WATER SYSTEM OF CINCINNATI.
WILLIS P. THARP, C. E., superintendent and engineer of the water works of Cincinnati. Ohio, has published the fifty-seventh annual report of the water department of that city. In it he calls the attention of the department to the necessity of providing an additional pumping capacity of from 18,000.000 to 20,000,000 gallons per day, with the necessary boiler power to operate the same. The water consumption of the city is increasing yearly and must be provided for. The total miles of pipe laid in the city from 1S76 to 1897 was 246.701; abandoned. 41.206—actual pipe laid, 204.205 miles, area (square inches) thirty-five-inch effluent pipe from Eden reservoir,962.115 (area square inches) thirty-six-inch effluent pipe from same, 1,017.878—total area (square inches), 1.979.993; number of water department connections 1876 1897, 21,995; total connections (square inches) 19.662.204; total area of fire plug and cistern connections during same period, 21.205.800; total area connections (square inches) 40,868.004. The water consumption was as follows: I’umpage, low service. 2,667.405,804 gallons; middle service, 13.701,843,783; auxiliaries—middle service 83,562,596; Linwood service, 23,942,000—total pumpage, 16476,789,183—deduct water used by low pressure engines for condensation, 148,907,319 gallons—actual pumpage, 16,327,881 864 gallons; daily average consumption of water, 44 733-9 3 gallons; largest consumption for one day—low service. September 25. 9,404,300—middle, service. September 25, 48,752,720—total 58,157.020; per capita allowance for 405,000 inhabitants daiiy, HO. 15 gallons. The number of meters in use on January 1, 1897 was 2,265, of which 1,846 were Worthingtons, 186, Ilerseys—the rest being Trindents, Thomsons, Unions, and other makes; 257 new meters were installed during the year; thirtytwo new replaced old ones, and seventy-one were taken out. The receipts from meters were $215,714.17—an increase of $2,844,04 over those of the preceding year. The operating expenses were $311,032.28; the net water rent receipts, $750,943.45—total receipts, $841,619.33. At the Hunt street and Mount Auburn system, the Niles and Worthington engines boilers were thoroughly overhauled—the entire plant being virtually rebuilt. The Niles engine is duplex, with twenty-six and five-eighth inch diameter steam cylinders, five-foot stroke, and pump cylinders eighteen inches diameter, double actingwith diameter of flywheel sixteen feet, piston velocity 200 feet, and daily capacity of 6,000,000 gallons. The Worthington engine is duplex, compound double acting; high pressure cylinder forty inches diameter; low pressure cylinders twentyone inches diameter; thirty-eight stroke, diameter of plunger twenty-two inches, ratio steam piston areas 3 6. Number of revolutions per minute, average eighteen; capacity in twenty four hours, 6,000,000 gallons; static head, 374,dynamic head, 355 to 370. There are two (high and low service) reservoirs. They are located on ground overlooking the valley beneath. The low-service reservoir is partly in excavation and partly in embankment. It is rectangular in shape, with rounded corners. The depth from top of bank to bottom of basin is fourteen feet; maximum depth of water to be carried is twelve; capacity at this depth is 500.000 gallons. The interior of the basin is lined with clay puddle eighteen inches deep, after which the bottom was finished with a concrete covering and slopes paved with brick. The outer slopes and inner ones above the line of paving are sodded, and a gravel walk six feet wide extends around the basin on the embankment. For a protection of the basin it is inclosed with an ornamental iron tence, securely erected. The high-service reservoir is a tank made of riveted steel plate, twenty feet in diameter and twenty-five feet high. It has a conical bottom seven feet deep, and is mounted on a steel substructure composed of eight Z bar columns, with the necessary bracing and tie rods. The steel substructure is seventy feet high, and is founded on masonry pillars of Indiana limestone. This water-tower was designed not only to safely carry the load that may be imposed upon it when the tank is full of water, but also to withstand a wind pressure of forty pounds per square foot, which is equal to a wind blowing at the rate variously estimated by authorities to be of eighty to one hundred miles per hour. The following data of this tower may be of interest:
Weight of tank, twelve tons; weight of steel substructure, thirty tons; weight of foundation masonry, fourteen tons; weight of water when tank is full, 279 tons; total weight to be su>tained, 335 tons. 1’ressure to be sustained per square foot of foundation base is 2,300 pounds. The tank is located alongside the reservoir, and where the bottom joins the sides it is seventy-one feet above the top of the reset voir embankment. Water is pumped into the tank through a pipe connected centrally with its bottom, and from thence after the water has reached a height within two and one-feet from the top of the tank, it overflows tnrough a pipe terminating in a bell-mouthed standing-pipe, located in the centre of the reservoir.
Water is taken from the Ohio river at Front street station, and pumped to the Third street reservoir, called the low service, and to Eden park reservoir, termed the middle service. All services but these two and Linwood repump water. The Eden Park pumping station, taking water to the reservoir, pumps into the Eden Park water tower; and, with the Hunt street station, which takes water from the effluent mains from Eden park reservoirs aud pumps it into the Mount Auburn tanks, forms what is designated as the Mount Auburn and Eden park high service. The Mount Hope pumping station pumps water from the mains supplied from Third street reservoir into Price hill tanks, and is known as the Western hills high service. Cumminsville high service station takes water from Eden park mains, and pumps to the elevated portion of northwest Cumminsville by direct pressure. The Linwood station uses water from artesian wells, supplying the low service of the village of Linwood through the medium of a reservoir and steel standpipe, twenty by twenty-five feet, conical bottom, located at an elevated point, on steel trestle seventy feet high, which supplies the high service of the village. The elevation of the water tank is 407 feet; of the reservoir, 291 feet; gallons of water pumped in 1S96 (partly estimated) 23 -942,000—total number cf water branch connections, 99. The Linwood plant was in existence when the village was annexed to the city, January 1, 1S96. and is a pumping station and electric light plant combined. Water is pumped into a tank, an i overflows into a reservoir, the former supplying the high and the latter, the lower levels. Water is obtained from driven wells. The capacity of the two Laidlaw-DunnGordon pumps is 1,000,000 gallons. They are of the compound non-condensing duplex type, with outside packed plunger. The capacity of the standpipe is 65.500gallons; of the reservoir (storage and distributing) 500,000, 370 feet above the floor of the storehouse; six miles of mains; 250 taps made by the city; services, lead, paid for by consumer; meterf, five, owned and repai ed by consumer, controled by the city.
During the year the west basin of the Eden l’ark reservoir was thoroughly cleaned—an account of which as furnished to FIRK AND WATER by Mr. Tharp shall appear next week. The east, or upper basin of the reservoir was completed in 1872, while the west basin was used for the first time in 1878. Th area of the reservoir is about thirteen acres; its depth, thirty feet; its capacity, 100.000.000 gallons—57,000,000 for the east basin, and 47,000,000 for the west. The operation of removing the sediment was ingenious and effective.
(To be continued.)