WATER DEPARTMENT OF LAWRENCE
The waterworks system of Lawrence, Mass., was built by the city in 1873-75, when the population was about 30,000. Today its population numbers upwards of 70,000 persons, of whom, it is estimated, 66,500 are supplied with water. In the fall of 1902 three division wells were built at the filter so as to facilitate the removal of ice and the operation of cleaning. By this means the ice can be removed and the filter can be cleaned from one-third of the filter, while the remaining two-thirds are in operation. This alteration, of course, met a certain want, but not enough for it to he regarded in the light of a substitute for a new filter, which is the crying need of the system today. The city treasury, however, apparently cannot supply the money, and the health of the people is thereby threatened, as, even under the most favorable circumstances, the supply of filtered water is scarcely adequate to the needs of a population which is increasing by leaps and bounds. So close, indeed, is the city to the limit of supply, that a protracted fire, or even a break in otic of the large mains, would practically be certain to render it impossible to supply the whole of the population with filtered water. Resort to the contaminated water of the Merrimac river would be necessary, and this, in spite of the fact that its ise would be attended by grave danger of epidemic disease, such as attacked Lawrence in old times, and aused the building of its famous filtration plant, which conquered the foe and rendered Lawrence one of the healthiest cities in the United States. During 1903 the filter was subjected to the severest test it has ever had since it was constructed. There was an epidemic of typhoid fever in Lowell, in July, caused by the accidental pollution of its water supply, During the months of August and September there were 174 cases of typhoid fever in that city, 136 of which were in August and thirty-eight in September, while for the same two months in Lawrence there were but 24 cases. Fourteen of these cases were in August, and of this number, one was doubtful, two were imported, and eight were caused by drinking canal water, leaving but three cases for which the city water could be held in any way responsible. In September the number of cases were ten, two of which were imported, one was of secondary infection, five were cases of persons employed _ in mills where canal water had been used for drinking purposes, and one where spring water had been used exclusively, leaving but one case that could lie charged to the drinking of city water. As this was the first epidemic of typhoid fever in Lawrence since the city’s filter has been in operation, it was with no little interest that the efficiency of the filter was watched by the citizens, and the results were all that the advocates of sand filtration could claim for. The total consumption of water during the past year was 1,0,34,294,471 gallons, of which 600,979.51×1 gallons passed through meters—making a percentage of fifty-eight of the whole. The average daily consumption was 2,833/183 gallons; per day to each inhabitant. 40.5; to each consumer, 42.6; to each tap, 437. The total pumpage for the year on the highservice, with allowance for slip, was 96,090,219 gallons; low-service, 938,204,252. The mode, of supply is pumping from the river one mile from the business centre to a reservoir, with a capacity of 40,000.000 gallons and a standpipe of iron and brick, whose capacity is 538,000 gallons, diameter thirty inches, height, 102 and a half feet. There are 5.603 meters in service, metering 86.4 per cent, of the taps and supplying 62.572 persons. The domestic meters are 5.156 in number, or 795 per cent, of the total number of services, supplying 62.572 persons. The mechanical, manufacturing and other meters in use number 447, metering 6.9 per cent, of the total number of services. The domestic meters supplied 48,*49.100 cubic feet, or 362,618.250 gallons, being 350 per cent, of the total pumpage; the manufacturing and mechanical meters supplied 31,781,500 cubic feet, or 238,361,250 gallons, being 23.0 per cent, of the whole pumpage. The non-metered assessed water is supplied to 13.6 per cent, of the whole services, and 3.291 persons. The amount thus consumed is 433.314,971, or 42.0 per cent, of the total pumpage—the non-metered consumption includes the amount of water used by the assessment taken and that used for fire protection and municipal purposes, sti -eetsprinkling, flushing, and leaks. The number of mcters installed last year was 279—making a tota 1 of 5,603, as follows: Nash (419, A, 1,196, AA, 995. AAX, 359), 2,969; Crown (965, A, seven. AA, four), 976; Thomson (577, BEE, seventeen), 594; Lambert, 438; Trident, 319; Horsey (disk, Ill, disk MF, twenty-eight), 139; rotary, seventy-one; Niagara, sixty-two; Empire, two, Empire A, six, eight; Worthington, four, disk, two, six; elevators, eleven; motors, eight. The city is supplying through domestic metors 14,148 tenements—representing 62,572 persons. There are supplied by fixture rates 717 tenemens representing 3.291 persons—making a total of 14,865 tenements and 65,863 persons. It is also supplying twenty-six public schools and annexes, the arm lory, Public library, Industrial school, City almshouse, City hospital, seven steam fire engine houses, one hook and ladder house, city hall, police station, city stables, board of health, common pond, Belle vue, St. Mary’s and Immaculate Conception cemete ries. thirty-two drinking fountains, 605 fire hydrants, 173 private standpipes, together with the fixtures for fire and other purposes on the several corporations, The whole number of services to date is 7,148. It ma y be added that the street department alone is chai rged for water used in sprinkling the streets. The authority to compensate (as every other departr nent in the city is compensated) for labor or material is vested in the city council. These departments shi ould be metered to reduce the quantity of water used and wasted, whereby a considerable saving would rc :sult to the city. A liberal estimate places the am nual consumption of water for fire and other municipal purposes at a little over one-third of the er itire pumpage of the year. Even under these condit ions the department is self-sustaining; still it cannot pay to the water loan sinking fund the entire amount required by law. and at the same time extend the works to meet the growing deqiand. Under proper conditions it could not only meet the full requirements of the water loan sinking fund, but, also, a substantial addition could each year be made thereto for reducing the debt and interest. The president of the water board is Jeremiah J. Desmond, the other members are E.dward L. Arundel. Charles A. Donovan, A. Herbert Rohmain, Daniel J. Gallagher. The clerk and superintendent is M. F. Collins.