WATER SUPPLY OF MILAN.
William Jarvis, American Consul at Milan, Italy, sends in the following report of the water supply of that city:
A scheme for supplying Milan with good drinkable water was initiated in the year 1888 by the excavation of two trial wells near the Arena—the amphitheatre of Milan. The first was sunk to a depth of 480 feet—seventy-nine feet below sea level; the second, to a depth of 268 feet. This plant at first provided water for cleansing the sewerage pipes of the new quarters and for distribution of drinkable water. The mechanical part of the plant in the Arena consists of two condensing motors of thirtyfive-horsepower each, two pairs of pumps of the Girard type, accumulators for the automatic detachment of the pumps, two Cornwall boilers of a surperficies of 322 square feet, and a tubular economiser of the Green type. It was afterwards decided to add another boiler of a superficies of 398 square feet. Four more wells were sunk, all of a diameter of thirty-one and one-half inches, to an average depth of ninety-eight feet. The aggregate force of these new wells was 163 quarts per second. A reservoir was built of a capacity of 42,382 cubic feet of water. It is connected with the delivery pipe by a single tube of a diameter of eleven and three-quarter inches. The minimum level of the reservoir is ninety-eight and one-half feet above the axles of the pumps. In 1896 it was again found necessary to increase the production, and the pumps, which were then operating in Via Parini for supplying the fountain service in the public gardens, were connected with street mains for the supply of the houses in the vicinity. In 1901, being found unserviceable from long use. the pumps were substituted by a centrifugal of the Sulzer tpye, driven by an electric motor. A new well, also, was sunk to a depth of 197 feet. It produces sixty-eight quarts of water per second, and is provided with a sand filter. The numerous demands for both public and private service caused a new plant to be decided on, and in 1899 it was finished. It consists of two pairs of double-action pumps of the Riedler type, each group being driven by a seventy-five-horsepower electric motor, and produces 211 quarts of water per second. In 1900 four other Sulzer pumps, with electric motors, were placed at the Rondo di Loreto, on the outskirts of the city. This plant also furnishes 211 quarts per second from its eight wells. At the end of the year 1901 there were in all eighty-eight miles of mains, supplying for the most part the populous, or more unhealthy quarters, as also industrial establishments, schools, hospitals, etc. The potable water, however, is now used for many public services, such as streetwashing, watering plants, flowers, grassplats, and trees in the public ways and squares; it also supplies nearly 100 drinking fountains and the large ornamental fountains in different parts of the city, and the public markets and laundries. It furnished, also, at the above date, nearly 1,000 hydrants for the fire brigade, and has substituted ordinary well water in about 4,000 buildings, including apartment and tenement houses and hotels. The following figures will show at a glance the continuous increase in consumption of potable water: 1889. 146,226 cubic metres; 1894. 1,472,483: 1899. 4,088,693; 1901, 5,545,226. It is presumed that the increase in consumption for the year 1902 has been another million cubic metres. It should be noted that of the 500,000 inhabitants of Milan only 200,000 are. so far. supplied with potable water, so that the quantity per head is high, reaching on some days, as much as 208 quarts per consumer, which denotes excessive waste. From the numerous requisitions that are being received, it is estimated that the production must be again ncreased during the present year, as the general use of the potable water wll be at least twenty per cent above that of last year.