The Essentials of Fire Fighting
On another page is presented an important paper read before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers by Charles H. Fox, who is a member of the society, and who is also an authority on the subject which he handles. The necessity of methods properly applied in fire fighting and the part the fire engine plays in this matter is very often underestimated and this is very largely caused by a lack of understanding of the principles involved. In Mr. Fox’s paper the importance of the fire engine in this respect is especially emphasized. He first gives a brief historical sketch of the development of the fire engine, with performances and ratings of the apparatus, according to the plan adopted by the National Board of Fire Underwriters. Following this, as a conclusion, is a discussion of the losses in pressure of fire hose and the determination of nozzle sizes. In this section of his paper, Mr. Fox refers to the suggested method of designation of the nozzle known as the “caliber system,” wherein the nozzle orifices would be multiples of a fixed standard. Thus the 1 1/4-inch nozzle would be designated “100 Caliber,” and to quote the author “other nozzles in the same system would be made with orifices of such areas that the water discharging capacity at the same pressures would be respectively as the caliber number by which each is distinguished. Therefore the caliber system would leave the 5/8 and 1 1/4 sizes as before, calling these 25 and 100 calibers, with others, to cover practically the same limits, but with fractional bores arranged in multiple, such as 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, etc., calibers. This system was devised and proposed by Mr. Fox, and has been discussed at previous conventions of the International Association of Fire Engineers. The paper is a very interesting and instructive one.