The Water Supply of Fort Worth, Tex.
In answer to an inquiry from Colonel Richard J. Hinton of Washington, special agent of the department of agriculture, for information regarding the artesian water supply system of Fort Worth, Tex., J. M. Clarke, secretary of the Chamber of Commerce of that city, has furnished the following details:
There are about 300 wells in Fort Worth, all artesian. Of these, say, ten are flowing, the balance require to be pumped to secure the water.
Prior to 1889 there were no flowing wells. In that year a stratum of water was struck at the depth of 390 feet, but the flow was weak, and, as each additional well taking water from that depth seemed to weaken the flow, it was not long before the flow ceased entirely. To demonstrate the matter of a permanent flow, the city assumed the expense of siuking a deep well in search of the desired flow, the contract calling for a well 4000 feet deep. In the spring of 1890 the city well was begun on the top of Tucker’s hill, fifty-two feet above the bench mark at the city hall, making the point of commencement 693 feet above sea level. At a depth of 890 feet a vein of water was struck which gave 200,000 standard gallons per twenty-four hours, at a pressure of seventeen pounds, through a six-inch orifice. This was cased off, and at 1035 feet a flow of 250.000 gallons was struck, pressure twenty-two pounds. This in turn was cased off and the boring continued and at It 35 feet a flow was found yielding 332,000 gallons per twentyfour hours, with a pressure of twenty-nine pounds. The well throughout its entire length being a six-inch well. As the contract called for a well 4000 feet deep, this last flow was cased off and the boring continued until at the present time, the drill has reached the depth of 3560 feet. No water has been found below the 1135 foot flow, nor do the indications favor such expectancy. From 1250 feet down the drill has passed through slate and sandstone.
To recapitulate: At 890 feet, 200,000 gallons per twentyfour hours ; pressure, seventeen pounds ; temperature of water, sixty-eight degrees Fahrenheit.
At 1035 feet, 250,000 gallons per twenty-four hours ; pressure, twenty-two pounds ; temperature of water, seventy-eight degrees Fahrenheit.
At 1135 feet, 332,000 gallons per twenty four hours ; pressure, twenty-nine pounds ; temperature of water, eighty-four decrees Fahrenheit.
The water at each of these flows is a freestone water, absolutely pure and soft.
As soon as the existence of the artesian strata was demonstrated by the city, the Texas Brewing Company put down a well on ground 643 feet above sea level, six inches in diameter. This well was stopped at the second vein, 840 feet, having a flow of 250,000 gallons per twenty-four hours, with a pressure of fifty pounds. It was not sunk further, as the company was satisfied with what they had obtained.
The Fort Worth Packing Company put down a well on ground 573 feet above sea level. This well was continued down to the lowest, or third flowing vein, 1150 feet deep, the diameter of the well being seven inches to the first, or upper flow ; thence six inches diameter to the middle, or second flow ; and thence five inches diameter to the lower, or third flow. All the flows are utilized, the combined flows making an output at the mouth of the well of 900,000 gallons per twenty-four hours, with a pressure of sixty-five pounds and a temperature of water of eighty-four degrees Fahrenheit.
A well has just been completed by the Natatorium Company which was begun at 642 feet above sea level, six inch bore. No water was found at the depth corresponding to the first flowing vein (840 to 900 feet), but at 1060 feet, corresponding to the middle or second vein, a flow was struck furnishing 362,000 gallons per twenty-four hours, at a pressure of twenty-two pounds and a temperature of water of eighty degrees Fahrenheit.
The tapping of these veins by subsequent wells has in no appreciable measure diminished the flow of the first well. The water from the three lower veins has been subjected to careful analysis and pronounced to be absolutely pure and without the slightest trace of mineral. It is wonderfully soft and when contained in quantity in a white-lined vessel, as a porcelain bath tub (which is the kind we use here), it has an extraordinary tint, which has been called “electrical opal,” the color being an electrical blue that changes to all the colors of the fire opal as the water is agitated. The most rigid chemical tests have failed to discover any known mineral or organic matter in the water, yet it has the property of thoroughly cleaning any article, such as clothing, etc., that is placed in it and allowed to remain twenty-four hours without rubbing. Prominent physicians claim for this water a peculiar and wonderful beneficial effect upon renal complaints, its actions being about as follows: The patient drinks freely of the water. In from three to five days he experiences severe dull pains in the lumbar region, succeeded by copious micturation, the pains gradually diminishing, and in from ten days to two weeks from the time of commencing the treatment, the complaint is cured.
LONDON WATER SUPPLY.—A report just issued states that the daily supply of water in London (Eng.) during the month of July was 193,615 074 gallons, or 33.74 gallons per day per head of population for all purposes. There was taken from the Thames 54.44, from the Lee 28.30 per cent, from springs and wells 17.23 and from ponds for non-domestic purposes .03. From the statement given by Dr, E. Frankland, in his report for the monih, it appears that organic carbon was present in the samples of water analyzed by him, in proportions ranging for any unit of weight from 0.047 units to 0.141 units in every too.ooo units of the water. The chemists carrying out analyses for the water companies show by their results proportions of organic carbon ranging from 0.060 units to 0.142 units in every 100,000 units of the water. The proportions of brown tint in samples observed in a two foot tube, ascertained by their comparison with a standard tint of brown opposed to 20 mm. in thickness of blue tint, in the manner described in the report for October, 1887, ranged from 3 mm. to 12 mm. The Grand Junction Company is constructing two filter beds at Hampton, having a surface area of six acres. One of these filters has been completed and taken into use.