Meterage and Safeguards Against Pollution.

Rochester, N. Y., has two sources of water supply, one for the Holly system, front the Genesee river, used only for auxiliary fire protection, elevators, and like purposes; the other, for domestic purposes, from the Hemlock lake, from which are laid two conduit pipes, one to Rush reservoir; the other to Mount Hope reservoir. The first, laid in 1873-75, is composed of about 9,62 miles of thirty-six-inch riveted wrought iron pipe three-sixteenthsinch thick, and 2.92 miles of riveted wrought iron pipe three-sixteenths and one quarter-inch thick, and the balance, 6 12 miles of twenty-fourinch cast iron pipe. The second section of the four-inch thick conduit is a twenty-four-inch cast iron pipe from Kush reservoir to Mount Hope reservoir The second conduit pipe from overflow No1,about two mites and a quarter north of Hemlock lake to Mount Hope— Highland -reservoir, is a thirtyeignt-inch steel pipe, about twentysix miles in length, constructed during the years 1803 and 1894. This pipe is made of steel plates from one quarter-inch to three-eighthsinch in thicknessThe aggregate reservoir capacity is 90,000,000 gallons The system is gravity. During the summer of 1902 a temporary sixteen-inch discharge pipe, through which the water from conduit No 2 was discharged into Mount Hope reservoir, was removed, and a connection was made with conduit No. I and the old screen well, so that the water can be turned into the reservoir through the fountain, the submerged discharge pipe, or the old screen well At the same time a new screen and outlet well was constructed in the reservoir, with a screen area of 121 square feet. The outlet well is connected with the distribution bv two thirty-six inch pipes which have had the effect of increasing the pressure on the mains two or three pounds The screen well was built of Portland cement concrete, with an arched concrete floor and cut stone coping, surrounded by massive cut stone posts and a three and one-half-inch brass railing. The top of the well is reached by a half-arch concrete bridge sprung from the reservoir bank. From this platform the draw-gates admitting water from the reservoir can be operated and the changed and removed for cleaning. The various openings in the top of the well are closed by cast iron covers, which are replaced in warm weather by steel gratings. In one corner of the well are placed vertically side by side two six-inch cast iron pipes, projecting a little above high water, into which water is led respectively from the reservoir and from the well down stream from the screens. Observation of the elevation of the water surfaces in these pipes readily shows the loss of head through the screens. The connecting pipes are of brass, one inch in diameter, and a pair is also run into the gatehouse, so that the water surface may be observed there, if desired. The cost of this work, including all material, labor, superintendence and inspection, amounted to $15,138.31. Mount Hope reservoir is constructed on a sand hill. The manner in which the puddle lining of the bank is “stepped” into the original sand is shown in the accompanying illustration, which was taken in the trench cut for the outlet pipes, when the reservoir was empty. The watertight element in its bottom is a layer of clay’ puddle covered originally by six inches of gravel. A great many crawfish were found upon emptying the reservoir, and almost invariably upon raising a stone on the reservoir bottom a hole was discovered which was occupied by one of these creatures. The fish in the water feed on these crawfish, and the latter, in crawling over the bottom, take refuge under any stone of sufficient size to protect them. Their continued burrowing increases the size of the hole until it has pierced through the puddle layer and a leak occurs into the underhung sand. A stone of considerable size is usually found at the bottom of each of these conical holes, and it leads to the conclusion that, in the construction of a reservoir bottom, it should either be covered continuously’ with concrete, asphalt or brick, or, if puddled and covered with gravel, all stones over an inch in diameter should be excluded. The connections required at Rush reservoir should be constructed without further delay, and also a proper superstructure on the foundation at Mount Hope reservoir gatehouse. As to the Hemlock lake water supply of the city: The lake is 6.6 miles long, with an average depth in the centre of about sixtyfive feet. It holds water enough to supply the city for five or six years, at the present rate of consumption, even if no water ran into it—that is, if it were drawn clear down. No plan, however, would be seriously considered, which would necessitate lowering the lake surface more than ten or twelve feet in any contingency, and the advisability is being considered of securing the storage necessary for supplying the increasing demand, by raising the lake surface some four or five feet, thereby obviating the necessity of lowering so much. It is beliveed that Hemlock lake will be able to yield on an average of 19,000,000 gallons per day, but the records of the year 1895 indicate that the total yield for that year did not exceed 14,000,000 gallons per day. It is true that the run-off for 1895 was low’er than, perhaps, had ever been noted, since careful records have been kept, or for thirty years, and it may be many years before the annual run-off is so small again; but it is certainly time for the city to look to its water supply when it is now using fully as much water as Hemlock lake will yield in a year as dry as 1895. There is no probability of that lake being able fully to supply the requirements of Rochester beyond the year 1910, while there is sound reason for expecting that before Kthat time, and even in two or three years, the city may be short of water, if depending on Hemlocklake alone. The time seems, therefore, to have arrived when Canadice lake should be connected with Hemlock lake in order .to increase its capacity. That lake is one of the most beautiful of the smaller lakes in the State. A highway passes along the easterly side near the shore, and there is already a considerable movement toward the building of cottages along its shores—even of a railway being built from Hemlock lake to Macedon, on the New York Central railroad. This would open up the lake, which is not difficult of access, to picnics, campers and cottagers from a large district, and similar conditions to those which exist round Hemlock lake would probably be reproduced on Canadice. The lake is about 200 feet higher than Hemlock lake, and the outlet from it is a beautiful, rapid mountain stream about four and one-half miles long to the outlet of Hemlock lake, about a quarter of a mile below the north end of said lake This stream can be made a natural conduit to bring the water from Canadice lake into Hemlock lake; but to preserve its purity, it will be advisable to control its banks, because it is the favorite watering place for cattle on the farms through which it flows, and several fine farms havenoother water on them, except that which flows through this stream There are about forty parties who own farms or lots on Canadice lake outlet This includes tsvo waterpowers now in use. It is believed that $100 000 will buy all the property needed to control the lake and its outlet, and it is urged that that provision should be made for the purchase of these lands during the com ing year Meanwhile the steps taken to keep Hemlock lake free from pollution are continuedThe 12,000 acres round the lake are being reforested, and it is urged that further measures be taken to insure that freedom from contamination. It is proposed that the city should gradually buy up the farms that are above the two lakes, and thus avoid the chance of the phosphate and fertilisers used on the farms being washed down the 200 different gullies which come directly down the steep slopes many hundred feet high into Hemlock lake The whole land might then be reforested, which would be an ideal condition for the water supply,besides being a source of profit to the city by the time the new issue of bonds becomes due One feature of this drainage area is the Bald Hill mountain, which towers nearly 1,000 feet above and between the two lakes, the drainage from every part of which will come into one water supply when Canadice lake is taken in. The quality of the water already supplied to the city is good; but it can be made even better at reasonable cost, and so protected as to remain so. This would be a profitable speculation for the city, as the quality of the water makes it actually worth more for steam and manufacturing purposes than that of most cities, while its cost both for domestic and manufacturing purposes is below the average price to thirty of the largest cities in the United States. The total number of miles of pipes of eight inches and upwards in diameter within the city limits considered as permanent distributing mains is on the domestic system, 79.124, on the Holly system, 13.452 —total, 92.576; total number of pipes less than eight inches in diameter, considered as permanent-distributing mains—on the domestic system, 189.893, on the Holly, 5.858—total. 195.751. This makes a total of such permanent distributing mains of 269.017 miles on the domestic system, and 288.327 on the Holly system. Of temporary distributing mains within the city limits there are 4.699 on the domestic system, and none on the Holly system; on the former system, also, there are 0.365 miles of private lines of pipes, on the Holly, none; of miles of pipe laid by the State, county and private persons there are 2.357 on the domestic system and 0.240 on the Holly—none being considered as city distributing mains. The total of miles of pipe laid on the domestic system is, therefore, 276.438; on the Holly, 19.550—making a total of 295.988 miles of pipe; of public fire hydrants set in the city streets there are 2,617 on the domestic system, and 297 on the Holly; private hydrants, on domestic system only, forty—total of fire hydrants set, on both systems, 2,954. Of stop-valves in distributing pipes and mains in the domestic system there are 2,610, on the Holly system, 269—total, 2,879; in large service pipes, domestic system, 165, Holly, 134—total, 299; taps for service pipes—domestic, 35,724, Holly, t6o—total, 35.884; sprinkling cart cranes on domestic system, thirty-one, on Holly, twenty-five—total, fifty-six; drinking troughs for animals, on domestic system only, fifty-two; average consumption of water per capita per day in 1902, in gallons, on domestic system, 81.9. on Holly, 12.79— total, 93.98; average consumption per day in gallons, on domestic system, 13,640,405, on Holly, 2,148,000—total, 15,788,405. Of meters there are in use 10.310 as follows: Crown, 4,312; Hersey, 2,170; Nash, 1,364; Lambert, 1,147; Thomson, 589; Trident. 524; Worthington, 126; Empire, twenty-six; Union, twenty-four; Frost, eleven; Gem, nine; Westinghouse, seven; Ball & Fitts, one. During the fiscal year 894 meters were installed, as follows: Hersey, 872; Lambert, nine; Crown, eight; Nash, five. The net increase for the year was 875. In addition to these meters are thirty-four registering devices, or indicators in use on elevators, operated with water from the Holly system. During the year, on the domestic system were laid 4.257 miles of pipe; seventy fire hy drants and fifty-four stop valves were set: on the Holly system was laid, 0.027 miles of pipe; one fire Iwdrimt set. The total daily average consumption of water in both systems was 15,778,600—93.9 per capita; number of service pipes, 31.894; percentage of metered service pipes 32.3; ratio of population (estimated at 168,000) to number of service pipes, 5.3. Beckman Little is superintendent of the bureau of water: he succeeded the late George 11. Hotchkiss, who died on October 9, 1902. Edwin A Fisher is city Engineer.


Elyria, Ohio, has bought a chemical engine and 200 feet of hose. The engine also carries a twentyfive-foot extension ladder, twelve-foot roofing ladder and two twn-gallon hand extinguishers. The engine is single-tanked and will carry eight men.





ROCHESTER, N. Y., is agitating for a new source of water supply, and, if Supt. Kuichling has his way, the city will probably soon obtain it. At present the source is Hemlock lake, which is situated in a hilly region about thirty miles south. Its surface lies about 385 feet above the general level of the city, thus allowing the water to be conveyed thereto by gravity. The old conduit, together with the storage reservoir at Rush and the distributing reservoir at Mount Hope, was built during 1873-6. From the lake to a point about ten miles northerly the conduit consists of a thirty-six-inch riveted wrought iron pipe, made of plates 316 inch thick and laid to a hydraulic grade of about 2.5 feet per mile ; but for the remainder of the dis tancetothe city it consists of a twenty-four-inch pipe, mostly of cast iron, laid to a hydraulic grade of about thirteen feet per mile. The present delivering capacity of this conduit is about 6,600,000 gallons per day.


There is also a new steel conduit, which consists essentially of two sections. The first embraces the intake woiks of the lake and a six-foot mason ry conduit of about 2.3 miles long, with a capacity of over 35,000,000 gallons per day, cor responding to the average yield of the combined watersheds of Hemlock and Csnidice lake, while the second section consists of a thirty-inch riveted steel pipe, laid to a continuous hydrarlic grade of about 9.0 feet per mile, from the end of the masonry conduit to Rush and Mount Hope reservoirs—a total distance of 26 2 miles.

The brick conduit is of horse-shoe shaped cross section and about six feet in diameter, on a grade of one in 4.000 from the northeastern corner of the lake to a point of the east bank of the creek, about 12,000 feet northerly, 7,500 feet in tunnel and the remainder in open excavation, with a large and deep gate and screen house built on the shore, from which the intake pipe, five feet in diameter and i,6oo feet long extends into the lake to a point where the water is thirty-five deep. The pipe was laid in a channel dredged to a depth of about nineteen feet below the existing ordinary low water level of the lake until this depth of water was reached, after which it was laid directly on the bottom and terminated in a submerged timber crib resting on the bottom. The route lay along the east side of the narrow outlet valley with steep banks for a distance of about 2.0 miles to Richmond Mills; thence northerly about 3.5 miles across the undulating territory west of lloneyoe creek to a point where the valley again becomes narrow, with high banks; thence, still northerly, a similar distance through the same valley, in which the creek meanders from side to side, the pipe crossing and rccrossing the same nine times to avoid tunneling and location on treacherous banks; thence rising on the east side of the valley to an elevated plateau right on to the east end of the Mount Hope reservoir. The course being so irregular and the change in grade so frequent, the pipe was carefully drawn upon accurate maps and profiles of the route on a large scale and every deviation clearly indicated In manufacturing the pipe changes of direction either in alignment or grade were made by slightly beveling at one end only as many courses as were needed to make the necessary curve or deflection. The conduits cross the West Shore railroad; the two lines being about half a mile apart. Our cuts show a view of the temporary pile platforms in the lake at the intake pipe joints, together with pipe and winches; view of foundation for overflow chamber at end of brick conduit and beginning of pipe; a vertical curve in the same as laid; and invert of the brick conduit mentioned above.