WITH the multiplication of water supply systems throughout the United States and the constant and quick growth in population of our cities and towns, the need of reliable methods of purifying the water used in these communities for manufacturing and domestic purposes has forced itself more and more upon public attention. Indeed, the question of guarding their teeming populations from the diseases caused by the contamination of the only sources of water supply is at present a vital one in some of our largest cities, while in numbers of Southern and Western towns depending wholly upon river water the curse of mud during the whole or part of the time leads to never-ending experiments to the end of securing a constant supply of the pure fluid.

Among the best of the several systems for the purification of water is that carried on by the Jewell Pure Water Company of Chicago, which is illustrated herewith. The whole process consists of a combined system of coagulation, precipitation, filtration and aeration. The filters are constructed in such a manner that the valve system may be connected on the side of the system, as shown in figure No. 1. This brings the valves at such a height that they can be worked conveniently from the floor. They may also, however, as shown in figure No. 2, be attached on top, which in many cases would be more desirable, as when the filters are placed in cellars or wells and the valve system operated from the floor above. The filter may be connected to deliver the purified water either to the right or left side.

By the use of the sand-cone valves the currents of water can be reversed, and the sand cleansed, in the largest sized filters, of all impurities in not over five to ten minutes time, while the filtering bed cannot be carried or washed out while in the act of cleaning. These valves are automatic and positive in action. It is claimed that it is a mechanical impossibility for them to become inoperative. The outlet apparatus is also claimed to be indestructible and reliable, being fitted with alumina bronze, which does not corrode, and is of a tensile strength greater than steel. In the act of washing, a separate current is forced in a reverse direction through it, thus insuring its perfect working.


Wherever a pump is used in supplying water the apparatus shown in fig. i is attached, which is so connected that each stroke of the pump draws from the chemical tank into the suction pipe a fixed quantity of the coagulant, which in passing through the pump is intimately mixed with the water, causing coagulation of the impurities, and then passing to the filter is caught, together with the impurities, and retained in the sand, allowing only the purified water to pass out of the filter. A pipe is also connected to supply with water, the chemical tank which has attached, inside of the tank, a ball cock to control the flow, and supply only the necessary quantity to replace that which is drawn out. This tank is open on top so that the operator can see how much chemical he is using and when it is necessary to replenish the material. In the pipe, connecting the tank with the suction of pump, is placed the valve H, with a graduated scale, enabling operator to set it and use only a fixed quantity. Where there is no pump and the filter is connected with a supply pipe, under pressure, such as a city main, the chemical apparatus shown in fig. 2 is attached.

Being a sight feed and controlled by a graduated valve, the operator knows the exact amount of chemical he is using and when it is necessary to replenish it.

Organic and other matter can frequently be removed simply by the intimate mingling of air with the water while on its way to the filter, the oxygen in the air destroying the germs and other matter, which then pass to the filter and are retained in the sand. Water that has been aerated, especially under pressure, and then filtered, is found to be as free from dangerous matter and as near the perfection of potable water as can ever be obtained. By this method of aeration this desirab e feature is thoroughly accomplished.

The claims made by the Jewell Pure Water Company for its system may be briefly enumerated as follows: ist. Absolute perfection in purifying and softening waters. 2d. Simplicity of system. 3d. Quickness in cleaning, five to ten minutes being ample time for the largest size.

4th. Positive assurance that filter bed is perfectly clean after each washing. 5th. Durability, there being no springs, complicated valves or delicate parts to soon wear out. 6th. Strength in construction—being practically indestructible. 7th. Steady and regular feed of coagulating or precipitating apparatus. 8th. The only sight feed chemical apparatus. The company guarantees : To remove mineral and organic matter, whether animal or vegetable ; to soften hard water; to remove suspended matter and to precipitate and remove matter held in solution ; to remove alkali, rendering the water soft, pleasant and agreeable ; also that water that has been filtered by its system for steamboiler use will absolutely prevent all incrustations forming, remove previous deposits and prevent foaming or priming ; and that the treated water will be bright, clean, soft, sparkling and wholesome.

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