THE HOLLY SYSTEM.

THE HOLLY SYSTEM.

IDENTIFIED with the city of Lockport, N. Y., are the works of the Holly Manufacturing Company, which was incorporated in 1859, with $20,000 capital. This capital has been increased from time to time till it has reached the sum of $t,000,000. For nearly thirty years the company has constantly manufactured pumps and pumping engines and has devoted itself exclusively to designing and constructing pumping machines for water works—the one firm on this continent which has pursued that line.

To it is due the Holly system of water supply and fire protection for city and villages, commolly called “ Holly water works ” the origin of which was the water works plant constructed for the city of Lockport in 1862 for its better protection against fire. This plant consisted of a rotary pump, a turbine water wheel, about one mile of water mains and twelve fire hydrants. The invention of the system is due to Birdsiil Holly, whose idea was to provide fire protection without the use of portable engines. It was so successful that it led to the cjmbination of domestic supply with fire protection through the same system of pipes by the addition of suitable pumping apparatus and regulators. It needs no standpipe, reservoir, or any other contrivance for calling into requisition the principle of the hydrostatic equilibrium, while it furnishes the means of extinguisning fires at various points at the same time without employing movable engines for the purpose. To accomplish this a set of pumping machinery of suitable construction is placed within a building located at a point where the water supply is easily accessible, and from whence by a proper sjstem of mains and pipes the water can be conducted wh rever desired through the city. The pumping machinety may be operated either by steam or water power, Means are also provided whereby the pumps are automatically regulated and governed ; in this way, the amount of water delivered is in exact accordance with the requirements of the consumers at any moment. Thus is avoided, that waste of water which direct pumping involves. The means of regulation—one of the special features of the Holly system—consists of a simple mechanical device depending for its operation upon the degree of pressure in the mains, if this falls, owing to an unusual drain, the regulator instantly acts so as to admit steam for a longer period into the cylinders of the engine, and the pumps are at once caused to operate more rapidly and powerfully and thus supply the increased demand. The reverse follows where ihe pressure in the mains increases, owing to there being but sin ill demand being made upon them and less water is pumped. Will, respect to fire protection, ail that is needed islo couple on the hose and turn on the steam and the adjustment of the engine to give a quick supply under heavy pressure is the woik of an instant. Tne mere opening of a hydrant causes sufficient diminution of pressure in the pipes to notify the engineer by the ii creased speed of the engine to turn on the fire pressure. The feasibility of tre combined system, domestic and fire, was tust shown in the water works of Auburn, N.Y., in 1866, and the svstem is now in successful operation in nearly 500 cities and towns.

Since the system was first invented it has been greatly improved mechanically, so as to secure the greatest possible economy and efficiency in the regular pumping system. Of these improvements is the combination of six single-acting reciprocating pumps arranged to operate in regular succession, each pump having the lead of the next by one-sixth the length of the stroke, so as to give a continuous flow of water into the mains. The second important improvement was made in 1871 2, when the Holly quadruplex engine was brought out. This engine was especially adapted to both domestic and fire service, and superseded both the rotary and reciprocating pumps. The third improvement was an addition to the quadruplex engine of suitable apparatus for using steam on the compound princip’e, and was first applied at Roches:er, N.Y., in 1874.

Following the q tadruplex engine, the company brought out the horizontal compound condensing crank and fly wheel Dumping engine designed and patented by the late Harvey F. Gaskill, for several years engineer and superintendent of the company’s works and successor to Mr. Birdsiil Holly. The first Holly pumping engine of the Gaskiil type was sold to the village of Saratoga Springs, New York, in 1882, under condition that: “the said pumping engine shall have capacity to “deliver 4.000,000 gallons of water in twenty-four hours,against “eighty pounds demest’e pressure, at eighteen revolutions per ‘minute, and shall run at thirty revolutions per minute with “safety to all its parts under a fire pressureof one hundred and “forty pounds to ihe square it ch; and develop a duty equal to “80,0co.cto pounds of water one foot high with one hundred “pounds of best ccal, and an average daily duty of 65,1×0,”000 pounds with goed merchantable anthracite coal reasons* ‘ bly free from dirt and slate.’’ I he results of two trials made by three disinterested experts, were duties of 106,838.900 to 127,170,000 foot pounds for each too pounds of coal, and the daily records of the operating engineers show an average duty for six years of 105 910,739 foot pounds for each ico pounds of coal consumed, without deductions for ashes, steam for heating or other purposes.

Since this first horizontal engine was designed over 180 have been sold, ranging in daily capacity from 1,000,000 to too,cococo gallons daily. The company has likewise produced numbers of vertical pumping eng nes of the compound condensing and the triple expansion types.

The buildings of the company cover an immense area in the city of Lockport. and have had their manufacturing faciliates enlarged and improved by the introduction of full lines of the best modern machinery and tools. The accompanying birds’ eye view of the plant will convey some idea cf the size of the works—a visit to which forms one part of the program laid down for the guidance of those in attendance on the convention of the Americ n Water Works association at Buffalo next week.

On the occasion of a recent visit paid by one of the staff of FIRE AND WATER to the Holly factory of the Holly Company, he saw on the floor of the large erecting shop, one of the two vertical Triple Expansion Bumping Engines built last year for the city of Evansville, Ind. This engine, which is shown in the accompanying engraving, has steam cylinders twentyfour, forty-one and one-half and sixty-one inches in diameter, three differential plunger pumps nineteen and one-quarter by twenty-seven and one-quarter inches, and a stroke of fortyeight inches. The daily capacity of ach of these engines is 14,000,000 gallons, and the guarantee duty 135.coo 000. foot pounds. There was also on the floor a 4,000.ooo-gallon vertical steeple compound pumping engine for the Paducah Ky. Water Company ; and about the sho; s were seen parts of other engines not yet assemblednotably three vertical triple expansion pumping engines, each of 35,000,000 gallons daily capacity, for the Metropolitan water board of Boston, Mass.; a 3.000,ooo-gallon horizontal compound condensing high-duty pumping engine for the Lexington, Ky. Water Company ; two 7,000,ooo-gallon engines of the same type for the Lorain Steel Company of Lorain, Ohio; 01.c of 5,000,000 gallons capacity for the city of I ora in, Ohio; and a 4 OOO, ooo-gallon horizontal power pump for the Oswego. N. Y Waterworks Company. The company had also recently shipped a 6,000,000 gallon horizontal, compound condensing engine, constructed for the Long Branch, N. J. Water Company and a 14,000,000 gallon engine of the same type, constructed tor the Sixty-eighth street pumping station of the city of Chicago, Ill. In the foundry the company was completing the Installation of a large cupalo, built by tl e Whiting Foundry and Equipmeent Company of Harvey, Ill.

BIURDS-EYE VIEW OF THE PLANT OF THE HOLLY MANUFACTURING COMPANY, LOCKPORT. N. Y.HOLLY PUMPING ENGINES AT WORKS. LOCKPORT, N.Y.

The Holly System.

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The Holly System.

NEW YORK, January 10.

Editor National Fireman’s Journal:

I have read your valuable paper from its first issue to the last, and must congratulate you on having so satisfactorily and intelligently filled a gap of long existence, supplying at the same time such a vast amount of valuable information regarding the origin and management of fires. Having been for many years identified with the insurance interest, I can fully appreciate the value of your contribution to the fire literature of the country, and I am sure that insurance people will not only wish you well, but give you a hearty support.

I have seen several letters in the JOURNAL from correspondents lauding the Holly system of water works, as I believe, very much beyond its merits. I have naturally paid considerable attention to water works, and my investigations have led me to regard the Holly system as a valuable auxiliary to a deficient gravitating system, but not to be depended upon as a sole means of water supply. Your Rochester correspondent is doubtless justified in his enthusiasm over the Holly system, but he admits that it is simply auxiliary to their gravitating system. I know of one city at least, that adopted the Holly system, and was so much troubled and suffered so much inconvenience by the pumps giving out, that they were forced to abandon the Holly pumps and substitute others of their own selection. Here lies the difficulty. The Holly system is dependent upon pumping machinery to force the water directly through the mains, and give it such pressure as may be required. When a fire occurs, this pressure has to be greatly increased over what is required to furnish the domestic supply, and consequently the liability of the pumps to get out of order is greatly augmented. That is to say, in an emergency when the supply is most needed, the liability of the pumps to get out of order is greatest. In the estimation of underwriters, this feature of the Holly system has always been the greatest objection to it. If the machinery could always be depended upon it might be trusted as a sole reliance for a water supply, but the best of machinery will wear out and is liable to accident at any time. With no other dependence for a water supply, a city so situated would be badly oft’if an accident to the pumps should occur simultaneously with a danger! fire. Any one familliar with machinery j will tell you that it is exceedingly injurious drive it at a medium rate of speed as a rule, and then to give it “spurts” of speed to its fullest capacity. Yet this is just what is done Holly pumps. In furnishing the orj dinary domestic supply they run at an ordinary I j°g trot; afire occurs and they are crowded *° rheir highest capacity, suddenly and for j time. They may stand it for a few j times, but ultimately the machinery must give under the repetition of these sudden j “spurts. While willing to accord to the Holly system very great utility, I think that city makes a mistake and takes a great risk constitutes it its sole reliance for a water supply.

INSURANCE.