THE WATER SUPPLY OF ST. JOHN.
Water was originally introduced to the city of St. John, N. B., by a joint stock company in the year 1838, the supply being taken from the tailrace of a waterpower grist mill on the outlet of Lily lake, owned by the Messrs. Gilbert, A wooden box-conduit conveyed the water to a steam pump on the north side of City road near the Marsh creek, whence it was forced to a reservoir in the premises in Leinster street, still occupied by the water department as a pipe-yard, offices and workshops. The proinotors and managers of the scheme, who had had at heart no other interest than that of the public, found themselves getting poorer and poorer all the time. In 1855, the community and the adjoining parish of Portland, took the works off the company’s hands and made them a public charge. The first commissioners were: John Sears (chairman) and John M. Walker, appointed by city, and John Owens, appointee of parish of Portland. The superintendent was Gilbert Murdoch, uncle of Superintendent William Murdoch, who continued in office until his death on May 28, 1894. The fact that there was a salary of $2,000 attached to the position of chairman of the department injected the issue of politics into its works. A new board was elected, with Edward E. Lockhart as chairman. It held office for nearly seventeen years and did excellent work. On April 19, 1881, Charles R. Ray became chairman, holding office till January, 1882, when A. Chipman Smith succeeded him. On October 1, 1889, the commission was superseded by the department of public works, with Alderman W. I). Baskin as chairman. On April to, 1900, the water and sewerage board was appointed with Alderman Thomas E. Millidge as its chairman and A. Chipman Smith director. At his death on January 23, 1901, R. H. Cushing succeeded him. On February 5, 1906, the superintendent of the waterworks system was given the title of director of the water and sewerage department, R. H. Cushing retaining that uf director of the department of public works. The present water and sewerage board is made up as follows: Edward Sears, mayor (chairman); Aldermen John B. M. Baxter; Thomas II. Bullock; William A. Christie, M. D.; T. T. l.antaluiu; C. B. Lockhart; John McGoldrick; Henry 11. Pickett ; John Wlllet, K. C. The com mon clerk is Herbert E Wardroper; director and superintendent is William Murdoch, C. E. The system is being extended. The loch Lomond extension, which should have been completed two years ago, is still unfinished, although water has been let in temporarily to the higher levels of the city. There is a reinforced concrete from lake Latimer towards the city, the head on which is about 20 ft. and the wall-thickness 4 ins. on top and 5 ins on the sides. The sectional area is about 9 ft. There is also a 33-in. woodstave pipe, which sustains a maximum head of about 35 ft. The staves are of California redwood l’/j-in. thick, The bands are of mild steel, ½-in. diameter of section and spaced from about to ins. to 2.6 ins. apart according to the pressure of the water. Like the conduit, this pipe, also, is leaking at the butt joints. There the connection was specified to be made of steel tongues or plates of Mi-in. thickness and 1½½. wide. Half of this width beds in a saw-cut on tin* end of each stave. Lite edges project (4 in. on each side of the stave, so as to bed into the side of each adjoining stave. All the edges were plain-jointed, no caulking or cementing material being used, the compression of the wood itself being entirely relied upon for tightness. The work east of lake Latimer includes a reinforced concrete conduit of about 1275 ft. sectional area, with a minimum thickness of wall of 5 ins. under a water pressure of about 10 ft. It makes a free connection between loch Lomond and lake Latimer. The capacity of the conduit is 6,000,000 gafs. daily. The 36-in. cast-iron pipe connecting the wood stave ppe and the old system of pipes leading from Little river to the city was connected last year to the pipe-line. The west side supply is from Spruce lake. Its total delivery during the past year was as follows: Overflow-age, 2,778,381,000 gals.: delivered through mains. 842.654,000 gals, -total, 3,621,035.000 gals. During the year 1906 there were laid 4705 ft. of main, included in which were 2,096 of 36-in.: the total cost was $21,379.14. Seventy-eight new servicepipes, whose length ranged from 198 ft. to 12 ft. —average 35 2/3 ft., were laid during the year; thirteen and one-half per cent, of the excavation being in rock. The total amount of main laid is as follows: Street main, 52.30; fire hydrant pipes,
1.39; house services, etc., 33.56—total, 87.25. The number of stop-gates is 1,311; of blow-offs, 139. Of stop-cocks there are 7,414, of which thirty-three were added in 1906. Two new hydrants were set, the total number set being 407, the pressure ranging from 9 to 81 lbs. With the increase of population during the year there has been an increase in the number of waterclosets, washbasins, hotwater boilers, schools, offices and stores, and a decrease in that of cows, taverns and hydraulic elevators. Steamship supply pipes have been laid to several wharves; they yielded revenue of $S,919.55 in 1906, for 10,923,800 gals. Owing to the topographical conformation of the city, which is divided into two separate parts by the river St. John and the harbor, the water supplies are delivered from two distinct sources, twelves miles apart and in opposite directions, with the city lying between. The East Side is supplied through two 24-in. pipes and one 12-in. pipe—all of cast iron—from Little river reservoir, an artificial lake five miles distant, whose capacity is about 122,000,000 gals. It is formed by damming the valley and causing the water of Little river to expand to an extent of fifty-five and. one-third acres. A conduit has been extended to lake Latimer, from the head of the present system, whereby an additional head of about 137 ft. will be .gained, and the pump at Silver Falls will be abandoned. The West Side is supplied through 4.8 miles of cement-lined 12-in. pipe, and five and one-half miles of 24-in. cast iron pipe, from Spruce and Ludgate lakes, an extensive expanse of water, still retaining the two distinctive names, but united into one sheet by the building of a dam at the outlet of the lower lake (Spruce lake) in the year 1866, and consequent raising of its water to and above the former level of Ludgate lake. A distribution reservoir is situated at the termination of the West Side 24-in. main. The elevation of its surface is generally kept at about 150 ft. above high-water datum, St. John harbor, and its capacity is about 1,500,000 gals. The inletpipe, since the laying of the 24-in. main, has been shut, so as to prevent overflowage, and a checkvalve placed on the outlet-pipe to prevent backflow to the reservoir and to make its delivery automatic in case of a falling off in pressure. The Little river and Spruce lake respectiveh form the two sources of supply by gravitation, with an auxiliary pump for high service in the Little river system, the motive power being water at Silver Falls. The estimated population of the city (including suburbs) lying on the line of pipe and supplied is 45,090. The total consumption for the year from both the Little river and the Spruce lake sources was 2,951,466,000 gals. The average daily consumption is as follows: Little river system, 5777.754 gals; Spruce lake, 1,701,700—total, 7,479,454 gals.; gallons per day to each inhabitant, 101.9; to each consumer, Little river system, 153.4; Spruce lake system—exclusive of supply to pulp mill and steamships as set down above—229.1; to each tap, Little river system, 735; Spruce lake system, 1,850 gals. The waterworks system, which belongs to the city and was built over fifty-one years ago, is under the able superintendence of William Murdoch.