Water Service in Toronto.
In addition to making Toronto even more the “city beautiful” that it is, the municipal authorities are determined that, so far as the waterworks system is concerned, it shall be second to none in Canada. In the new system, which is approaching completion, no expense is being spared to bring it to perfection. During the past year the sum of $693,173.38 has been spent on the waterworks. The total length of cast iron mains (24-in. to 3-in.) laid during the year was 71,837 ft, which is very much in excess of those laid in previous years. The total mileage of mains in use up to the end of the year was 305.6. Of house-services the number laid was 3,961— eighty less than in 1906. The average depth of water in the reservoir during the year was 16 ft., equal to an elevation of 212 ft. above zerolevel of lake Ontario. The reservoir at this elevation contains 22,981,860 gal. Owing to the great consumption of water and the impossibility of keeping up the supply with the present pumping capacity, it was impossible to clean the reservoir out during the year. The average temperature of the water taken daily throughout the year at the citshall tap was 43.06° Fahr. The highest temperature was 62° Fahr. on Sep tember it, and the lowest 35° Fahr. on March 2. The contractor for the new 6,ooo,000-gal. pumping engine at the high-level station should have had the engine installed late in the summer; but up to the end of the year the only material delivered was the boilers, which are now in place, and it will probably be early in the summer of next year before the engine is installed and ready for use. The contractor for the tunnel had constructed a boring machine by which he expected to proceed with the excavation of the tunnel, which is through shale rock, and excavated a chamber of sufficient size in line of the tunnel in which to erect this machine. Drilling and blasting were begun on January 18, and the erection of the boring machine in the tunnel on April 22. It was completed on June it, when the machine was turned over for the first time. It failed to work satisfactorily and further changes were made, and on September 12 it was again tried and failed and was then taken out, and the usual practice of drilling and blasting was again resumed. Up to December 31, about 829 ft. of the tunnel was excavated at the south end. The contractor began work on No. 1 shaft at the pumping station end of the tunnel, on April 23. The heading was started in October and by the end of the year 501 ft. had been excavated. This work should all be completed and the tunnel in use by October of next year. On the high-pressure system the progress made during the year has been fair. Nearly all the mains have been laid, and the Westinghouse-Parsons steam turbines, for driving the turbine pumps, have been erected and the pumps connected The whole system should he in operation early in the coming rear. At the main pumping station the amount of water pumped shows an increase of 1,360,810 gal. per day, the average daily pumpage being 28,374,(XX) Imperial gal. During the past year a good deal of agitation has arisen in connection with the quality of the water supplied to the citizens, and during the latter four months of the year the medical health officer, in addition to making the usual bacterial examination of the water, also had a record taken of the number of days bacillus coli communis was present. It was found that it was there in September during six days; October, six days; November, nine days. The result of these analyses was that the medical health officer advised the citizens to boil the water. The citizens then immediately demanded that the water (which is obtained from lake Ontario about half a mile from the shore of the Island, at a depth of about 30 ft.), should be filtered, and the department was instructed to prepare an estimate of the cost of a plant. The official reports show that deaths from typhoid fever during the past year were at the rate of t8 per 100.000 a very low rate. For the future a constant analysis is to be made of the water from lake Ontario, taken at such a distance beyond the Island as to secure absolute freedom from sewage contamination. During the year there were set 128 hydrants (55 3-way and 73 2-way), besides replacing 13 2-way with 3-way hydrants. The total number of hydrants in service is 3.544; stop-valves (24-in. to 3-in.), 2,284; check-valves. 73; house services laid during the year. 3,961 ; leaks on mains, 234 of all sizes; average number per mile of distribution, 0.76 at an average cost of $7.52 per mile; meters in use, 2,587. Drinking fountains in city, 65; drinking taps on Island. 21; combination fountains. 15. At the high-level pumping station, for which a 6,000,000 gal. pump has been contracted for. the pumpage for the year amounted to 1.822,427,753 gal.: daily average, 4,992,953 gal.; cost of running the station (including repairs, etc.), $15,607.44. On the high-pressure fire system good progress is being made. With two or three exceptions, all the mains have been laid as follows: Twenty-in. main, 6.492 ft.: 12-in., 22.278 ft.; 8 in., 12.335 ft.; 3-way hydrants set, 136. The Westinghouse-Parsons steam turbines for driving the turbine pumps have been installed and the pumps connected to them. For the 7-months’ pumping on the Island, owing to the very great increase in consumption, a John rnglis Company pumping engine, with boiler, is ready to he installed. It will be large enough to provide for future demands. Its capacity is 1.000,000 gal. At the main pumping station the pumpage was I0,356,547db8 Imperial gal.