In no one commodity has the American people been more wasteful than in the use of water. A glance over the reports of the various water departments of the country will show a great difference in the per capita consumption of water. Some communities, similar in conditions, use three times as much as others. Why? Is it due to faulty plumbing fixtures, failure to keep pipes in repair or carelessness in the use of water? Some of the waste may be due to poor equipment but the greater part of the waste may be charged to the carelessness and indifference of the consumer. The case of the group of recent immigrants in a large industrial center who allowed the faucet to run continuously during the summer so as to cool bottles of beverages placed in the sink is by no means unique. The idea was to save the price of ice, at the expense of the landlord who paid the water bill. Another example of wasting water by these same people was the washing of bottles by allowing a continuous stream of water to flow into them. The excessive use of water on lawns in suburban districts still further increases the volume of waste on the premises of the water taker. In this respect the municipality is often also at fault in permitting the excessive use of water in public buildings, especially schools, in drinking and ornamental fountains, for street sprinkling and sewer flushing. Further losses are often due to leakage from reservoirs, from the numerous joints of the pipes of the supply distribution and service systems, and from small breaks, the leakage from which does not appear on the surface. All these losses are practically non-preventable, but should not be allowed to continue for any length of time. Other similar practices increase the consumption of water above the normal and entail increased expenditures for additional supplies such as new mains, pumping machinery, etc., with a corresponding increase in the annual expenditures for their maintenance and operation. The experience of the best water systems show that the amount of water required for domestic purposes, in which may be included that used on lawns and in private stables, varies from ten to a hundred gallons per person per day and is dependent chiefly upon the character and mode of life of the individual consumer and the season of water. The ave’rage consumption may be exceeded 50 per cent, or more during days in summer when water is used extensively on lawns, and in winter when the water is wasted to prevent freezing. In the communities where arrangements arc made to account for every gallon of water the amount of water registered by the service meters is less than the measured amount delivered into the mains, the discrepancy amounting to from 20 to 50 per cent, of the quantity supplied. This discrepancy is probably due to errors in the various measurements caused by the slip of pumps, and to losses through leakage front the mains and services and in some instances from unauthorized connections and under registration of meters. The loss, due to leakage from the distribution system, should not exceed about 3,000 gallons per day per mile of main. Experience shows that where meters are not extensively used the larger portion of the waste of water takes place on the premises of the consumers as a result of negligence or wilfulness on the part of the consumer. Every superintendent of a water system should provide checks often on different parts of the water system so that he can see if the amount of waste is above that average.