WATER AND WATER SUPPLY.
PROFESSOR CADY STALEY of the Case School of Applied Science delivered a lecture on the above subject recently at the medical department of the Western Reserve University. Cleveland, O. Among other things Professor Staley said: “People may become accustomed to drinking water which is impure without serious results, yet it is unsafe. Wc may detect the impurities in water by the sight, taste or smell. The source of the supply should be considered, for it is here that the contamination has its origin.” Rain water was undoubtedly the purest, yet when stored in cisterns it will become impure from the substances that gather upon the roofs. If a man could see the sediment at the bottom of a cistern he would become suspicious. All rain water should be filtered. The rain fall in the Unit d States averaged forty inches a year, which affords an abundant supply. In the Bermuda Islands large reservoirs have been built by the English authorities in which rain water is caught and stored for the use of soldiers. A well is simply a hole dug into the ground, into which the water drains. In cities wells are an abomination. They are largely reservoirs for the collection of the impure drainage of the soil. It is true that the soil acts as a sieve, still the liquid impurities remain in the water. Clearness is no proof of the pureness of spring water, and the Saratoga springs may be taken as an example. Deep driven wells may furnish pure water if protected from soil sewerage. In speaking of artesian wells. Professor Staley said : ” One in Germany was 4194 feet deep. Between the Rocky mountains and the Sierra Nevadas artesian wells are quite numerous. Jacob’s Well in Palestine was 105 feet deep and nine feet in diameter, cut in the solid rock. The water in springs is cold and clear, and it is highly prized, yet it may be impure. AH spring water contained more or less minerals. At the Saratoga springs a mound had formed around the High Rock Spring. It was removed not long since, and at a distance of fourteen feet below the surface logs, charcoal and other evidences of man’s presence were found. Many people have attempted to figure out the time that has elapsed since these logs were placed there, and they only differ about 2000 years, but this amounts to little in matters of this kind.”