was filled with delegates and their friends. The proceedings were most impressive, and the music,, all of which was appropriate to the occasion, exceedingly well rendered. The Rev. J. Frank Smith, of the Cumberland Presbyterian church, delivered an eloquent and feeling address, as did Chief George W. Morton, of Baltimore. Former Chief W. R. Joyner, of Atlanta, Ga., likewise spoke of those whom he had known during his thirty years’ membership in the association, as did Chief Fillmore Tyson, of Louisville, Ky., who added a loving tribute to the memory of Chief Sullivan, of San Francisco, and described the manner of his terrible death. As the roll of the dead was called, the light that stood opposite each name went out. One by one, as the secretary called the names, the lights failed, until at last there stood above the roster only the brilliant star of Hope and on either side of the board a ruddy torch of Faith in the darkness. Of the whole number five have died within the year. These are as follows: John S. Damrell, Boston; L. A. Bentley, Eaton Rapids, Mich.; William 1. Clieswell, Boston; D. T. Sullivan, San Francisco; Isaac B. Markley, New York. The portraits of the late Chief Henry A. Hills, of Wyoming, Ohio, for so many years secretary of the association, and the late Chief William T. Cheswell, of Boston, draped in crape, were on each side of the platform.

ATTENDANCE.

The following is a list of those in attendance:

CHIEF ENGINEERS.

ALABAMA.

Tlios. F. Price, Mobile.

A.V. Bennett, Birmingham.

J. F. Browder, Montgomery.

ARKANSAS.

I. I. Little, Fort Smith.

Chas. F. Hafer, Little Rock.

COLORADO.

T. F. Owens, Denver.

CONNECTICUT.

Rufus it. Fancher, New Haven.

Win. C. Lucas, Meriden.

W. F. Clark, Naugatuck.

Edward Mooney, Bridgeport.

J larrv W. Parker, Stamford.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

Wm. T. Belt, Washington.

FLORIDA.

H. G. Fulford, Key West.

T. W. Haney, Jacksonville.

GEORGIA.

T. E. James, Albany.

Geoige W. McDonnell, Athens.

John E. Maguire, Savannah.

1 F. Pearce, Columbus.

W. R. Joyner, Atlanta.

Frank G. Reynolds, Augusta.

ILLINOIS.

John L. Hawk. Moline.

Wm. W. Armstrong, Joliet.

C. F. Kalgis, Chicago Heights.

C. W. Devote, Decatur.

( arl Harrison, Evanston.

David W. Sharp, Elgin.

Sars O’Farrell, Waukegan.

Walter E. Price. Champaign.

Peter Jacobs, Springfield.

Arthur It. Tendering, Peoria.

INDIANA.

C.E. Coots, Indianapolis.

Jas. Dunlevy, Evansville.

Joseph D. Featheringill, New Albany.

1NDIAN TERRITORY

It. C. Alder. Tulsa.

Arch. Jennings, Okmulgee.

IOWA.

Geo. M. Kellogg. Sioux City.

KANSAS.

Olander Lind, Kansas City.

A. J. Stout, Hutchinson.

KENTUCKY.

J. J. Wood, Paducah.

Fillmore Tyson, Louisville.

W. A. Jesse, Lexington.

LOUISIANA.

Chris O’Brien, Shreveport.

MAS8ACH USETTS.

Thos. H. Harris, Lynn.

E. S. Hosmer, Lowell.

Geo. S. Coleman, Worcester.

John A. Mullen. Boston.

Philip Partenheimer, Greenfield.

Edmund L. Dahill, New Bedford

MICHIGAN.

John Kendall, Detroit.

Beni. F. King, Jackson.

MINNESOTA.

J. J. 3trapp, St. Paul.

MISSISSIPPI.

J. W. Wilks, Vicksburg.

Milt. D. Duncan, Greenville.

MISSOURI.

P. P. Kane, St. Joseph.

NEBRASKA.

D. C. Garratt, So. Omaha.

NEW JERSEY.

Robt. Kiersted, Newark.

E. H. King, Kearny.

T. H. Ryan, Harrison.

Geo. W. Arnett, LambertvIIle.

John F. Norton. New Brunswick.

John Stagg. Paterson, N. J.

Frank Drake. Long Branch.

S. J. Blair. East Orange.

T. O. Doane. Plainfield.

D. J. O’Neill. Ridgewood.

Fred. Williams, Montclair.

NEW YORK.

M. E. Higgins, Albany.

Philip Baker. Port Chester.

Jas. J. Mulcahey. Yonkers.

Chas. Little. Rochester.

Patrick Byron, Troy.

B.J. McConnell, Buffalo.

E. J. Jewhurst, Auburn.

R. G. Blackburn, Oswego,

rred. Morrison, Watertown.

Otto F. U tx, Niagara Falls

joun H. Espey, Elmira,

uichard Purcell, Richfield Springs,

r red. H. Wilson, Jamestown.

Baurel E. Meader, Oneida.

OHIO.

Samuel F. Hunter, Springfield.

D. C. Larkin, Dayton.

OKLAHOMA.

J. M. Roe South McAlister.

O. J. Cottle. Rolf.

ONTARIO.

John Thompson, Toronto.

A. B. Ten Eyck, Hamilton.

Ld. Clark, London.

PENNSYLVAN1A.

Fred. Vanderbolt, Sharon.

Frank J. Connery, New Castle.

Geo. W. Miller Reading.

John J. McManon, Erie.

RHODE ISLAND.

Lewis F. Butler, Pawtucket.

W. J. Lees, Central Fails.

SOUTH CAROLINA.

E. S. Kennedy, Spartanburg.

O. G. Marjenhoff. Charleston.

Riley G. Rowley, Greenville.

SOUTH DAKOTA.

Charles Aunett, Sioux Fulls.

TENNESSEE.

Wm. Toomey, Chattanooga.

A. A. ltozetta, Nashville.

Ed. Wall, Covington,

sam. B. Boyd, Knoxville.

C.T. Sullivan, Memphis.

TEXAS.

Rube Freedman, Corsicana,

j. H. Gernand, Galveston.

Thos. O’Leary, Houston.

L. Arnold, Sherman.

i-hil. Wright, San Antonio.

C. L. Woodward, Austin.

A. M. Prescott, Waco.

Ed. E. East ham, Beaumont.

. ,.n L. Miller, Amarillo.

W. E. Bideken, For*, vvoitli.

vv. J. Lacy, Dalhart.

W. T. Gray, Texarkana.

W. A. Hancock, Hleo.

John Rowsey, Greenville.

i. H. Flquet, Honey Grove.

A. J. Stevenson, Bonham.

W. E. Bradley, Ennis.

UTAH.

T. J. Paine, Ogden.

VIRGINIA.

James McFall, Roanoke,

J. II. Kegebein, Norfolk.

E. V. Farley, Petersburg.

V. L. Sandldge, Lynchburg.

T. D. Brown. Danville.

James Reynolds, Jamestown.

WEST VIRGINIA.

Robt. D. Cline, Wheeling.

T. Frank Reed, Fairmont.

WISCONSIN.

O. Johnson, Superior.

Sans Schaetzle, Ashland.

T. A. Clancy, Milwaukee.

N. Bradfield, La Crosse.

D. E. Barton, Racine.

PAST ENGINEERS.

Norman V. Holmes. Evanston, 111.

F. W. Peabody, Albion, Mich.

C. 11. Campbell, Atlanta, Ga.

Laurel E. Meader, Oneida, N. Y.

Irving F. Patt, Central Falls, R. 1.

David E. Benedict, Newark, N. J.

H. A. McQuade, Chattanooga, Tenn.

Joseph A. Burns, Long Branch, N. J.

J. Hunter Taylor. Jackson, Miss.

A. Howard Fiske. So. Framingham. Mass.

II L. Reade, Bismarck, N. Dak.

John Werrtg, Mt. Pleasant, Mich.

A. C. Hendricks, New Haven, Conn.

George C. Halo, Kansas City, Mo.

ASSISTANT CHIEF ENGINEERS.

Wm. C. Foote, New Haven, Conn.

Jas. Wheeler. Evansville, Ind.

Jas. A. O’Tanan, South Bethlehem. Pa.

Clarence Alarls, Columbus, Ohio.

D. H. Hutton, Waukegan, 111.

M. S. Lanier, Rome, Ga.

Al. A. Dunn, Hoboken, N. J.

‘1’. H. Simpson, Hico, Tex.

Monta Moore, Greenville, Tex.

SUPERINTENDENTS OF INSURANCE PATROLS.

Chas. H. Swan, Providence, R. I.

Frederick S. Groves, New York, N. Y.

John J. Cashman, jr., Brooklyn. N. Y.

Frank Whitmore, St. Paul, Minn.

FIRE COM M ISSK )N ER8.

J. B. Cunningham, New Haven, Conn.

Joseph Kegel inoyer, New Haven, Conn.

D. A. Butin, Denver, Colo.

T. F. Lewis, Dallas. Texas.

Kirk Hall, Dallas. Texas.

D. J. Isaacs. Niagara Falls, N. Y.

VV. P. Einmond, Jackson. Mich.

J. C. Hobart, Jackson, Mich.

L N. Whitcomb, Little Rock, Ark.

L E. Walther, Little Rock, Ark.

John S. Odom, Little Rock. Ark.

J. S. Smith, Cohoes. N. Y.

P. H. Woods, Corsicana. Tex.

EXHIBITORS.

M. J. P. Lacy, Dallas, Tex.

“has. E. Johnston. Dallas. Tex.

Henry H. Cypher. New York, N. Y.

H. II. Alvls, Dallas. Tex.

John Me Elroy, New York. N. Y.

Isaac B. Markey, New York. N. Y.

G F Ahrens, Cincinnati. Ohio.

John P. Ahrens. Cincinnati Ohio.

R E. Grace. Kansas City. Mo.

H. C. Noaek, Chicago, III.

T R. Polglase, Chicago, III.

S H. Mitchell. Boston, Mass.

S. Doolittle, Chicago, Ill.

M. H. Hart, New York, N. Y.

G.W. Black, Columbus. Ohio.

E. A. Wilkinson, Minneapolis, Minn,

t’arl Virgin, Baltimore, Md.

V. M. Robinson, St. Louis, Mo,

W. S. Tiffany, St. Louis, Mo.

George G. Tidsbury, Ashland, Mass.

Joe M. Gilbert, Akron, Ohio.

Peter B. McCarty, St. Louis, Mo.

PRESS.

C. E. Walk, reporter, Dullas-Trlbune.

W. G. Freeman, Da lias-Times-Herald .

Brice Hoskins. Dallas Dispatch.

J. C. McNealus, Dallas.

T. E. Smith, jr.. India Rubber Review.

F. W. Shepperd, FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING.

Now York.

E.Fields Lawton, S. W. Firemen’s Journal.

DELEGATE FROM STATE ASSOCIATION

G. W. Berntheizel, Columbia, Pa.

The reading of topic No. l had been assigned to

CHIEF 0. W. HORTON,

of Baltimore, as follows: “Are chemical engines preferable to combination hose wagons? What size tanks are best suited for chemical engines and combination hose wagons?”

These questions, to my mind, are not very broad and, from my experience, easy to answer.

1 do not recommend straight chemical engines for fire departments where water can be had under pressure, since the combination chemical and hose wagon has been placed on the market. The combination hose wagon is the best for several reasons. A company equipped with such a wagon will lay out the 2j^-in. hose from the nearest hydrant, and, as soon as the wagon reaches the fire, if, in the opinion of the commanding officer, the lire can he handled with the chemical, a line of ⅜-in. chemical hose is placed in service. Should the fire require a heavy stream of water, the 2½in. line which has been laid is put into service. A large percentage of fires are extinguished with chemicals, thereby preventing a water loss. One of the great advantages of the combination wagon over the chemical engine is the in. hose, which acts as a reserve force, should there be too much lire for the chemical. Combination hose wagons should he constructed with a partition running lengthwise of the body and carry i,ooo ft. of 2j4-in. hose. A wagon so constructed can lay out two lines of hose at once, with 500 ft. in each line. There should be two chemical tanks horizontally under the driver’s seat, each to contain 30 gals., the discharge or convey pipe to pass on the outside of the wagon to the rear, and 250 ft. of ¾-in. chemical hose attached and carried coiled in a basket in the rear, and under wagon body a shut-off pipe with a in. tip attached to the hose. This hose can be used for sparking after a heavy lire by having an accommodation tip fo fit on the 2/j-in. hose-pipe, the end of which will take the chemical

hose coupling, and water the hydrant or engine forced through the ¾-in. hose, which can be taken about the ruins more quickly than the 2½in. hose. The wagon should also be equipped with au 18-ft. extension ladder, two ceiling hooks, an axe and a pick. The charge for a 30-gal tank is 13J4 lbs of bicarbonate of soda and 5⅛ lbs. of sulphuric acid, which, when mixed, will produce 140 lbs. pressure. By my eulogising the combination hose wagon, l do not desire the convention to understand that I am not a friend to the chemical engine. I am its friend and have been since 1869, when I used practically the first chemical tank used in Baltimore, and ,! stand up for that which has given me practical demonstration of its worth. 1 heartily recommend double-tank., chemical engines for all places where water under pressure is not available. There should be two tanks, and so connected that either tank can be discharged through the hose without changing the connection, and the empty tank re-charged, while the full tank is discharging. The tanks should lie horizontally, which lessens the danger of upsetting. The size of the tank must he governed by the locality in which it is to he used, and whether by hand or horses.

CHIFF JOHN A. MULLEN,

of Boston, followed Chief Horton with a paper on the same subject. He said:

This is a subject which can be viewed from different standpoints. From my observation, in the thickly settled or congested sections of any city of any size in the world, a straight chemical engine consisting of two 50-gal., vertical tanks is much to be preferred to a combination wagon, more particularly when it is backed up by more powerful apparatus such as the modern steam lireengine, with sufficient men to handle a 2 ½in, line readily, in the event of a fire getting beyond the control of the chemical stream. The independent or straight chemical is also of great service in “chasing” sparks in the vicinity of a serious lire, when burning embers are being cast on adjoining roofs, yards, alleyways and rear passageways. Another valuable advantage is the fact that it permits the commanding officer at a fire to dismiss his engine companies, retaining the chemical to finish up any slight fire that might he concealed between the partitions or other remote places, and thereby protecting himself by having the use of his engines for other fires. To obtain success in the use of chemical engines, sufficient hose should be carried—say, from 350 to 500 ft.—enabling you to use two lines simultaneously. A combination wagon is more desirable in the outskirts or suburbs, which, as a rule, are thinly settled and composed wholly or mostly of wooden buildings and known as residential districts—-to the firemen, as “wooden camps.” These districts are not any too well protected by the heavier apparatus, on account of the rare necessity of their use, and are seldom assigned to these districts, presumably on account of the extra expense of maintenance. Should a lire of small proportions get a start in this kind of a district and an alarm be promptly given, it is possible to extinguish the same with a stream from the chemical tanks; but, should it appear to be getting beyond the control of the smaller stream, it is then backed up by the larger hose carried on the wagon, which can be attached to the hydrant, and, if a fair water pressure can be obtained, the chances are far greater of extinguishing the fire than if you had only the chemical stream to rely upon, and had to await the arrival of an engine from a long distance. In the city of Boston, Mass., we have had chemical engines in use since 1872. We have ten independent chemical engines and three combination wagons in service, besides having fifteen of our’ladder trucks equipped with two tanks each. These chemical engines and combination wagons are distributed about the city proper and suburbs at the most advantageous points, in our opinion, where wc can procure the best service from them, and today, 1 believe, there is not a man in the Boston department, from the fire commissioner down to the lowest in rank, that would think of parting with one of them, not only for their quick action in getting to work, but in the great saving which results annually from water, adding up into the thousands. It is safe to say that sixty per cent, of the fires in Boston are extinguished by the prompt and effective work of the chemical engines With relation to the size of tanks preferred for either apparatus, 1 would say, for independent chemical engines, two 50-gal., upright tanks, with proper valves to enable either or both tanks to supply one or two lines of hose at the same time and for recharging, at fires, with a hydrant or steamer pressure. For a combination wagon, two 35-gal., horizontal tanks, and for a hose wagon which acts as a tender for an engine company, one 35-gal, horizontal tank, permitting the carrying of 1,000 or more feet of double jacket. J’/j‘in hose in conjunction with the chemical hose. On Friday, September 21, last, we received from Elmira, N. Y., on trial, a motor-propelled chemical engine composed of two 35-gal., horizontal tanks and 350 ft. of .4 in. chemical hose. The motor is a four-cylinder, upright, 30H. P engine, and will travel between twenty five and thirty miles per hour. 1 believe this is the first motor propelled, straight chemical engine ever tried, and in the short time it has been in service-about three weeks it has responded to thirty alarms in and round the congested districts, rendering excellent service, both hv reason of its prompt arrival at the scene of the fire and by the effective work of the chemical streams. In conclusion, I would like to say that the opinions expressed in my paper are the expressions of hut one man who has come here for the purpose of listening and learning from, probably, older and wiser heads, and is more than pleased to be with you for the first time since his connection with the Boston fire department.

In connection with the paper read by t hief Horton on the above subject, be exhibited a sample of the accommodation-tip to tit on the 2* i-iu. hose pipe, its end to take the ¾-in. chemical hose coupling.

DISCUSSION.

Chief Mullen added that, as Chief Horton had just explained, he also uses a reducer that he attached to the chemical engine. It is used, providing the tanks are used up and need any water, and the same size hose is used as for throwing the chemical on the fire, l he hydrant stream is employed after reducing it down to ¾-in. from the 2’4-illThus he can keep the chemical working for quite a while in that way, providing there is sufficient pressure. In some portions of Boston the pressure is as low as 15 lbs. In that case it would he no use to take a chemical line up three or four flights of stairs. They have put out some good-sized fires with these chemical lines. Of course, they have the big lines ready to back them up; but they take a certain amount of pride in trying to fight the fire with the chemical. “Some day it may get the best of us; but we have had good success since wc started in with them, and today we rely greatly upon our chemicals. You will also find that, after the smoke is cleared away, and the protection men clear up the place, there is comparatively little water running round there. Of course, if a fire is extending out of the windows, we would turn the harbor loose on it, if necessary; but, with four-fifths of the ordinary fires, we can rush that line up quickly, take two lines from the chemical 50-gal. tank, and you would lie surprised to see how nicely we can handle that fire. Chief Horton will agree that they do very effective work. There arc none of us that would like to get rid of the chemical engines in Boston.” Chief Higgins uses chemical engines right along. He has nine combination chemical wagons, and believes that no department in a large city is fittingly equipped without them, ‘file Albany chemical combination wagons made runs to some 725 fires in the last year, out of which number they have not gone home seven times—a good chemical record. Of course, at a large conflagration, where the fire lias complete control, water must be used; hut, if such apparatus is introduced, and the men are taught the value of their gases and material, they will be a very valuable part of the equipment. With a straight chemical, after it is exhausted, nothing more can he done with it. If there is no more acid or soda for recharging, they are of no service, so to speak; but, with the use of the same number of men, the same number of horses and the same harness, the capacity of a department is doubled by the use of these combination wagons, without adding to the initial expense. In addition to that, if there is a large fire, the embers will fly round from one point to another, and roofs and awnings will he catching fire. ff the wind is high, it will carry the embers some distance, and, in such a case, there is no piece of apparatus that will he more serviceable than a chemical that is in service. He has them immediately recharged after use. Two or three men can be sent with a combination wagon, and they will put out an incipient fire before it gets to be troublesome. The expense of maintenance of chemicals is far less than the wear and tear on hose. A department can buy its soda by the barrel and its acid by the carboy, and charge its own chemicals. A 120gal. tank can he charged for. say, ninety cents. He carries two charges on each one, and has had fires where he began with nine charges, three for each chemical. Ho carries on each wagon thirty feet of 2‘4-in. hose, and can connect with hydrant, put it right into the tank and recharge with water. He can, besides, connect over the steamer to the chemical and play through the chemical lines on any embers which the chemical cannot reach. A well-equipped department should include combination chemical wagons, which are far ahead of straight chemicals, because they can be used for more purposes. He thought the combination wagon a superior piece of apparatus, and it is coming to he so recognised in this country today. Chief Horton’s argument was not against the chemical engine, nor docs he oppose the combination chemical engine nor the straight chemical engine, providing there is water under pressure. If not, he would recommend a straight chemical engine; if there is water under pressure, a combination hose wagon. Chief Higgins has ten. Chief Horton has twenty-eight, and has sold, in the last four years, five straight chemical engines, and replaced them with combinations, which he would not have done, had he not had water under pressure. His rule is that the first company arriving at the scene of the fire must lay out the hose and he subject to orders of the commanding officer. When the department arrives, it lays out a 2 1/2-in. hose, ready to back up the straight chemical engine. Chief Thompson did not approve of what Chief Horton said as to the combination wagon that lie talked about as to its use in a congested district—namely, the time wasted in laying out the hose. “If you have a straight chemieal, get to the fire and rush in your chemical, you have your fire extinguished before you have the hose laid out from the hydrant, and there is no waste of time in such a district in using the straight chemical.” At Toronto they have both the chemicals and combinations, and believe them both valuable in their proper sphere. He though solid hose would do as well as jacketed hose. He uses combination chemical wagons. Chief Higgins said he used a great many of them, and thought Chief d hompson’s statements inconsistent with what he had said that the latter used them and found good service for them. At the incipiency of a fire the chemical line is run right up to it. Half of the company goes with that; the other half takes a line off the wagon and connects it to the engine. Where there is water that will back up the chemical, or two or three chemicals backing up one or the other, there is nothing that will equal a combination chemical wagon. He had used them fot fifteen years. Chief Horton said he had used them since 1869. Chief Higgins said: “But not combination wagons.” He claimed some credit for perfecting some points in the combination chemical wagon and was interested in it, but simply as a fireman from the results it gives the public, as it is a great economiser in preventing loss of property. It is also a great labor-saver— not on the firemen, because, so far as the men handling chemicals are concerned, they have to get up fifteen or twenty feet closer to the fire than the men handling water streams. A man with a chemical has to get closer to the fire, or he is not a good fireman and will not bring about good results. The principal thing is to understand the value of the fluid that is being used, wdiat it will do, and how far it will go. Some men will use up the whole contents of a chemical tank, when, perhaps, a very small quantity properly applied would have produced the same re suit. A terrific tire can sometimes be stopped by tearing away a partition and putting the chemical pipe in there. It is not the fluid which puts out the fire; hut it is the gas which deprives the fire of oxvgen necessary to support combustion, and then the fire goes out of itself. Chief T hompson stated that he used his combination wagon in the very same way as Chief Higgins; but he still claimed that in any congested district a straight chemical is the better machine and will get sooner close to the fire, besides saving the time of laying a line of hose. He invariably insists on the first hose company at the fire laying down a line of hose; but, if it is combination, it goes straight to the scene of the fire, and the chemical is used while part of the section is taking the hose to the hydrant ready to apply water, if the chemical fails to extinguish the fire. President Stagg pointed out, as the topic discussion was, “Are chemical engines preferable to combination wagons?” and, “What size tanks are best suited for chemical engines and combination wagons?” the last speaker had got a little bit off the subject. Former (Thief Benedict said th«it in Ncwnrk, N. J„ they run twenty-two combination wagons and chemicals. On motion, both papers were received and made a part of the minutes, and a vote of thanks was extended to both the gentlemen who were kind enough to prepare them. Chief Mooney continued the discussion. He thought a straight chemical the thing for an incipient fire. He thought every new wagon equipped in the future will be either a combination or a straight chemical. Chief Espcy said that at Elmira. N. Y., there are four combination chemical hose wagons and two trucks. One of them is the kind known as a small city truck, with 50-gal. tank on it At least two chemical tanks respond to every alarm. “To some of them responds with two combination wagons and truck; to some, with three combinations and truck; to others, with four combinations and truck. We insist upon laying a line from the hydrant towards the fire.” The pipe is brought up to the point where the chemical is being used. The firemen have stringent orders not to turn out the water until it is found that the chemical cannot hold it. Chief Hoane.^ at Plainfield, has one straight and one combination chemical. The combination has orders positively to stretch in a line of hose. I Tiev hae several times used that line of hose to fill the tanks and ke p on fighting the fire with the chemicals, which they have done successfully. They have used six tanks on the chemical and put the fire out: in one case, where the damage from fire was about $3,000, the damage from water was nothing. There was $40,000 or $50,000 worth of furniture in the house; but not one cent’s worth of damage was done with water. Chief Clancy has a connection on his chemicals and combination wagons whereby he can put on his 2/1-1 n. line. In case the chemicals are exhausted, there is a connection that will shut the valve off on the tank and the hose can be put directly in to the chemical hose, and work away on that line that may be in the building. He has eight combination hose wagons, and he gets very good results on those after the chemicals are exhausted. In case the men have used those tanks, they can take off the 2 1/2-in. hose and work through that line while the tank is being recharged. He gets very good results from this separate connection. In Chief Rozetta’s mind a great deal depends upon the man who has charge of the chemical and his executive ability. He has both straight chemical and combination wagons in use. Of the two he favors the combination wagon. As the captain goes down the street and sees a building filled with smoke and fire, he naturally takes the plug as he goes by—stops before the plug—not stops, but, as he rushes by the plug, the man behind will fall off with a line of hose, and it is laid as they go along. The front man goes in with the chemical stream, and the other man can follow up with the plug-stream, if the fire requires it. If a ladder is needed, especially in the suburbs, there is no waiting until the truck comes up; the men have their hooks and axes. The combination wagon is far superior to the straight chemical. He has one chemical in service and one in reserve, which he hopes to replace by straight combination wagons. Chief Mullen thought the last speaker hit the nail on the head, when he called the combination wagon the best piece of apparatus to use in the suburbs. The speaker agreed with him. But down in Boston they are very much congested; they have narrow streets and narrow passageways in the rear, and they would have to stop and charge a chemical five or six times. In such territory they rush out with their straight chemicals and hold the fire for the first five minutes before they arc backed out of the way. There is a steamer behind them. In Boston there are two pressures—the gravity, and high-pressure. We have low-pressure hydrants. The minute it is found that the firemen cannot hold the fire with chemicals, the steamer line is run in. There is not a box in that district that does not have three to five engines going on the first alarm, besides three or four trucks. The department cannot afford to take any chances, the streets being very narrow and there being some eleven or twelve-story buildings. He thought the combination chemical or combination hose wagon a mighty good thing for one part of a city; but a straight chemical is the best for another part, where it is more congested Every city can be divided into two fire districts—one residential and one, mercantile and factory part. Entirely different conditions apply in the two cases. There is some territory where are needed big. powerful steamers to put up pressure; so lie was in favor of combination wagons and straight chemicals, each to be applied where they are most suitable. Chief Benedict thought all favored combination hose wagons and straight chemicals; but local conditions must be considered. In a borough where streets are not paved there is simply hydrant pressure, which would be preferable to put in there. Of course, none can get to fires as quickly with combinations as with straight chemicals. He asked whether, in such a borough, it would be better to put in a heavy combination wagon or lighter chemical. Chief Duncan, who comes from such a borough, would put all his wagons in combination, and would recommend the putting of the chemical tank on every wagon in the department, so that all of the hos ’ wagons should be combination wagons, even if it only covered a 20-gal., chemical tank ; for even such a tank will put a fire out. if the department can get there early enough. In 1804 his fire loss was $15,000; in 1905. it was $10,000; in 1906, the loss has not yet got up to the $4,000 mark. He is a chemical man all over. Chief Rozetta has two straieht chemicals and four combinations. One point is that the horses must be proportioned to the weight they are to draw. The failure to do that causes a great deal of trouble. By nutting Boo ft. of hose on a combination wagon, with say. one 40-gal. tank, the combination wagon will be lighter than the straight chemical. Chief Haney had had some experience with this chemical proposition. They bought a chemical and kept it about two years, when he prevailed on the board to trade it off and get two combination wagons, lie took the team of horses for the chemical engine and put it on the combination, and found lie got better results with less expense, lie never has failed to get one of those wagons to a fire yet on account of its weight. (Applause.) Chief Glanville thought another point in regard to chemicals was that they are far superior in the case of an oil or gasoline fire—a great point in favor of the chemical combination wagon. One-fourth or onefifth of the same amount of fluid, if thrown from the chemical, will put out a gasoline fire, whereas water will only scatter it. Chief Dahill was convinced that both pipe and chemical apparatus are necessary in certain cities. He believed that this convention ought to indorse a motion something like this: That, where cities are about to purchase chemical apparatus, and, if they have water pressure, a combination chemical would be the proper apparatus to purchase, if they only propose to purchase only one of the two kinds.

B. ROSS HOLLOWAY,

in topic No. 2. treated of “What is the estimated life of a chemical tank? What are the best means of preventing the acid from destroying the tanks? How much soda and acid should be used to obtain the best results?”

The first question is: What is the estimated life of a chemical cylinder? I can only say in answer to this that we have chemical engines that have been in service for over thirty years, and the cylinders are practicallv as good as when first placed on the engines. With proper care I see no reason why a chemical cylinder should not last for thirty years or more. We advise that, after a cylinder has been in use for that length of time, it should he tested occasionally to see that it is still perfect in every particular. The second question is: What are the best means of preventing the acid from destroying the cylinder? I11 re gard to this, the acid never comes in contact with the cylinders sufficiently to injure them in any way. The acid is contained in a lead receptacle inside of the cylinder, and, when precipitated into the alkaline water, is immediately converted into carbonic acid gas. The cylinders are in no way endangered by the use of the acid. The third question is: How much soda and acid should be used to each gallon of water? It is advised that, m charging a chemical cylinder, the acid charge should consist of the number of pounds representing one-fifth of the capacity of the cylinder in gallons, while the soda charge consists of the number of pounds representing two-fifths of the capacity of the cylinder in gallons. For instance, if vou have a 35-gal. cylinder to charge—onefifth of which is seven gals., the acid charge would be 7 lbs., and the soda charge two-fifths or 14 lbs. We found that this rule always gives good results. Regarding the specific gravity of the acid: It is best to use that of sixty-six degrees of strength.

C. W. BLACK,

of Columbus, Ohio, speaking on topic No. 2, treated on, “What is the estimated life of a chemical tank? what are the best means of preventing the acid from destroying the tanks? how much soda and acid should be used to each gallon of water, and what specific gravity of acid should be used to obtain the best results?”

The topic assigned to me, being one of great interest and importance to the active members of this association, admits of a wide range of theory and an opportunity for a considerable amount of spread-eagle imagination; but, being impressed with the fact that your time is valuable. 1 believe a brief, concise answer to the questions propounded will be easily remembered and. no doubt, more highly appreciated than any attempt at a technical discussion of the questions. As a manufacturer, T do not have the opportunity to use these machines in the work for which they are built, and. hence, have not the actual and practical experience your board of directors has had in the use of them. The life of a chemical engine depends largely on the purpose of the manufacturer. As most of us engaged in this work are trying to spare no pains or expense to see how good we can make it, such construction should really be practically indestructible from wear or corrosion. Many of the first engines built of copper have done valiant service for many years, and arc apparently as good as when first put in service. On the other hand, when they are made primarily to sell, they often do not last through the official test and get into service. 1 should say that a chemical engine built of the best lake Superior hammered copper and receiving proper care, would long outlast the apparatus provided for its transportation. The best method to prevent corrosion is the vigorous enforcement of the attribute next to godliness, which is cleanliness. The best chemical engines are made from copper sheets of suitable size and thickness to withstand an internal pressure of 500 lbs. to the sq. in., and are thoroughly coated inside with tin or lead, or a mixture of them, which quite effectually resists the action of the acid. The acid is carried in a pure lead bottle protected by a copper jacket, or outer covering. This carrier is securely stoppered, and prevents the acid from coming in contact with any of the other parts of the engine, except when the stopper is released and coupling, are thoroughly wash out each in the tank; and, as the soda solution should be so strong as not to be entirely neutralised by the acid, there is very little opportunity for the acid to corrode, if the tank and its connections, the hose and couplings, are thoroughly washed out each time, after the engine has been charged and discharged. The materials for charging chemical engines are readily obtained of chemical engine manufacturers, or from any reliable drug jobbing house, and are so inexpensive that there is no excuse for buying an inferior quality. Pure bicarbonate of soda is generally found in hulk, in kegs of 112 lbs. each; package soda is more liable to be of poor quality than the bulk. Commercial sulphuric acid of 66 degrees is best adapted for this purpose, and comes in carboys of 200 to 300 lbs. each. The carboys should he hung in a frame to admit of its being poured without danger of spilling or splashing, and the carboy should he kept closed to prevent the absorption of water from the atmosphere and thus require an increased quantity to produce satisfactory results. I he National Board of Fire Underwriters, which has had very wide experience in testing chemicals of all kinds for the prevention and destruction of incipient fires, has usually made its formulae for charging chemical extinguishers and stationary engineers to produce approximately a pressure of from 140 to 160 lbs. to the sq. in. ; but, on account of the varying values of the soda and acid and the different temperature of the water used, the exact pressure can be determined only by the pressure gauge. The same soda and acid mixed with hot water may develop a dangerous pressure, while only ordinary results would be obtained with water at the ordinary temperature. I he charge should have an excess of soda, so that when all the acid is neutralised, the solution will he so alkaline as to avoid damage to furniture, house furnishings and clothing by the action of the acid. On account of the above mentioned variations in soda, acid and temperature of water, it is hardly possible to answer your question as to how much soda and acid to each gallon of water should be used; but a safe basis would be two fifths of a pound of soda, thoroughly dissolved in a gallon of water, and one-half pound of acid for each pound of soda; if insufficient pressure is obtained, the man having the charge of a chemical engine should carefully experiment with the soda and acid, increasing the charge each time from the above base, until a satisfactory pressure of gas is obtained. New supplies of acid and soda should always be thoroughly tested in this way to insure a safe and uniform pressure when the engine is required in actual service. I he following changes will produce frrnn 140 to 160 pounds pressure. Pure commercial bicarbonate soda, sulphuric acid, 66 degrees, water at ordinary temperature.

On motion, the above papers were received and a vote of thanks passed to each writer.

CHARLES 0. SMITH S PAPER

Charles G. Smith, secretary of the German American Insurance company, of New York, a delegate from the National Board of Fire Underwriters. was down for topic No. 3. Before reading his formal paper, he addressed the convention. After a long preface on the immensity of Texas, and its future, he defended the National Board of Fire Underwriters from the charge of not being interested in the association, the very reverse is the case. The board (he insisted) has a high regard, and very great respect for the organisation, being fully aware of its watchfulness and care for fire insurance interests. It knows that it is fighting the hoard’s battles, and it has been very greatly indebted to the association in many ways. Among these comes the important information which is supplied to the hoard writers year by year in the shape of statistics as to the number of fires and amount and character of losses all of which information is exceedingly valuable to it in making up its aggregate of losses, showing how much money it must have to pay out. Were it not for the information thus furnished, the hoard would have great difficulty in getting out the accurate figures which it now claims to present. The hoard is aware that oftentimes fire chiefs are very seriously embarrassed through the action of its own local representatives, who do not always accord proper treatment to the chiefs’ representatives, nor furnish information as willingly as they ought; but, he hoped that such instances would become more and more rare, and the hoard is continually requesting its local agents to assist in furnishing that valuable information for which it is indebted to the chiefs. Adverting to the new methods of the hoard, especially in establishing the committee of twenty—a costly institution, which cost the fire insurance companies last year $100,000 for work, salaries and expenses. This year the appropriation is $60,000. He said that much of the information that the committee has furnished the companies has been due to the assistance received at the. hands of the tire chiefs. lie also pointed out that, when the National Hoard decided to employ inspectors, desiring to get men of wide experience and great ability in that direction, it did not take it long to decide that the place to find such men was in the ranks of the fire chiefs. When the chiefs’ organisation was first discussed and considered, the National Board of Fire Underwriters took more than an active interest in its formation, and in fostering it When next the National Board wanted an inspector, they chose one from the ranks of the firemen and the third inspector the present one, Capt. Johnson—was a member of the chiefs’ organisation. ‘This showed that the board is wise enough to know where to go to get the material to do its important work of inspection of fire departments, water supplies and general conditions in cities. His paper on building construction took up a very broad subject and covered a very wide range, ft was one the association as well as the insurance companies should deal with together and discuss freely. Alluding to the present methods of insurance. the speaker noticed how radically they differ from those of today. These companies now concern themselves about the construction of buildings, and try to instruct the public bow to build safely, even in so doing they should make them so safe as no longer to need fire insurance. It is the duty of fire insurance men to teach bow to avoid fires and conflagrations. Mr. Smith then referred to the building code of the National Board of Fire Underwriters, and the d’ffi culty in preparing such a building code. Some of the points which the board wanted to cover in presenting it showed that the code is not the theoretical product of a few fire insurance people, but an expression of the practical views of the best and most expert contractors, engineers and architects that could he employed, including that wellknown engineer. Captain Tohn Sewell. The board engaged the services of one of the most prominent engineers—a man who knows more, perhaps, about the building law than anybody else in this country, and the most comolete library and the most extensive collection of build ing codes from every city of the United States, as well as a number of European cities. The code, tlverefore. is not a presentation of theoretical ideas of fire insurance people, hut of the practical ideas of expert people employed in building construction trades and professions. It is very full, because it has to meet the wants of cities and towns of every class and population, and from it can be extracted what will suit a city of any given sire, or, if they see fit, they can adopt it in its entirety, with or without all its penalties, and those sections which do not apply to a city of that size may he allowed to remain dormant, was on the following subject: “In order to lessen the enormous fire waste in this country is it not advisable for this association to take radical steps for better building laws?”

Mr. President and Gentlemen: No body of men more fully understands the importance of reducing the enormous annual fire waste in this country and the necessity for the general adoption of ordinances to regulate the construction of buildings than the fire engineers now in convention assembled. The larger proportion of the whole population knows very little of these matters, and it is to be regretted that so few members of State legislatures and municipal governments realise the responsibility which devolves on them as officials in bringing about improvements in this respect. It is well, therefore, to consider here what methods can be employed in accomplishing results of such vast national importance. Phe prevention of serious fires is conceded to he practicable. Looking to the future, the most effective remedy to lessen the fire waste is prevention, or the elimination of causes through the enactment and enforcement of a good building code in every city. Buildings erected under old laws have to stand as evidences of past mistakes. A building law applies to structures erected after its passage, as no law is retroactive. “The straggling little village, consisting entirely of frame buildings, grew to a town and then to a compact city, with scarcely a regulation as to the construction of buildings. The random growth of a city in its early stages may have been unavoidable; hut it left legacies of dangerous construction from a fire standpoint that must remain for long years to come. It is a curious fact that in many important cities today there exists no fire line within which the erection of frame buildings is prohibited. The growth of a city consists of a movement awav from its original centre, and in cities where fire-lines are established, and fairly good building laws are in force, the freedom to erect frame or other combustible structures bevond the circumference of the fire lines is. in effect, continuing the same lack of foresight that will bring similar regrets in future years. Our cities have grown rapidly, and are growing and expanding without precedent. Broadly speaking, buildings make a city. People in a city protect their lives, health and property hv ordinances and laws. A city charter is an act of the legislature as provided for by the constitution of the State, and confers power on its inhabitants to govern themselves under officials of their own choosing. The common council elected thereunder is impnwered to make, amend and repeal ordinances, rules and regulations, ordinarily including the power to enact ordinances relating to the construction, alteration and removal of buildings. When a huilding is to be erected, the height of which will exceed the limit of a fire department’s ability successfully to cope with fire, the whole community has a direct interest in demanding that it shall he so built that it will neither bum nor he Mown over by a gale of wind. The humblest huilding. too. is rightfully a subject for puhlic solicitation. In a frame shanty, the overturning of a lamp by the kick of a vicious cow started the Chicago conflagration. An ordinance relating to the construction of. and official supervision over buildines is commonly called a building code, and whether in crude or elaborate form is in the interest of puhlic safetv, health and comfort. Of all the powers conferred on a common council, one of the most important is the power to enact a building code. Tt is one of the most difficult ordinances to prepare. A huilding code has nothing to do with architecture. Tt has been aptly said that the architecture of a building can he scraped away; hut the huilding will remain. An owner tnav use all five orders of architecture in a single huilding. if he sees fit, and it is no concern of the State. It does concern the puhlic. however, that each building should he safelv and well constructed. A building code has to do with the entire ranee of huilding construction, and in its preparation calls for care and a technical knowledge acquired onlv after years of practical experience in both building construction and the preparation of huilding laws. Lawyers cannot draw huilding codes and yet the aid of legal counsel is necessary in their preparation. In any city where a building code is to be adopted, or an existing one is to be modernised and hrought no to the present state of the art of huilding. the c»tv attorney must necessarily be the chief official to handle it; but nrohahlv no one will be more readv to acknowledge that, as regards building technicalities, he knows little or nothing, although it is equally probable that he, as the legal representative of the city, will insist on being the sole judge of the lawful, as distinguished from the technical, subject. There is a comprehensive way of drafting a building code, and there is a superficial way. A building code must be elastic enough to provide for the largest as well as the smallest structure. Its requirements should be expressed clearly and concisely, using simple words and avoiding obscure terms and phrases. With the exception of a few sections that have to do with complicated construction, as, for example, rules for determining the strength of metal columns, there is no reason why language should not be used that is perfectly intelligible to the average builder, architect, fire engineer and owner. The code should contain no intricacies and require only what is really necessary for puhlic safety. Its provisions must, of course, be general in their application; and, fortunately past experience lias proved unerringly what may he accurately stated as safe and good in the essential features of such ordinary buildings as comprise nine-tenths of the whole number. A building code does not mean that a citizen shall not be left as free as is consistent with safety to selectmaterials and appliances suitable to his purpose; but the interests, or supposed interests, of individuals should always yield to the public good. The wisdom of this cannot be questioned. A man may well be told that he shall not erect a frame building within a certain territory; that the wall of this building must be at least of a certain thickness for a given height; that his smoke-flues must be built in a stated manner, and woodwork kept a certain distance therefrom; that his floors must be capable of sustaining safely the load intended to be placed thereon; that, if his building is to exceed a fixed height, it must be entirely fireproof; that he shall not exceed a given height with his building in any event, and a hundred other details which directly concern the puhlic and should, therefore, he controled by ordinance. A man lias no natural right in land or buildings. It is statutory law that secures the weak and strong alike in their peaceful holdings of property, which in the eyes of the law belong to them, and it is by statutory law that the people guard themselves against manifest dangers from improper construction of buildings. Some theorists have advocated that all architects and builders should prove their fitness to carry on their callings by civil service examinations and public licenses and then he given a free hand and held responsible for their deeds. But a young man fresh from college might take easy honors in such an examination and yet he without practical experience or practical knowledge, while an experienced man might fail, and the public would thus be deprived of his services. Better than a civil examination of the individual is what may be called a civil examination in each case of the plans for a contemplated building by an official whose duty it is to test those plans under a proper building ordinance, before the building is permitted to start and, subsequently, to have official supervision over the construction from the commencement to the finish. A contractor’s interest is not always in accord with the puhlic interest, and often an owner’s wishes and desires are diametrically opposed to the demands of the law. No architect, engineer or builder, humanly subject as they are to the wishes of an owner, can produce a building with the best results from a fire standpoint. The only safe way is to have a comprehensive huilding ordinance that will apply with equal force to all citizens and contain no special interests or favoritisms. It has been by a series of progressive steps that building codes have been hrought to their existing stage. A large number of the ablest men in the various trades and professions connected with building operations have taken part in their preparation. The art of huilding is progressive, and, to keep up with modern methods, the huilding codes in the larger cities have from time to time been amended and enlarged. The evolution of buildings regulations is to be continuous; the requirements for safe construction in buildings will be more and more defined and the art of building become largely an affair of legal rule. Between existing huilding codes in various cities there is no uniformity in text or in arrangement, and many are lamentably lacking in various ways. There would he great advantage, if they were made complete and uniform, for whatever is good construction in one city is good in another, and the same rules for security apply universally.

Recognising the desirability of a uniform building code applicable to all cities large and small, the committee on construction of buildings of the National Board of Fire Undewriters, with the aid of skilful and experienced persons, recenty prepared a modern and complete building code. When tentatively drafted, it was printed and submitted to the highest authorities in the art of building construction and others interested in the subject for their criticisms and suggestions. When these were received, they were tabulated and carefully considered. The code was subsequently issued and has been widely distributed. Throughout the code the underwriters have declared their views, hoping to encourage such improvements in building construction as will naturally lessen fire hazards and proportionately reduce the cost of insurance. It is as good citizens, rather than as insurance representatives having direct interest in the subject, that the members of the National Board of Fire Underwriters have supplied this code. Time and again, the fire underwriters have called attention to the fact that, while insurance companies reimburse the actual sufferer from fire, the people, as a whole, bear the burden. ‘It is a mistaken idea that payment by fire insurance companies makes good the property loss —for property burned is value destroyed. The insurance companies merely distribute the loss by collecting in small premiums, from all the property owners and paying in large sums to those who suffer loss by fire. Property burned is money wasted; and the people of the United States are, in this respect, the most wasteful in the civilised world.’ The published statistics of loss by fire, enormous as the annual sum is, do not represent the real total of destruction. The loss by fire in a normal year in this country is over $173,000,000. Upon the present basis of 85.000,000 population, this is a loss of over $2 per year for each person. In the six European countries where we were able to secure statistics the per-capita loss is thirty-three cents annually. The public debt of the United States is about one and three-tenths billion dollars, making the per-capita debt about fifteen and one-third dollars. The present annual average fire-loss would, therefore, in a period of less than eight years, aggregate a sum sufficient to pay the entire national debt. To each thousand persons in our American cities, more than four fires occur each year, while in European cities the number is less than one. This severe drain upon the funds of our nation demands the attention of all municipalities, civic bodies and citizens of the United States in one common effort to lighten the burden, which, in a great measure, can be lessened by the adoption of improved methods for the construction of buildings and the application of increased facilities for extinguishing fires. From time to time in this country, in addition to the normal yearly fire losses, come great conflagrations like that in Chicago, where the fire-loss was $165,000,000; Boston, $70,000,000: Baltimore, $50,000,000. and so on through a long list of cities. The recent San Francisco disaster, which so shocked and stunned our country, involving a total property loss by earthquake and fire of at least $400,000. 000, was one which no human foresight could have predicted. The greater part of this appalling loss was directly due to the large number of frame buildings and the prevailing faulty con struction of other buildings. Leaving out of consideration such an exceptional occurrence as that of San Francisco, it is safe to say that at least one-half of the enormous loss by fire is due to preventable causes. Insignificant causes of fire may bring disastrous losses and not infrequently entire destruction to a city or town. A writer on fire protection has said that there never was a fire which at one period could not have been extinguished by a cup of water. There is no limit to the capacity of fire, while there is a limit to the efficiency of a fire department. To check the waste by fire, improved methods of building construction must be adopted. The building code recommended by the National Board of Fire Underwriters is a complete and orderly publication. Of the first importance in such work is completeness. Every subject must be covered, for, if any are overlooked, the code will fall short in providing for safe structures. Of less importance, but still desirable, is an orderly arrangement of its subject matter. Quite properly, therefore, a building code should open with a statement of preliminary requirements, such as the filing plans and statements, permits, definition of terms, quality of materials, and then proceed as nearly as possible in the order in which buildings are erected; excavations, foundations, walls, roofs, chimneys, flues, partitions, floor-areas, wood beams, girders and columns, stairways and entrances, skylights, heating apparatus, elevators and inclosures, fire appliances, fire escapes, fireproof doors and shutters, fireproof buildings, iron and steel construction, strength of floors, strength of materials, height of buildings, public buildings, theatres and places of assembly, fire-limits, frame buildings, administration of the code, appeals, violations and penalties, unsafe buildings and legal procedure. A code to be complete must necessarily be lengthy and should be clear, direct and comprehensible. The fire underwriters’ code is divided into several parts, each of which is subdivided into sections. It lias a full index for ready reference—making it easy to select such sections as may be desired to fit local requirements where it cannot well be adopted in its entirety. Most of the sections are short, only two being of length, one of which relates to the construction and equipment of theatres, a section that will be found of deepest interest to firemen. The entire code is by no means dry reading, and a perusal of it by members of the force and the discussions which will naturally follow will tend to enlarge the scope of thought in every reader and bring a better understanding of what is good and bad in a building from a fire standpoint. Every line points towards the greater security of life and property. Certainly buildings erected in accordance with that code, class for class, will be safer than buildings otherwise constructed for firemen to enter in case of fire, and, if called within a reasonable time, they will find themselves masters of the situation, instead of being placed on the defensive, as now so often happens. The risk of life to firemen in buildings of the future will be greatly lessened and their work in such buildings more effectual, if adequate building laws are enacted. The adoption of a building code in a city where practically no building regulations exist, or the substitution of a modern and complete building code for an old and inadequate one, is not a radical measure in the sense that it proposes a doctrine or principle of making radical reform in local government by overturning and changing recognised and accepted policies and methods. Tt does not demand tnc services of a reformer in politics, who advocates extreme measures; indeed, such a person would do more harm than good. No politics should ever be allowed to enter into the question of a building code. It is primarily in the direct interest of the people, and for the greatest good of the greatest number, and will be so recognised. 1 he advocacy of any individual, or class of individuals. who may be thought to have even an indirect interest in the adoption of a building code would prove harmful. The advocates must be free from all suspicion of personal motives— must come, as lawyers say. into court with clean hands. Who, then, can most effectively take up this great public work? The fire engineers is the correct answer, and why? In every city the fire department is the pride of the people. None so brave, none so popular as the firemen. The chief is a public idol in fairly every instance. To him is cordially given the good will, the affection and the respect of all citizens, and in him every man, woman and child has a feeling of protection and reliance for safety in the dreadful event of fire. The chief has the personal acquaintance of every important city official, and the mayor, city attorney, aldermen or councilmen. and others in authority are easily accessible to him. From whom more appropriately than from the chief of the fire department could come the active work of securing the adoption of a proper building code? If behind the chief of one city stand his brother chiefs of other cities, united in attaining the same end. how potent that influence would be. and how surely success would crown the labors of each and every one. The fitness of the fire chief to understand this work is apparent. The fighting of fire is his life work: the prevention of fire should be his life study. Gentlemen, an opportunity has arisen for the members of the International Association of Fire Engineers to do a great and lasting service for this country, and, if taken advantage of. history must credit the present generation of fire engineers with having accomplished more public good than has any preceding generation, and not unlikely more than any following generation. Mr. President and gentlemen, can there be any doubt that a patriotic duty lies before your association in the direction of taking radical steps for bettor building laws? Will you do it?”

A hearty vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. Smith and the paper was ordered to be printed in the Proceedings.

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON EXHIBITS.

To the Officers and Members of the International Association of Fire Engineers.

Gentlemen: -Your committee on exhibits, after carefully and impartially examining the merits of the various exhibits and testing the same as far as possible, begs leave to submit the following report:

Exhibit No. I.—Continental Steam Fire Engine. Exhibited by the Ahrens Fire Engine company, Cincinnati, Ohio. Claimed simplicity of construction and operation, and case with which it performs the work intended for it. Found by your committee as represented by manufacturers.

Exhibit No. 2.—Glazier Wagon Nozzle, Glazier Single-Arm Nozzle. Exhibited by Glazier Nozzle and Manufacturing company, Indianapolis, lnd. We indorse the same as a very useful tool in any fire department.

Exhibit No. 3.—A Monitor Nozzle, for use on wagons and fireboats and ladder pipe. Exhibited by M. H. Hart, New York city. After carefully examining and testing the above, we can say that the nozzle accomplished all that is claimed for it, and we recommend its use where found practical.

Exhibit No. 4.—Eastman Deluge Set—threeway with seven nozzle-tips i^-in. to 2-in. The Samuel Eastman & Company, Concord, New’ Hampshire. The above nozzle has been on the market for a number of years and found practical, and we cheerfully recommend them to any chief who has not used them.

Exhibit No. 5.—Ganiewell hire Alarm Tele graph company, of New York. T his wrllknown firm made a very creditable display, which attracted considerable attention. The merits of their apparatus being well known to all, it is unnecessary for this committee to elaborate further upon the details of the same.

Among the several minor displays at the convention building, the exhibit of D. E. Barton, Racine, Wis., Lock Hooks for heel and pole chains, etc.; F. G. Midgett. Dallas, ‘lex., Improvement on hire Hydrants; the Marine ‘Porch company, Baltimore, Md., Water Light, Water Can Reflector; Sanger Bros., Dallas, Tex., Coat Hook Snap, Coat Joint Snap; Lovett Patent l ire Belt company, Louisville, Ky., a Patent Fire Belt; the Western Robe Mills, Chicago, Ill., Sponges and Chamois; the Seagrave company, Columbus, Ohio, Combination Hose and Ladder Wagon; the Wring Fire Escape company, Saginaw, Mich., hire Escape; Eureka Fire Hose company, New York, Fire Hose, received favorable indorsement

Among the fire journals represented at the con vention were copies of the India Rubber Review, FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING, the Western Fireman, and the Herald, of New York.

E. S. TIOSMEK.

GEO. W. MIIXKR,

J. J. MULCAHEY.

H. F. MAGEE,

J. J. STRAPP.

(To be concluded next week.)