The Water Company Upheld.
ENGINEER Charles A. Brush, representing the Acquackanock Water Company, and City Surveyor Colin R. Wise, representing the City of Passaic, N. J., have been engaged in a minute examination of the fire pressure and other features of the water supply since shortly after the destruction of Edo Kip’s building on January I. Their selection for this purpose that the Water Company was not furnishing nearly as much fire pressure as it had contracted to do. After referring to their appointment, etc., the report says : In his annual report the Chief Engineer of the fire department on January 13th, 1894, stated “ that during my term of office at every fire the department has been called to I found that there was not pressure enough at the hydrant to force water to the windows of a building 25 feet high.” On March 12, 189 j, we met Councilman Huber and Kevitt of your special committee on water supply and discussed the situation with them.
We were informed that a strong feeling existed in the community that the full pressure from Stony Road Reservoir was not on all the mains in the city of Passaic, and even if it were on all the mains, this pressure was not sufficient to elevate the water at least to a height of 25 feet above the level of the top of the present reservoir at Paulison Heights, as required in Section 10 of said Contract. Superintendent Paulison of the Water Company claimed that the full pressure was and always had been on all the mains in the City. He substantiated this claim by producing automatic self-registering charts, taken at the old pumping station in the lower portion of the City since Jan. ’92. He claimed that any lack of pressure in any part of the city would show itself immediately on this gauge. He also claimed that the Water Company had fully complied with said contract, but that the City was not carrying out the contract of the flushing of sewers. He claimed that enormous quantities of water were used in excess of that necessary for proper flushing. In order to ascertain the facts, we proceeded as follows:
First:—We have taken the elevation of and tested the pressure at each hydrant in the city.
Second:—We have measured the length of the stream thrown by each fire hydrant used at all of the fires, about which complaint has been made.
We find that from the pressure taken during the day-hours in March on every hydrant, and during April from pressures taken as a test on a number of hydrants, that the full pressure from the Stony Road Reservoir at Paterson is on all mains in the City of Passaic, and that this pressure is sufficient to elevate the water at least 25 feet above the level of the top of the present reservoir at Paulison Heights. Asa matter of fact, the average elevation to which the water would rise during the day was 7.95 feet above said 25 foot level, and the charts show that during this same time the elevation during the night was 13.08 feet above this level. The elevation of the flow-line of Stony Road Reservoir is 174.75 feet above mean high tide at Passaic Bridge. The elevation of the flow-line of the Reservoir at Paulison Heights is 130.45 feet above the same base. The elevation to which water should rise, as provided for in the contract is 155.45 feet. The average elevation of the water corresponding to the pressure during the day time, when we made our tests was 163.40 feet. The elevation to which the water would rise during the same period at night time, as shown on the self-registering chart, was 168.53 feet. The water main from Stony Road Reservoir to Lake View is 24 inches in diameter, and from Lake View to Park place is 20 inches. The water main from the junction of Main avenue and Park Place to the Reservoir in Paulison Heights is 12 inches in diameter. We find that the stream thrown by each fire hydrant is normal to its pressure and that the hydrants used at the fires/eferred to above, threw streams during our test, as shown on Schedule “ B” annexed. These streams were thrown through 50 feet of 2)4 inch rubber hose with n-8th inch nozzle for horizontal distances, ranging from Soto 130 feet and were equivalent to vertical heights ranging from 43 to 74 feet.
We found that each of the four hydrants used at the Kip fire threw streams about 100 feet horizontally, equivalent to 54 feet vertically. We then opened all of these four hydrants fully and found that with the other three hydrants running the hydrant on the southeast corner of Jefferson and Main streets, threw the stream 80 feet horizontally, which is equivalent to 43 feet in height. We suggested to the committee that the fireengines used at the Kip fire be placed in the position they occupied during that fire and that all the hydrants used then be again used now as nearly as possible in exactly the same way as during the fire. The Committee after considering the matter finally concluded that this test was not necessary.
The city and the water company should agree to our recommendation as to the amount of water required for each Hush tank, subject to such modifications as experience may prove necessary. The amount of water having been thus determined, the detail of regulating the How in each tank can readily be arranged between the city and the company. As the consumption of water increases, the pressure of the water in the mains decreases. It is, therefore, the interest as well as the duty of the city to prevent waste through these flush tanks, so that the best possible supply can be given to consumers in the highest portions of the city. From our examination we are satisfied that the water company is complying with the terms of its contract with the city. It is furnishing water under pressure even greater than that required by the contract. The full pressure is and has been on all the city mains and the service from all the fire hydrants is all that could be expected from the pressure required by the contract.
The fire hydrants in Passaic are four inches in diameter, and these hydrants have four inch connections with the water mains. This size of hydrant is the one that has been almost universally used throughout the country. It is the size that has been adopted by the Hackensack Water Company on their plant and by the cities and towns generally in this neighborhood. A six inch hydrant and connection will, however, give a more efficient sen-ice. We would,therefore, recommend that hereafter any new hydrants and branches erected in Passaic be six inches in diameter.
PASSAIC FIRE HYDRANTS-SCHEDULE “ R.”
HYDRANTS USED AT THE KIP FIRE.
Hydrant No. 44.—Jefferson street between Main and Elm. Pressure, 50 pounds. Stream thrown 100 feet horizontal in quiet air, 115 with the wind.
Hydrant No. 99.—N. W. corner Washington and Main. Pressure, 50 pounds. Stream thrown 100 feet horizontal in quiet air.
Hydrant No. 8r.—West side Railroad avenue, opposite Howe. Pressure 50 pounds, l.ength of stream thrown no feet horizontal in quiet air. Pressure reduced 2 pounds on the hydrant while stream was flowing.
Hydrant No. 48.—S. E. corner Jefferson and Main. Pressure 50 pounds. Stream thrown 80 feet horizontal against wind. Stream thrown 100 feet horizontal in quiet air.
A further test was made of the stream thrown from this hydrant by opening the hydrant full on Jefferson street between Main and Elm streets. This reduced the length of the stream f rom 100 feet to 90 feet. Leaving both hydrants open, the hydrant on the east side of Washington and Main streets was opened full and this reduced the stream from 100 feet to 85 feet. Leaving all three hydrants running full, the hydrant on the west side of the railroad, opposite Howe avenue was also opened. Then with all four hydrants fully opened, the stream was reduced from 100 to 80 feet horizontal. A horizontal stream 80 feet in length is equivalent to a vertical stream 43 feet in height. A horizontal stream 115 feet in length is equivalent to a vertical stream 64 feet in height.
HYDRANTS USED AT THE ARNOLD FIRE.
Hydrant No. 67.—Harrison street, 400 feet east of Lexington. Pressure 52 pounds. Stream thrown 96 feet horizontal with a side wind.
Hydrant No. 66.—Southwest corner Hope and Harrison. Pressure 55 pounds. Stream thrown 90 feet horizontal with a side wind.
HYDRANTS USED AT TIIK KLUKENDORINC & DATZMAN FIRES.
Hydrant No. 63—Van Winkle and President. Pressure 60 lbs. Stream thrown from 100 to 120 feet ft. horizontal with a side wind.
HYDRANT USED AT THE BARN FIRE.
Hydrant No. 90.—Southwest corner Chestnut and Main streets. Pressure 48 lbs. Stream thrown 120 feet. Horizontal with wind.
HYDRANT USED AT THE MCKEOWN FIRE.
Hydrant No. 98—N. E. Cor. Oak and Main. Pressure 48 pounds. Stream thrown 100 to 120 ft., horizontal with wind.
HYDRANTS USED AT MYERS AND MCCARTHY FIRES.
Hydrant No. 123.—West side of Main street, half way between Passaic and Park. Pressure 50 pounds. Stream thrown no to 115 feet horizontal; windy.
Hydrant No. 117.—East side Main half way between Passaic and Park. Pressure 51 pounds. Stream thrown roo to 115 feet horizontal, with light wind.
Hydrant No. n6,—S. E. Corner of Main and Park. Pressure 52 pounds. Stream thrown 115 feet horizontal with light wind.
Hydrant No. 115.—East side McLean, opposite engine house No. 3. Pressure 54 lbs. Stream thrown 125 feet horizontal with wind.
Hydrant No. no.—East side McLean 200 feet south of Passaic. Pressure 52 lbs. Stream thrown 130 feet horizontal with wind.
Leaving hydrant No. 110 running, two other hydrants were also open full, one on Passaic street west of McLean and one on Passaic street, east of McLean.
With these three hydrants all running, the horizontal stream from hydrant No. no was reduced from 130 to 90 feet.
HYDRANT USED AT BAPTIST CHURCH FIRE.
Hydrant No. 178—N. E. corner Park Place and Gregory. Pressure 32 pounds. Length of horizontal stream thrown, 75 feet.
HYDRANT USED AT FISH FIRE.
Hydrant No. 173.—S. EC corner of Paulison and Pennington. Pressure 29 pounds. Length of horizontal stream thrown 55 feet against wind—69 feet with wind.
HYDRANT USED AT SPEER’S FIRE.
Hydrant No. 218 east side Main opp. Speer’s. Pressure 64 pounds. Stream thrown 125 feet with wind.
Hydrant No. 217 N. E. corner river road and county bridge. Pressure 67 pounds. Length of stream thrown 120 to 140 horizontal with light wind.