WATER WORKS CONVENTION.

WATER WORKS CONVENTION.

THE NEW ENGLAND ASSOCIATION’S ANNUAL MEETING AT LYNN.

A GREAT SUCCESS.

THE fifteenth annual convention of the New England Water Works Association was brought to a close on Friday, the 12th instant, after disposing of a program of useful papers and discussing various important subjects lelating to water works construction. The rain, which had fallen over the New England section of the country for a few days previous to the meeting, had the effect of keeping many members away on the first day; but on Thursday the register showed more than the average number present. J. C. Haskell, superintendent of the I.ynn works, had all arrangements for the convention in a very perfect condition, especially with regard to the place of meeting and that for the exhibits. The lattter was in the main hall of the Seymour house, and afforded an excellent opportunity to display the various appliances on hand. There was sufficient entertaining to make the work of the association pleasant; especially to the members who look forward to spending an enjoyable holiday as well as receiving valuable information at these annual gatherings. Strictly business conventions will not attract large attendances; a moderate amount of the time of the convention must be given to profitable recreation. Desmond FitzGerald made an excellent president, and his successor, J. C. Haskell, will, no doubt, keep up the high standard already set for its presiding officers.

The convention was called to order at 11:30 A. M. on Wed-

nesday in the hall of the Oxford club, with Desmond Fitz Gerald presiding. He introduced Hon. A. Bessom, mayor of Lynn. In welcoming the members of the association to the city the mayor said in part :

I am glad you have chosen this place for your convention. I think it will not only be an advantage to the association to know something of the city of Lynn, but that the people should become acquainted with the objects and reason for the existence of the New England Water Works Association. Lynn was settled in 1629, and is now one of the leading manufacturing cities of New England. The people of New England are proud of their industries and Lynn is no less proud of hers. Lynn possesses many natural advantages in the way of scenery and I trust you will go home with many pleasant remembrances of your visit. We claim to be the largest shoe-producing centre of the world; but we also have many other industries of which perhaps little is known, as they are overshadowed by the greater industry of shoemaking. We have a prosperous community and a good one in which to live. The people know little about your association; but it is one of the’most important organizations of late years. By your coming together you are made better able to serve the interests of yourconstituents, and the community derives the benefit. The organization is keeping abreast with the great movements of the times, and 1 congratulate you on having so excellent an association, and welcome you most heartily to the city of Lynn.

President FitzGerald in replying said:

In behalf of the New England Water Works Association I desire to thank you for your hearty reception, and assure you that we will carry away many pleasant memories, and I believe that we shall derive more benefit from our visit to Lynn than will you. The enterprise and energy of the people of your city has been well known for many years. But I believe the most attractive side of Lynn is not in its manufactures or its public works, but in its topography. Its long and beautiful stretch of seacoast. old High rock, and the magnificent Lynn Woods park— these are jewels cf which Lynn may well feel proud, and I congratulate you on their possession. Boston may be the “ Hub” of the universe; but it is to Lynn we look for our understanding.

The following new members were then elected.

John E. Smith, superintendent, Andover, Mass.; D. W. Sweeney, commissioner, Methuen, Mass.; Frank S. Badger, assistant engineer, Lowell, Mass.; FI. A. Ellsworth. C. E., Holyoke, Mass; H. Metcalfe, commissioner, Cold Spring, N. V.; II. De C. Richards. C. E., New York city, J. F. Miller, secretary and superintendent, E. Pittsburgh, Pa., and C. li. Bryant, C. E. Martinsville, Va.

PHESIDENT’S ADDRESS.

The President then delivered his address as follows: Gentlemen of the New England Water Works Association:

The fifteenth annual convention marks another year in the history of this association. It is a fitting time to review briefly the prospective of the past, to glance at our present positions, and to turn our faces to the future so fast approaching us. To me ralize is almost always wearisome, and from this your retiring President will endeavor to refrain; but one can hardly turn the pages of our record backwards without being struck at the steady, persistent progress of the New England Water Works Association. Here is a concise table of membership from the foundation to the present time:

From this table it appears that all the classes of membership are growing—none more persistently than the active members. We must not forget that one of the best foundation stones in our edifice is the associate member. It is to his skill and enterprise that many of the best advances in water works are due. Without the emulation which springs from competition in the useful arts,many of the undertakings which are now so easy of accomplishment would fall to the ground. It is to the workshop and the foundry that we turn for the means of accomplishing some of our best inspirations. As far as numbers are concerned, we may congratulate ourselves upon the upward rise of the membership curve; but it must be borne in mind that it is not from mere increase of membership alone that a society derives its real strength. It is rather in the ever growing number of those who take an active interest in the welfare of the association, who attend the meetings, who take part in the literary exercises and discussions, and who freely give from their store of knowledge and experience, that the real vital power of an association is felt and its influence established. It is from this standpoint that our work in the past seems to offer the highest encouragement. The meetings have been growing steadily in interest and activity, and, while pervaded with the best spirit of goodfellowship, there is always visible a strong undercurrent of earnest desire to learn something, to keep fully abreast with the progress of the times, and to advance the genera! cause in which we are embarked.

Let us examine for a moment the work which the association has been engaged upon during the year just closing—for it is from this kind of a survey that we arrive at the clearest idea of our present position. During the past year, papers on the following subjects have been submitted: Electrolysis; Caloric determination of the value of fuel; Water supplies of Lynn, Burlington. Manchester, St. Louis, Waterbury, and Milford; Uniformity of methods in testing water methods; Tests of articles of commerce to be conducted by the association; The Metropolitan Water Supply of Massachusetts; The sanitary condition of the water supply of Berlin; An electrical pumping plant; Water-borne diseases; Description of second tubewell plant at Lowell; Handling fires whiie changing distribution mains; The friction in several pumping mains; Some notes on the formation of tubercules in iron and steel penstocks; The appearance of Chara Fragilis in the reservoir of a public water supply; Recording pressure gauges; Water filter at the Milford water works; Anchor ice. T his list of subjects shows the wide range of topics covered by the papers delivered before this association. It goes without saying that both papers and the discussions ensuing have proved valuable contributions to water supply literature.

Our convention at Burlington in September last will not soon beforgotten. Itwasaparticularlyenjoyableoccasion. The beautiful sails on Lake Champlain, the picturesque trip through the Ausable chasm, and the cordial hospitality so freely bestowed cannot soon fade from the memory. In oneof the advancing steps which this association has quite recently taken, it seems to me we may feel especial pride. On May 20 we met with our little sister society in the Tremont Temple, and, after a most enjoyable banquet, opened our permanent headquarters in that new building which has just been erected in the very heart of the city. Here we have a large room comfortably furnished and provided with current magazines, tables at which we may read and study, and desks at which we may write; and here we have started a library, in which we trust all members will take an interest and will feel it a matter of honor to foster. With the consent of the executive committee, a circular has recently been prepared, and it will soon be sent out all over the country, asking for contributions of books and pamphlets for our shelves. The library will be devoted to the subject of water works in all its various branches and, perhaps, before many years the association may find itself in possession of a valuable collection of water works books. I trust that the new headquarters will prove a convenience to non-resident members as well as those who live in the city; for here they will find a quiet place in the busy part of the “ Hub’’ where they can retire for conference or for study.

If we as an association feel a certain satisfaction in reviewing the past and the present, what should be our thoughts as we turn to the future? One of the surest ways of judging the future is by the past, and by this standard it seems to me that the outlook is a cheerful one. It is an almost every day expression that we hear about us, ” the waterworks question is getting to be an important one”—and nothing can be truer. As we look around, we find that almost all the large cities in the country are laboring with the gigantic problems connected with the growth of their water works systems, while the smaller cities and towns are either extending their works, or combining for mutual benefit, and even the villages are beginning to waken to the advantages of public supplies. With all this restless activity in our common interest, it does not seem possible that the future has not some marvellous surprises for us, even when our imaginations are stimulated to the utmost.

One of the most important problems that confront the water works official is the question of the reckless abuse of water. While many excellent papers have been written on the subject of waste—and none abler than those found in our own “Transactions.”—much work still remains to be done in this direction. Enormous sums of money are lavished in the extensions of supply systems, but in the majority of cases without succeeding in the effort to get ahead of the consumption. Here is, indeed, a wide field for patient investigation and particularly for the display of courage—for it is not always a popular task to limit the use of water to legitimate purpose. A great educational work remains to be undertaken; but the reward is surely ready for those who have the talent and energy to bring about reform.

I have already alluded to the activity going on about us in every direction connected with water supplies. In every development of this kind New England stands well to the front. It is unnecessary for me to allude to many of the grand enterprises now underweigh under the direction of members of this association. You are all familiar with the unique system already under construction, known as the Metropolitan Water Works of Massachusetts—a system which looks far into the future, and which unites in one great chain stretching westward from Boston, Cochituate Lake, and the Sudbury, Assabet, Nashua, Ware, and Swift rivers. Never before was such a far-reach ing scheme started with so little opposition and under such harmonious auspices. On the borders of New England we find that great nretroplitan centre, New York, also engaged in works of grand proportions unequaled, so far, in the his tory of the world; and these works arc largely under the care of members of this association.

Some of the New York work may not be entirely familiar to the present audience, and at the risk of wearying you I will give a brief resume of the leading features. The city of New York is fortunate in having such an excellent source of supply as the Croton river. Almost its only drawback is the fact that, when the present works for its full development are completed, the city in a very few years will be obliged to seek an additional source. The watershed is an excellent one, comparatively free from swamps, and containing a very small population. Its area is 360 square miles. A dozen years ago. and after the old Croton aqueduct had supplied New York for nearly half a century, its capacity was overtaxed, and it was found almost impossible to meet the daily consumption, which was then about 110,000,000 gallons. The only way in which the city could be saved front an absolute water famine was by throttling tht gates at Central l’ark reservoir and reducing the pressure in the mains. An extensive scheme of works was at once planned and carried out, and it certainly constitutes the most stupendous system in the nature of watef supply the world has ever seen. A princely sum was at once put at the disposal of the commission, $50,000,000. Almost the whole of the additions have either been completed or are in process of execution, and we are in position to judge of their extent and quality. The chief peculiariity of the new Croton aqueduct already completed lies in the fact that it is almost entirely in tunnel. It is practically 33 miles long and cost $20,000,000, or from $90 to $123 per lineal foot. It is of horseshoe section, and equivalent to a 14 foot circle, and has a capacity of 302,467,000 gallons daily. Seven miles are under pressure—a bold innovation, but one which has proved successful. The total leakage outwards in this seven miies is about 228,;OJ gallons daily, although the maximum pressure is toofeet head of water. The masonry part of the structure terminatesat Ore Hundred and Thirty-fifth street, and from this point eight lines of 48-inch pipe, laid side by side, extend to different points of the distribution system. While the new Croton aqueduct was building, several very large storage basins were constructed upon the watershed, involving many interesting features. The largest one of all, formed by the Cornell dam, was begun about two years ago. It was estimated that by providing 55,000,000 gallons storage, the Croton might be developed to the extent of providing 250,000,000 gallons daily. When the new aqueduct was completed in 1891, the consumption of water in New York rose to 165,000.000 gallons daily, and it is now about 200.000.000 daily, 50 rapidly is the capacity of new works taxtd, il wise restrictions are not placed upon the consumers’ end o( asystem. The available amount of water stored,when all the basins are built, ir about 75,000,oco.ooo gallons, ft was stated that $20,000,000 has been expended on the aqueduet;$to,ooo 000 more has been exp nded on the watershed. The new Croton dam will cost $5,000,000: the Jerome Park reservoir $5,000,000 more—making $40,000,000 out of the total $50.000,000appropriated. The new Croton dam at Cornell’s issucha magnificent undertaking that it deserves something more than a passing notice. Statistics,however,are wearisome. It may suffice to state that the dam will be the largest ever constructed by the hand of man. It will Ire 260 feet high and 190 feet thick at the base, which is to repose on the rock more than too feet below the river, I he water at the dam will be 140 feet deep: but the dam has to be built to withstand a head of over 250 feet. Although the dam was begun more than two years ago, yet the foundations arc not even laid. The spillway, which is partly cut out of the side hill, and extends up stream at right angles with the face of the dam. is to be 1,000 feet long, or about the same length as the dam itself. The Jerome Park reservoir, now begun, will undoubtedly be the finest, most elaborate, and most expensive distributing reservoir in the world. It will hold seven and one-half days’supply. The Central Park reservoir holds live days’ supply—making a total of twelve and one-half days’ storage inside of the city.

I have gone into the description of the New York works at some length, because they form a type on so large a scale of our American practice. If we look across the water,however, we find the very same activity in the direction of extension of water supplies there as in our own land. London is now considering several plans, which almost excel any on this side of the Atlantic; Liverpool has built the Vyrnwydam. Hamburg has just completed its magnificent system of filtration; Paris is reaching out for more comprehensive plans, and the same is true of all the other centres of population in the Old World.

Would it not be a fine scheme if we could have at some future day a grand review or congress of water works officials from all over the world —and what more appropriate place for a meeting could be selected than Hoston? The inauguration of the Metropolitan system would afford the excuse,and the execution of the plan would be an honor to this association and a benefit to all mankind.

In conclusion permit me to thank you for the kind consideration shown me during the past year. Owing to the nature of my engagements, it has not been possible for me to take as active a part in tbe labors of the association as I should like to have done; but,with the able supervision of the executive committee, the secretary, treasurer, and editors, your business has been faithfully administered. To these officers I desire to extend my hearty thanks. Since the last atinual meeting we have lost by death six of our members -John L. Harrington. M. M. Tidd, C. F. Doherty. Horace L. Eaton, I’red I. Chaffee, James 11 Stanwood. Their last earthly work is accomplished; but their example remains as an inspiration and incentive for our own efforts.

1 X KCUTtVE REPORTS.

Treasurer Bachelder presented his report, which showed a balance on hand after payment of $3,148.49; expenditure of $2,704.45. The report was adopted. The secretary’s report showed that there were in the arsociation 442 active, 82 associate, and 5 honorary members,making a total of 529.

WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON SESSION

At the Wednesday afternoon session John C. Haskell, superintendent of Lynn,read an excellent paper on “ I low to secure pure water from a surface water supply.” The paper dealt with the collecting, storing, and preserving water from impurities.

Water (he said) to be used for quenching our thirst should possess no disagreeable taste or odor, no color and not be dangerous to health. They have in the basement of the city hall in Lynn, a laboratory in which biological examinations arc made weekly of samples of water taken at points one foot above the bed of all their ponds. Although this is a subject of great importance, and one which covers a wide field for special sturdy in different directions, it is one which has not been given the prominence it deserves,and is not as yet perfectly understood. The standard of purity should be kept as high as possible, and to accomplish such a result it is necessary to know what produces the various changes and the best methods to Ire followed for their prevention. Tbe usual course pursued by expert engineers, until within a few years, in providing a system of water supply by artificially storing water in a reservoir formed by constructing a dam across the valley of a small stream or river, gave very little thought as to the liability of a change in the character of the water impounded therein. Quantity, not quality was what was wanted. From the first of these artificial reservoirs it was found that at times it possessed very disagreeable qualities. Some of the organisms in the waters are not injurious in any way to the character of the water, except to sight. Others, although invisible to sight, are disagreeable both in taste or odor; some possess all of the disagreeable attributes. While it is generally claimed that the presence of large amounts of decaying vegatable organisms in our waters is not dangerous to health, it is certainly very disagreeable, and in his opinion, not altogether harmless. Mr. Haskell also spoke of the work upon the watershed of Walden pond, in 1895, when the color of the water was reduced fron 76 in 1895. to 43 for 1896. This reduction in color is perceptible, and undoubtedly the diminution in taste and odor was greater. Natural ponds are not free from periodical changes in character of water, and there is no certainty that their water will be pure at all times. Eynn’s experience is based upon artificial reservoirs. Breed’s and Birch ponds are purified to a large extent by natural causes; but at times each year furnish growths of organisms that render the water disagreeable. The improvement in the other ponds, Walden and (den l.ewis. has not been so rapid In (den Lewis no perceptible impovement has been seen. Its value as a storage reservoir, however, is not destroyed, from the fact that the water is of good character a sufficient portion ol the time to allow its use without waste. As regar s Walden pond, instead of removing all soil from its bed, it was covered with a heavy covering of gravel or sand, which proved very successful and showed an equally good appearance of the covered areas and those from which all soil was removed. Samples showed that the organisms were missing from the gravel, but remained in the uncovered soil. As to filtration, not only bv filter, but also at the faucet, it was very important and the process had only begun. It was recognized by Germany law obliging its use in all surface water supplies.

The full text of this paper will appear in a later edition of EIRE AND WATER. Considerable discussion followed its reading,in which Messrs. Cleaver, Noyes, Holden, FitzGerald, Goodnow, Fuller, and others took part. This was followed by a paper on “ Water Wotks Finance” by Freeman C. Coffin, C. E. Boston. This was a very carefully prepared paper, covering a wide field of experience and data bearing on the subject. It was discussed at length by Messrs. Whitney, Crandall, Fuller, Holloway, Noyes, and Bates.

The meeting was adjoined at 5 o’clock.

In the evening Mr. Jesse Garrett delivered a very interesting lecture illustrated with stereopticon views on “The making of cast iron pipe,” of which the following is the opening part:

In the reign of Henry IV. of France, a water engine was constructed lor a special supply to the Louvre, and the Tuileries. On its front were illustrated the figures of Christ and the Woman of Samaria, and the name engraved upon it was “ The Pump of the Samaritan.”

For its universal efficacy in all phases of sanitation, in all ages of the world, the dispensing of water easily relates itself not only to the Well of Samaria (of tender memory), but to the mission of the Good Samaritan, bestowing healing and joy by the wayside. In this spirit men have reasoned together from the dawn of history, how best to distribute to their craving fellows God’s bountiful gift of water, and in this spirit men and women, too, still reason together to magnify the ministering office, to multiply the resources for fulfilling the mission of the Good Samaritan. In this spirit we reason together to-day.

History ot pipes.—The history of the various kinds of pipes for the conveyance and distribution of water as regards the dominance of each, might be divided into four periods, as follows: The Age of Lead The Age of Wood, The Age of Stone, The Age of fron. The transitions from the one to the other in the first three periods, were not, however, absolute, each obtruding upon its successor for many centuries, and none obtaining the domination that cast iron has now reached, and, to all present appearances,will continue to hold, notwithstanding the fact that steel-riveted conduits for large supplies and long distances appear to be winning the attention of engineers. Many occurrences would seem to imply, however, that weare yet in the early educational period regarding the latter, while a century of cast iron has demonstrated its staying qualily and established its claim to rule. The approaching important question of extending the London water system, reaching out to the lakes of Wales, 150 miles or more, those of New York and Philadelphia to the head waters of the Hudson and the Delaware, may bring steel pipe further to the attention of the engineering world. But again, the duplex system, differentiating the domestic from the public use, as now employed in Paris, is probably a coming query to be answered in all our large cities, in which cast iron pipe must necessarily retain its present strong position, and a friendly rivalry between the two constructions may not materially interfere with the success of the other.

The Age of Lead.—Leaden pipes, as a distributing medium, appear to extend back to the dawn of history. In the ancient cities of Asia, Egypt, and Greece they were used to convey water where the pressure was too great for earthernware. In the reign of King David, in the city called Zobah, afterwards Aleppo, lead pipes probably predominated, though some of stone or earthenware have been found, as also in the Temple of Solomon, and in public works of his reign. In his engineering schemes Archimedes used lead pipes largely, and it was through lead that water was ultimately carried to the gardens of Babylon, after earthenware had been abandoned as unequal to the pressure. Greece, in all things tending towards refinement and luxury, led the advance in the most ancient times, and set the subseque.it pace for Rome. In Pope’s translation of the “ Odyssey,” we have these lines:

“ The stream in pipes beneath the palace flows,

And thence its current in the town bestows

To various uses, various currents bring;

The people some supply, and some the king.”

Though in their wondrous works of utility and beauty the Romans, as conquerors, adopted the prevalent ideas, methods and materials of the subjugated peoples, their marvelous powers of adaptation and magnificent results were nearly worthy to rank as original creation. From the foundation of Rome, contemporary in Biblical history with the reign of Zachariah, for 440 years the people were content with the waters of the Tiber and such as their various pools supplied, in their earliest construction of water works they borrowed the idea of lead pipes from the Greeks. These were made of leaden sheets soldered together and were in various lengths, mostly, however, of 10 feet and from 1 to 12 inches in diameter. Various eccentricities of form are described; some were cylindrical; but mostly oval, with the seam at the apex. Even in those early days it was a subject of discussion and by some seriously averred that lead pipes poisoned the .water, which remains a question of. debate with you to this day. The distribution lines carrying water to and through the bathing places and the houses, were the property of the crown, and conceded to families and individuals, whose names were required to be engraved on the pipe; and these, in the excavations now going forward, locate the residence of this or that personage, and many men of note are so traced to theirancient homes to-day,. At the period here described, within the walls of Rome, were 1,800 palaces and 50,000 houses of the people who numbered one million.

THURSDAY’S SESSIONS.

At the opening session Thursday morning, a short discussion took place on Mr. Garrett’s paper, in which Mr. Noyes, the author, and Mr. Priee took part. This was followed by a paper by Louis E. Hawes, C. E., of Boston, on “ Utilizing a spring as a source of supply for a town.”

The paper contained particulars of the conditions favorable to the appearance of spring water sources and exhibited a number of charts made after practical experimenting. After describing various spring supplies, the author gave some information as to court contests in cases where springs had been taken by eminent domain. He also showed how the capacity of a spring could be obtained,and compared the watershed containing springs with those which did not. He further gave some interesting statistics concerning town supplied by springs in tbe State.

The paper, after a short discussion, was ordered printed in the proceedings. The next paper was that on “ Method of connecting driven wells tosuction-main, and manner ot laying mains and connecting with the pump,” by F. F. Forbes, C. E. of Brookline,Mass..which was read. This paper proved very interesting„showing the method adopted by the author in laying a new main 6,260 feet in length, and in driving several wells in Brookline in 189J, and 1893. A short discussion followed the reading of the paper.

At the evening session Thursday, the first paper read was that by George C. Whipple, C. E., biologist water works, Boston, on “Some observations on the relation of light to the growth of diatoms.” Several charts were used in illustration of the subject showing the results obtained by experiments, at various depths and at different times.

It was found that the light was affected by two conditions, first, absorption by the water, and, second, by the small particles in suspension in the water acting as a screen. At ten feet below the surface the light was only 5 per cent of that at the surface. In light water the growth of diatoms is greater than in darker water, ard exists at a greater depth. Diagrams from Cochituate lake showed that specimens taken from the surface were very full of diatoms; at a depth of five feet it was much less; and at a depth of ten feet there was almost no growth. The weather conditions had considerable to do with the growth of diatoms.

At the’conclusion of this paper, F. W. Dean.M. E. Boston, presented a paper containing criticisms upon the specifications for the new St. Louis pumping engines made by M. L. Holman, water commissioner of that city. The engines are of the vertical triple expansion type and 15,000,000 capacity, and are expected to give satisfactory results, running at low speed.

The last paper on “ Extension of Cambridge Water Works ” by L. M. Hastings, city engineer, was then read. It was a history of the work performed in the recent extension of the system at that place, and the different points of interest were illustrated with the stereopticon.

The first water supply for the city of Cambridge was furnished by the Cambridgeport Aqueduct Company, incorporated in 1S37, w hich obtained its water from springs at I’rospect Hill, Somerville, and was conveyed in wooden pipes to the city. In 1856, the Cambridge Water Company was organized. obtaining its supply from Fresh pond, with the overflow from Spy and other ponds. This company absorbed the old company, and both supplies were finally sold to the city in 1865 for $291,400. The city then had a population of 29,112. The entire cost of water construction for the city to the present time has been $4,022,681.92. In 1S84 the right was granted to use Stony brook, and the city’s chief reliance is now on this, and in it the present extension exists. The population of the city to day is about 84.000, and the average daily consumption 6,000,000 gallons. T here are three ends in view in making the extension now under way, viz., increase of supply, increase of pressure, and increase of pumping capacity; and these it is hoped to obtain ty increasing the storage capacity.

A short discussion followed, after which the meeting was adjourned.

ELECTION OF OFFICERS.

On Friday morning the election of officers was proceeded with and resulted as follows:

President. John C. Haskell, superintendent. Lynn, Mass.; vice-presidents, H. T. Sparks, superintendent, Bangor, Me.; C. H. Walker, superintendent. Manchester, N. H.; F. H, Crandall, superintendent, Burlington, Yt.; Henry A. Cook, superintendent, Salem, Mass.; Willard Kent, manager, Narragansett Bier, R.I.; Theodore IDMcKenzie. manager, Southington, Conn.; secretary J. C. Whitney, water registrar, Newton, Mass.: treasurer. G. E. Batchelder, water registrar. Worcester, Mass.; senioreditor, Allen Hazen, C. E., Boston, Mass.; junior editor, W. H. Richards, engineer and superindent. New Dondon, Conn.; executive committee—H. G. Holden, superintendent, Nashua, N. ID; R. C. I’. Coggeshall, superintendent, New Bedford, Mass.; D. N. Tower, superintendent. Cohasset, Mass.; finance committee—A. R. Hathaway, water registrar, Springfield Mass.; A. W. F. Brown, water registrar; Fitchburg Mass.; William McNally, water registrar, Marlboro, Mass.

A vote of thanks to the Dynn water board and citizens who had made the stay of the members of the Association in the city so pleasant was moved by R. C. B. Coggeshall and carried with enthusiasm. A vote of thanks to the Salem water board and people of that city was also carried. This closed the convention of 1896*

WATER-WORKS CONVENTION.

WATER-WORKS CONVENTION.

Complete Report of the Proceedings at Milwaukee, with the Exception of the Papers Read, which will be Published Later On.—The Exhibits.— Names of Those Present.

President Benzenberg of Milwaukee called the meeting to order in the Arcade room of the hotel and introduced Mayor Koch of Milwaukee, who said:

Mr. President and gentlemen—It gives me great pleasure to meet you here to-day and I extend to you the welcome of the city. I hope you will enjoy all the time you are with us and I have no doubt that Mr. Benzenberg will make it interesting for you. Our Milwaukee people have large hearts and you are welcome to them. Gentlemen, you are welcome. (Applause.)

The president then introduced C. C. Rogers, president of the Milwaukee Advancement Association, who said :

Mr. Chairman and gentlemen—A young man once asked Henry Ward Beecher what he considered to be one of the noblest attributes of the human heart. “ Next to the blessedness of God,” said he, ” was the conscious knowledge in knowing that he had welcomed the stranger at his gate and hospitably entertained him.” Our Mayor, alive to this thought and fully appreciating the importance of the American Waterworks Association, has in the name of the city of Milwaukee, bade you welcome. Imbued with this thought, gentlemen, it is my pleasure in behalf of the association for the advancement of Milwaukee and all the kindred organizations of the city, to make you thrice welcome to the metropolis of the great State of Wisconsin. Milwaukee, gentlemen, is not boastful, but it is proud of the present position it occupies in the sisterhood of States. It has a just and commendable pride in showing to the world that it has the largest population of any city in the Northwest in proportion to the area it occupies, for no city of twenty-two and one-quarter square miles can boast of a population of 250,000.

The economy of our municipal government bespeaks in the strongest terms possible of the high integrity and public interest of its officials. Its police and fire departments are among the best, its board of public works is most admirably administered, and in its chief engineer, gentlemen, we have one who has already won a national reputation. (Applause.)

We are aware that the American Water-works Association is, indeed, a most notable gathering of men possessing ability and skilled and scientific in the highest degree ; and the questions that you will discuss are fraught with the greatest public interest, because of the widespread influence of this association. Your deliberations must necessarily be beneficial in disseminating knowledge, not only as being educational, but as a means of founding correct public opinion. We are glad, gentlemen, to be honored with your presence, and we trust that your deliberations may prove all that you wish for them.

The president read a letter from Governor Peck, in which he expressed regret for his inability to attend the meeting. Secretary Milne was called upon to acknowledge the address of welcome and said :

Mr. Mayor, Mr. Rogers and gentlemen —The pleasant duty devolves upon me, owing to the modesty of our president, to respond to the happy and courteous sentiments expressed to the American Water-Works Association. It is very delightful to hear such words of welcome as have been expressed, and they are a means of encouragement to us. We appreciate our work as an association, but it is pleasant to find that those who are not among us appreciate the efforts we are making. We are honored in being in such a progressive and enterprising city as Milwaukee. I believe I echo the sentiments of every gentleman present when I say that each one individually appreciates all that you have bestowed upon us as an association ; and I may say further, that we will do the city of Milwaukee no discredit, but we shall try to do her honor. (Applause.)

President Benzenberg then read his address.

The following applications for active membership were presented : Baton Rouge, La., John H. Wood, secretary and general manager water company ; Brooklyn, N. Y., D. J. Hagerty, deputy water purveyor; Freeport, Ill., Owen T. Smith, superintendent water company ; Iron Mountain, Mich., E. A. Croll, superintendent water-works ; Jackson, Miss.,W. F. Wilcox, superintendent water-works; Lafayette, Ind., Edward Cunningham, superintendent water-works ; Madison, Wis., J. B. Hein, superintendent city water-works; New Britain, Conn., J. W. Ringroxe. water commissioner; Philadelphia, Wm. II. Boardman, civil engineer; Salina, Kan., John I.. Bishop, superintendent water-works ; Savannah, Ga., James Manning, superintendent water works ; Stafford Spring, Conn., R. S. Hicke, secretary water company ; Stapleton, N. Y., John B. Newhall, superintendent Crystal Water Company.

Benj. C. Smith, water-works supplies of Brooklyn, was elected an associate member.

Samuel McElroy’s paper on “ Driven wells, supplementary supply to Brooklyn, N. Y.,” was then read.

Mr. Diveu—Do I understand correctly that the supply from these wells increase after they have been in use for some time ?

Mr. McEltoy—No, sir; just the opposite; the fine sand which enters the screen affects the friction and compels the pumps either to take less quantity or to do more work to get the same quantity. It does not seem to have any other effect in the Long Island formation.

Mr. Caulfield—I would like to ask what kind of strainer ?

Mr. McElroy—Mr. Andrews is using a very fine brass screen.

Mr. Caulfield—Some ot our strainers in St. Paul are fifty teet long. They are made with slots cut from the inside V shaped, the small part being on the outer edge. I thought they might have had some of these in use in Brooklyn, and I wished to know with what success.

Mr. McElroy—I think in our case anything that would do for a gravel formation or rock formation or coarse formation would not answer for the fine sand of Long Island. It would let the sand in at once.

Mr. Benzenberg—I did not remark whether you stated the distance between these wells in any of these cases.

Mr. McElroy—Yes, they are twelve feet apart in one direction and fifteen feet apart in the other.

Mr. Benzenberg—Did you come to the practice of placing them that distance from observation of the natural flow that the water took, or did you merely assume that as the proper distance ?

Mr. McElroy—Mr. Andrews, who put the wells down, was evidently led by a considerable practice to adopt that system, and Ido not think he has changed it. He is building all the wells we put down after the same plan. I presume it is because he finds that about the proper proportion.

Mr. Benzenberg—I find from some observation in the northern part of this State that it is not economical to place them nearer than fifty feet, and in some cases not nearer than too, because the draught from the wells comes to interfere to a certain extent with those of the adjacent wells, and you do not obtain any larger flow of water by getting them any closer together. You increase the friction without obtaining correspondingly favorable results. In the northern part of this State they found that wells too feet apart gave the largest volume of flow and the best results, taking into consideration the expense of maintaining and driving the wells.

Mr. Cunningham—In our city of Lafayette, Ind., we determined this matter as we proceeded. We placed two wells at what we thought a proper distance, and then pumped one well, and after it pumped the other, and if necessary moved them further apart, and we found with our gravel bed, that thirty feet was sufficient. We finally determined on thirty feet each way. Our wells are thirty feet deep, in sand, in the bed of the river. The suction pipe is four feet below the bed of the river. As the river rises we pump that much easier. We tested in different parts, and finally went to the bed of the river, and State chemist tells us that our water is of a quality to commend itself to the palates of the people. I think this matter of wells bears more on the question of the future water supply than other question, in view of the fact that our rivers are becoming each year more polluted. It looks as if we should have to go to other places than running streams for our water supply.

Mr. Decker—What style of wells are you using in Brooklyn ; is it the single tube, direct connected well or the double ?

Mr. McElroy—Just the plain two-inch tube ; direct connection.

Mr. Decker—Is it not a fact that there is a greater tendency with the direct connected tube to draw the sand in than there is where you have the open tube, where the water flows in. by gravity, without the additional vacuum of suction in the tube itself ?

Mr. McElroy—Yes, I should think that was the case. The convention then adjourned until the afternoon. TUESDAY-AFTERNOON SESSION.

The secretary’s report was presented, which showed the total membership to be: Active, 282 ; associate, 71 ; honorary, r.

The report referred to the death of three active members during the last year: Howard Elmer, Sayre, Pa.; R. M. Gow, Medford, Mass.; C. F. McLain, Syracuse, N. Y.

The report of the treasurer was also presented, and showed the financial transactions of the year as follows ; Receipts, $2,264.60; expenses, $1,292.73 ; $971.87.

The paper by Professor E. G. Smith, Beloit, Wis., on “ Deep artesian wells as a source of water supply ” was then read.

Mr. Gardner—In alluvial soils in the vicinity of New Orleans, separated from hills for a distance of 200 or 300 miles, we have so-called artesian wells. They are flowing wells, rising above the surface, but the water has all the characteristics of swamp water—highly charged with salt and ammonia. What under the circumstances develops that flow ? It is not a true artesian well, because it cannot come from higher source.

Professor Smith—What is the depth of the well ?

Mr. Gardner—Varying from 400 to 1000 feet.

Professor Smith—I am not familiar with the conditions of artesian wells at the locality referred to. It would seem to me, however, that these wells must represent the other leg of the syphon, and that somewhere there are confining strata which give the necessary conditions for the flowing wells and give the head. May there not be deep lying confining clay strata, compact strata (not necessarily rock), thus establishing the flowing wells The water may come from an immense distance ; it makes no difference.

Mr. Gardner—I desire to ask Colonel Fanning this question : I said that in New Orleans we have an alluvial soil, utterly free of all the conditions for bearing artesian water or conveying it to the surface. It is of unknown depth. Between the city and the nearest hills there are bodies of water varying in depth from twenty-five to fifty feet, and I should say it is 150 feet before you reach anything like a solid bed. I recognize that the question is a vague one, to a certain extent, but I would like to know where that water comes from. The water as it comes from the surface has all the characteristics of swampy water, highly charged with salt and ammonia. What brings it to the surface, and what causes it to be delivered?

Mr. Fanning—I have not had any opportunity to investigate the water supplies of New Orleans. My view is that the Gulf extended beyond the mouth of the Ohio originally, and that in former times there were great volumes of water, much greater than are passing down now, and that as these streams came down they carried sometimes a layer of sand, and then again a layer of clay ; sometimes coarse sand, sometimes fine, sometimes clay, and that there are strata deposits all the way down the valley. They kept flowing forward, until now they have gone beyond New Orleans. There is probably a layer of porous material confined between two layers of impervious material. He speaks of the swampy water. The inlet of the layer from which the water supply comes may be far away north up in the valley, where it is covered with an alluvial deposit, partly porous. The water may enter this strata and flow down, and it may be polluted somewhat at the surface where the water enters the strata.

The valuable paper this morning referred to driven wells ; not to wells having their supply in confined strata ; they are surface wells. The wells Professor Smith speaks of arc between confined strata.

Mr. Benzenberg—As to wells drawing from each other in proportion to the number that are sunk in the same strata. Quite a number of wells have been sunk in this county, about this city, which, although a long distance apart, were being affected by the sinking of new artesian wells, and the effect has been so great upon certain districts that the supply became entirely inadequate, and they had to look for other sources of supply. This was the case with the National Soldiers’ Home, which for more than twenty years depended upon the supply from two or three artesian wells. The flow became lessened as other wells were being sunk in the neighborhood—that is, within two or three miles. Additional wells were sunk by the breweries and by county institutions, all reaching to about the same depth. There are breweries that formerly had a very high pressure at the surface, but they have found that pressure gradually slipping away. Relining of the pipes was tried and improved the matter somewhat, but there is still a gradual falling off in the head.

Mr. Diven—At Jacksonville, Fla., there are a number of artesian wells, and the flow from each of the weils is still equal to the flow of the first well. There have been many of them sunk in the same territory. This water is highly charged with sulphur and gases, and is also warm ; the deeper they go the warmer it is.

Prof. Smith—I think we often misinterpret the idea of an artesian well. It is a distinct stream flowing underground—a subterranean stream, flowing through the particles of sandstone ; porous strata—the more coarse grains, the more rapidly the water flows. If there is given number of cubic feet of water to go through a certain period, it is merely a question of how many wells will exhaust the stream. If you have a more loosely textured material, as we have in the Potsdam stone, you will have a more rapid stream.

Mr. Dunham—I am interested in the reference of Prof. Smith to infiltration, but my observation leads me to different conclusions. It has been my practice to test the strength of the flow from any stratum passed through in drilling, not only by noting the quantity delivered, but also by ascertaining the height to which it would rise in an open pipe, and still further by noting the quantity of water the stratum would receive or take in per minute when the head was increased by conducting a stream of water into the open pipe. These quantities are usually small, and the pressure from overlying strata much less than from the Potsdam. Instead of infiltration, I believe that under the greater pressure from below, water fiom below is continually passing into the strata from which water would rise to a less height. In reaching any other conclusion, it would be necessary to point out a “ longer leg ” to the syphon than the one to which the greatest pressure was due.

Mr. Cameron—I have had some experience in artesian wells, and the fact that the digging or sinking of a large number of wells takes away the supply from the others has been demonstrated in Memphis, Term. We at first bored eight wells. At the same time many of the people were supplying themselves from wells bored in the same plant with the water company. Our engineer located the pumps down in the deep well, so that he could take advantage of the supply at the lowest point, and after he commenced pumping from that subterranean reservoir, the people around had to sink their pumps deeper in order to get water. The more we pumped the deeper they had to sink their pumps into the wells,

Mr. Benzenberg—A number of wells were sunk in the western part of this city. The flow remained the same ; and for many years there was no complaint of any decrease in the flow or pressure ; arid obtaining water through artesian wells seemed to be an admitted success. There came, however, a time when there was a falling off, when the consumption got beyond the supply coming through the underground strata that was feeding these artesian wells, showing clearly that by adding more wells the supply was not equal to the demand. The elevation of the ground was hetwaen 120 and 140 feet ; the original pressure was up to about twenty eight pounds, and fell off to about thirteen pounds. At the government buildings they went to considerable expenses to overcome the trouble, but finally had not enough water to supply the kitchen, and had to take it from the city supply.

The paper on “Covered Service Reservoirs,” by S. Tomlinson, was then read.

Mr. Gwinn—This paper is of much interest to me, as we are going through some of these experiences at Quincy. III. A year ago we put in a new reservoir and had no trouble ; but this whole summer our reservoir had been teeming with green specks arising to the surface, gathering together, and then seeming to sink again. The water had a very woody, fishy taste, so much so that the consumers objected seriously. We have had to pump constantly and waste the water as we got a reservoir full. It seems that the algae has been worse with the covered reservoir than formerly.

The President—Has any member any experience to relate with reference to filtered water becoming offensive when exposed to sunlight or to air ?

Mr. Gwinn—Our water is filtered.

Mr. Donohue—I take quite an interest in this paper from the fact that we have filtered water in our city at the present time. We have had a great deal of trouble during the extreme hot weather this summer. A green, mossy growth, algae, appeired in our reservoir for a short time, and the water became stagnant. We are not certain whether this was chargeable to the fact that the water was filtered and the sun afterward acted up>on it, or whether it was due to want of circulation in the reservoir. I would like to ask if it is likely we could remedy this trouble by aeration. The supply and discharge of our reservoir are closely together, and the consumption in the summer being very great, we thought perhaps the water was drawn too rapidly out of the reservoir, and did not get sufficient circulation. We took advantage of the firs rain, which cut our consumption down, and drew off from six to eight feet of water, and filled it up again with fresh water, and the trouble disappeared. It lasted about two weeks. We never had any trouble with the water, previous to having filtered it. The quality of the water now is good. We are at loss to know whether the trouble was due to the action of the sun on the water or to want of circulation. I would like to know where reservoirs are covered, if openings are not provided to give circulation of air, and whether it is the circulation or covering that prevents this growth of algie,

Mr. Gwinn—Aeration did not seem to help us any. After the water was drawn through a faucet and exposed to the air, it hecame perfectly sweet; but filling a bottle, and shaking it, did not materially change the odor. We were at a loss to know whether it was because the water was filtered and then exposed to the sun. It usually appeared for about two weeks ; but we had the whole summer this year. We supposed filtering would take away the food for the algae, and there would not be any possibility of algae this summer ; but it seemed to grow worse.

Mr. Caulfield—We have had considerable trouble this summer on our high service reservoir, sixteen million gallons, not covered. After the consumption increased almut the middle of June, the water tasted woody and musty. The water in the reservoir was all right, but when it reached the consumer it was objectionable. I think only one day the water in the reservoir had the same taste. We temedied it in a great measure by flushing the mains. We do not filler our water. I thought it was from the mains, on account of the gravity system being all right.

Mr. Donahue—We lnd the same experience in Davenport. The water had a woody taste when drawn from the faucet, when we knew in the reservoir it was all right, but the experience which I referred to, which occurred this summer, the water in the reservoir was very bad, and when we drained it down and let out about six or eight feet, as much as we could do without imperilling the fire supply, the stench could have been smelled a block distant, showing that it was purely a mossy growth.

Mr. Caulfield—When we constructed our reservoir we had the inlet and outlet in one pipe and we had some difficulty with it, and last year we laid a new pipe through the reservoir to the extreme west end, so that it has a constant circulation now.

Prof. Smith—Some two or three years ago in Council Bluffs they had trouble. As nearly as I can study this problem out, the algm growth lives upon the material which may be in the water, feeds upon it, and being developed from the organic matters present in the water, the odor, taste and smell from the water is owing to the secondary growth. In the Council Bluffs case they exposed the surface of the reservoir to the sun for twenty-four hours. On drawing down the water it was found that the bottom and sides were covered with this growth, which were partially decayed and affected the water. The hot sun falling upon the brick surface killed that growth. The water was let back and the odor was gone.

Mr. McElroy—I would like to ask Mr. Donahue how the water is supplied ; is it surface delivery or bottom delivery ?

Mr. Donahue—Bottom delivery.

Mr. McElroy—One of the laws of lermentetion, which they knew all about two thousand years ago and we do not seem to understand now, is that impure water is always heavier than pure water, and if the water is taken from the bottom of the reservoir it is pretty sure to be bad. If you take the surface delivery you will get good water; that is one of the laws which should be recognized, and it is a mistake not to recognise it. It seems to me that one of the first things to lie done in supply, ing good water is to take a surface supply, and after that to fight the conditions which arc inimical to pure water. If the water which passes into the reservoir is affected. If it is exposed to special classes of organic matter, that ought to be corrected, ami it ought to be corrected before it reaches the reservoir. Covering the reservoir, of course, is a good thing to do. In the English experience, before 1852, the water was filtered, but the reservoir was not covered. They improved the character of the water by covering the reservoir. We ought to go to the bottom of these questions and apply the correction where it ought to be applied at the salient points.

Mr. Donahue—I am loath to take issue with the gentleman, for the reason that I have never had any experience in taking surface water, our supply being taken from the bottom, but is it not a fact that the trouble from algm is from dead alga: ? That is what does the work, and is it not true that it floats to the surface ? In our case the impurities were entirely on the surface of the water and went to a depth of several feet, and when we took six feet of water off the surface it immediately gave a sweet taste to the water and the trouble was ended. Is it not a fact that where the reservoir is not covered the sun penetrates directly on the top of the water, and would not that make the surface less desirable than at the bottom where the heat and light do not penetrate ?

Mr. Gwinn—We take our water from the surface, believing that we get better water. Our supply pipe is about three and a half feet from the surface. Vesterday before leaving, I dropped a bottle down to the bottom and pulled the cork out and drew it up, and 1 thought the water tasted a little bit worse than on top ; but there was not much difference.

Mr. Felix—In Reading we have trouble from algm almost every year during the month of June. This summer we emptied both our reservoirs and cleaned them, and we have no taste at all. We found great long vines growing in the reservoir, which were raked out in piles, like a bay field. I think by cleaning the reservoir you will get rid of some of this trouble. If you will empty your reservoir every two or three years, and clean the bottom and sides, it will prevent it better than anything else. The gentleman says when they lowered it six feet they got better water ; if he had lowered it more he would have got still better water.

Mr. Donahue—Our reservoir is cleaned every year—entirely emptied and cleaned. This year we lowered the water, and put in fresh water. It was not a growth in the reservoir. Our reservoir is small, about 5,000,000 gallons ; and we can empty it entirely if the consumption is not in excess of 3,000,000. We did not empty it this summer because the consumption was upward of 6,000,coo, and we were pushed to the full capacity of our works. I read a paper by Mr. Forbes of Brookline, Mass. They emptied the reservoir there in the fall and allowed it to be exposed to the freezing weather of the winter, and filled it up in the following spring ; but the results were the same.

Mr. Hopper of Arkansas City—Our reservoir has never given us any trouble on account of vegetable growth or of bad odor in the water. The analysis shows .027 to the million of free ammonia and .oto to .011 to the million of albumenoid ammonia. I have in my charge a reservoir that contained less than half that ammonia, and we could not do anything with the water in the warm weather. The water pumped into the reservoir is river water, and in the summer is quite warm. 1 would like an explanation of that, if possible. Our reservoir is not very deep.

Mr. Donahue—I think it has been very clearly demonstrated in papers which have been read before this association by men who have made a special study of it that this growth of alg;e does not appear in waters where the depth is less than twelve feet. I think it requires a reservoir from sixteen to twenty feet deep to develop the growth. I do not think shallow reservoirs are usually troubled.

Mr. Hopper—That does not seem to explain it. The reservoir which is free from vegetable growth is basin shaped, about eight feet deep at the sides and fourteen feet deep in the centre ; and the reservoir referred to which has always given us trouble is twelve feet deep with level bottom. This is the one with the musty odor. It sometimes has twelve feet of water. There is very little difference in the two. The water supplied to the reservoir that gives us trouble, when pumped into the reservoir, is fifty degrees of temperature. It is well water, obtained through a system of tubes.

Mayor Haynes of Newark—We find in all of the small lakes of New Jersey and southern part of New York that algm will come indiscriminately, where the water is shallow. Mr. Fteley ot New York informed us that one year the deepest water that they had-the Croton dam-was covered with this alga-. At other places, where it had appeared before, there was none, so that there seems to be no rule about it. It appears in shallow water, or in deep water; the lake as well as the pond. I have seen water three feet deep covered with algae. The gentlemen present may remember an inquiry that I made some years ago at the mtetiug in Chicago, in reference to the material of which the pipes should be made, to meet our wants ; whether it should be cast-iron or wrought iron, or steel. The Fast Jersey Water Company has made a pipe four feet in diameter, which brings the water to the city of Newark, twenty-five milea away from the intake. We have two open reservoirs, storage reservoir*, one of which will hold 2,500,000,000 gallons, and the other 3,538,000,000 gallons of water. These reservoirs, at the last report, were full. One has a water-shed of eleven square miles and the other of about twenty-seven. They flow in open streams after they leave these reservoirs, one about three miles and the other two, and then join together, and go to the intaka, where the water passes into this pipe at an elevation of 586 feet above the level of the water in Newark bay. The reservoirs are set back in the mountains at an elevation of nearly tooo feet. It flows down these open streams, roams about, exposed to the sunlight, and comes in contact with various boulders in the stream, which shake the water, so that when it enters the intake it has received all the benefits that can come from sunlight and aeration. It is supposed to take twelve hours for the water to traverse the pipe. Last year we had some complaint about the taste or discoloration of the water, which was attributed to the fact that the reservoir sides had more or less vegetation in the shape of grass. The grass was removed, and this year we have had no complaints. I wish to say that the question was answered for the Lehigh Valley Water Company and the East Jersey Water Company by laying a steel, riveted pipe from one end to the other.

Mr. Cameron—I would like to aak a question as to artesian water. Suppose we have a reservoir containing 15,000,200 gallons of artesian water. What effect would the sun have upon it ? This water has a property that when exposed to the sunlight a peculiar vegetable growth is developed in it. The spores of a specific growth seem to be developed in the water; and I understand these are not developed in the absence of sunlight,

Mr. Dunham—Referring to this question it seems to be something that the circulation does not affect to any marked extent, so far as I have observed. In one instance the growth continued in a small covered reservoir, where the depth was twelve feet, and 250,000 gallons flowing through daily, but it was practically stopped by excluding the light that came through the ventilator in the roof.

Mr. Smith—I would like to say in connection with covered reservoirs that the coverings in many cases become foul and offensive. You will find that the underside of the roof unless it is protected will become covered with mold, which can effect the water supply by dropping into it. You have all the conditions there for objectionable growth. It is better to paint them and to coat the underside of the roof with oil. We had that trouble at Beloit at one time and obviated it by cleaning the underside of the cover and painting it. Elsewhere these difficulties have been overcome or diminished in this manner.

If reservoirs are covered there should be extra care taken that these growths are not formed on the underside of the roof and timbers. They get very musty and exclude the light and air.

Mr. Triddy—I have had a peculiar experience this year. Our reservoir is at an altitude of j 7200 feet ; no algae or vegetable growth. In July there was not quite sufficient water coming out of the mountains, not quite as much as was taken from the reservoir to supply the city. Our reservoir holds 35,000,000 gallons. Our water got bad. It was as clear as could be, and there was no vegetable growth. There is a gravity supply, about 450 feet fall. I went down below the stream, and cut the pipe there and let the water out of the reservoir, and it cleared up and was all right. I have not been able to find out what the trouble was.

Mr. Smith—Was that reservoir covered?

Mr. Priddy—No ; it is very large. The one place that is covered is our well house. The water in that was much worse than anywhere else.

Mr. Dunham—I think the mossy growth referred to by Mr. Smith must be largely due to the timbers used ; for in two or three instances, where I have covered reservoirs with masonry, having no timber exposed to the atmosphere above the water, in fact anywhere in the reservoir, no moss or vegetable growth of any kind, that I am aware of, has made its appearance or given any trouble.

Mr. Woodward—In most of these difficulties with water in the reservoir, my idea is that you need more perfect circulation, and pumping the water around the entire edge of the reservoir would he a benefit.

Mr. Molis—We get our water from the Mississippi river, and pump into the bottom ; but the water we pump in, which is about three feet from the bottom, circulates along the top. The water when it is pumped in at the bottom must go to the top. Any stream will go right to the top of the reservoir, and if you will take notice you can see it; you will notice the air in the water bubbling up at the top. We clean our reservoir once a year and flush our pipes once a month. We never had any bad taste in our water ; the reservoir is twenty feet deep.

Mr. Cunningham—From what has been said on this subject, there is evidently something wrong ; and I think we should look to the sources. If we pump water into our reservoir that becomes obnoxious, we should look to the source and get pure water.

Adjourned until Wednesday morning.

WEDNESDAY’S SESSION.

The’first business transacted was the approval of the following applications for active membership : ArkansasCity, Kan., George E. Hopper, receiver water-works; Minneapolis, Mmn., F. Y. Cappelin, city engineer ; Quincy, Ill., Dow R. Gwinn, superintendent water-works; Reading. Pa., commissioners of water-works ; West Superior, Wis., A. C. Cross, general manager water-works.

The first paper presented was that of Daniel W. Mead of Rockford, Ill., on “ The geology of Wisconsin water supplies.”

The president announced that it had been intended that the paper just read, the one by Professor Smith on “ Deep artesian wells,” and the one to follow, should all be read in sequence and a general discussion follow on the three. It was impossible to carry out the plan, owing to some of the papers not being in hand yesterday when Professor Smith’s paper was read.

The paper on ” Some experiences regarding deep wells,” by F. A. W. Davis, was then read.

Mr. Davis—I would like to touch an a matter, which it seemed to me better not to state in the paper ; that is, whether this water taken into the human system would be apt to produce disorders of the bladder ? I do not know whether any one here is able to discuss the question; perhaps it is one for scientific men to solve.

Professor Smith—Did the analyses of the water when first discharged from the well, and after subsidence, show any reduction in the constitution of the organic contents ?

Mr. Davis—We did not make any examinations to see if they differed. I was more interested in the hardness. It is soft to the taste and everybody would pronounce it so, hut it is not so ; it is hard.

Professor Smith—My question was based on the fact, as we know from other experiments carried on in connection with filtration, that iron salts seem to have the remarkable power of fixing and carrying down organic matters in water. I was curious to know whether it would not have somewhat affected the water in this case, so that the organic matter presented in the water would have been partially removed by the precipitation of the iron.

Mr. Davis—Of course, when it is precipitated, it would not have the same power to produce any complaint such as referred to. We believe in some degree that the water has been a benefit to us, as we think the iron precipitated in our supply carries down with it the impurities in the water, the bacteria, as it would not otherwise. What we get from these wells is perhaps only a fourth of our entire supply and it is mingled with our other water.

Mr. Dunham—In Mr. Mead’s paper upon the Wisconsin water supplies, I think it was stated that where the water passed through the rock for a considerable distance, the mineral constituents increased considerably. I would like to ask Professor Smith if that corresponds pretty closely with his observations in regard to the same localities.

Mr. Smith—This paper of Mr. Mead’s presents a great number of very interesting data and facts regarding the water supply of Wisconsin, and particularly bearing upon the artesian wells. I do not care to take issue on any of the points in Mr. Mead’s absence. There are some statements in his paper which are almost the opposite of the ideis advanced yesterday in my paper. I referred to a report on the requisite and qualifying conditions of artesian wells, by Professor T. C. Chamberlain, and I hope every gentleman interested in the question will get a copy of the brochure. Mr. Chamberlain makes the same statement that Mr. Mead does, that waters in traversing strata become more heavily charged with saline matters. This seems to be a condition which is accepted as a fact ; but you will remember that in the tabulated statement presented yesterday of analysis of waters which came from the Potsdam sandstone—of the truthfulness of which I can vouch—reaching from Madison, Wis., to Sterling, Ill., a distance of seventy miles, where we have the same water, they are practically the same. This shows that in these waters there is no increase of the salinity. My investigations have proved quite the contrary to what Mr. Mead states.

Mr. Benzenberg—This subject of the qualities of waters from deep artesian wells is one that all water-works men are interested in, particularly those in the Northwest. The papers presented on the subject on many points are opposed to each other ; and I would suggest that all those who are able prepare a discussion for the next meeting, in the hope that we may be able to get at the facts. It is certainly a subject which is of widespread interest.

The secretary then read Mr. Babcock’s paper, “ Municipal acquirement of private water company plants, as illustrated by the Syracuse (N. Y.) Water Company condemnation by the city.”

Mr. Davis—Was the good will of the business taken into consideration ?

Mr. Milne—Yes, sir. I wish to say a word or two as regards the cement pipe which was used in the works. It is well known that cement pipe, if not disturbed by settling of the earth, or other causes, and if the shell of the sheet iron can be kept from the chemical action of the earth, is a very durable pipe. A question of the value of the cement pipe was raised, and testimony was brough in to show that it was a desirable pipe ; that in general terms it was as serviceable as iron pipe.

Mr. Keeler—Was the earning power of the plant considered, and if so, to what extent ? I understood the paper to read that the works had net receipts of $70,000.

Mr. Milne—Yes, that largely entered into the determination of the commissioners.

Mr. Keeler—The plant seemed to be earning over eight per cent, which was rather good.

Mr. Sawyer—Did the bonds that were issued figure in as part of the purchase price, $850,000 ?

Mr. Milne—Yes; I think there was about $200,000 in bonds.

Mr. Sawyer—This question of municipalities forcibly taking possession of private water-works has assumed such proportions that every member of this association, who is interested in a private plant, must feel interested in having this subject taken up and treated systematically, so that some fair basis of transfer may be made, if it is going to be the proper thing, wherever private water-works have been instituted and made successful, for the municipality to take them. The question of what the works cost is not so much to the point, as what are they worth ? The private companies invest their money, and by their energy make it worth double or treble the original amount; and this should not be lost sight of when the question of a sale comes up.

Mr. Milne—That is the main point of the whole thing. The earning power of any plant should be accepted as the measure of its value. If a corporation takes chances which a city or town will not take, and invests its money in a waterworks, and they bear the heat and burden of the day, and go through all the vicissitudes which attend the administration of a new water-works, and they get rid of their pin feathers and get strong, and begin to make money, then the value of the plant appreciates. It is usual at this point that the municipality wishes to come in. There are mutual obligations which each owes to the other, and which should be fulfilled. The trouble in the case under consideration originally arose in an overcharge for hydrant service.

Mr. Keeler—Did the city assume the bonds ?

Mr. Milne—The amount was deducted from the award.

Mr. Keeler—Then it would seem that for a business which brought in net annual earnings of $70,000 they only got $650,000.

Mr. Milne—The controversy has been going on for eight years, and the company got tired of it.

Mr. Diven—Is it not true that in the case under consideration the city was poorly supplied ; did not the company refuse to supply certain sections because there would not be large enough profits in it, and was not the quality of the water poor ?

Mr. Milne—That was introduced in evidence. It was admitted that there were elements of hardness in the water that unfitted it for commercial uses. It was a positive condition in Syracuse, and all manner of effort was made to circumvent it by driven wells and exploring other sources of water supply, but the same element prevailed in all water around the city.

Mr. Diven—Was not the distribution very limited ; forty pounds at the main in a city of over 100.000 inhabitants?

Mr. Milne—As I have said, the controversy extended over a period of eight years, and the company did not feel justified in making any outlay. The city went right along developing, and the private water-works failed to do the same. They did not keep up with the procession.

Mr. Keeler—I would like intormation as to the facts in the Quincy warfare. We are somewhat in the position of the Syracuse company. The authorities in our town wish us to step down and out. Of course, we are willing to do that if we are properly reimbursed. We differ from Syracuse in one respect—we have kept up with the procession. We want to know what we are going to get for our energy.

Mr. Wilcox—Has anybody heard of a case where an award has been made for an unused plan? This occurred in Macon, Ga. The company there abandoned their Wagner streel station, and the city gave them $56,000 for it.

The next paper was by W. L. Cameron, “ A water-works man on a round for items, or a chiel among ye taking notes.”

Mr. Cameron referred to the first meeting of the association, held in St. Louis, and described some incidents which transpired at that time. He then read a number of extracts from rules of various water companies in the country as to rates and conditions of service, and gave some very interesting descriptions of the new features of a number of plants.

The president appointed Messrs. L, H. Gardner, J. M. Diven, Jas. A. Bond, C. M. Foote and F. A. W. Davis the nominating committee to nominate officers for the ensuing year.

The meeting then adjourned until Thursday morning.

THURSDAY-MORNING SESSION.

The following propositions for active membership were presented :

New Brighton, N. Y., Lewis K. Davis, constructing engineer ; Minneapolis, Minn., Jas. H. Bradish, chairman water board.

The paper by Col. J. T. Fanning was then read on “ Incidents in water supply tests.” The president stated that the next paper was somewhat in the same line, and would be read in conjunction with Mr. Fanning’s paper. H. F. Dunham then read his paper, “ The office of civil engineer in small cities.”

There being no discussion on either of these papers, Col. L. II. Gardner of New Orleans read a paper by John B. Fisher, counselor-at-law. New Orleans, on the New Orleans or “ The Centum case.”

Mr. Wing of Kansas City then offered the following resolution :

Resolved, That the secretary be instructed to prepaie a letter and send to each member of the association with a request that they furnish him a statement of the subject of any legal decisions of interest to the water-works business, giving volume and number of State reports ; and further resolved, that these references be embodied in the annual reports of the association.

After seme discussion as to the advantages to the association of the adoption of the practice recommended, the resolution was adopted. John W. Hill’s paper, “ Is our drinking water dangerous to health,” was then read.

Mr. Hazen of Lawrence—This is a particularly interesting paper. We know of a good many cities which have unnecessarily high death rates, which are definitely due to polluted water supplies. We also know of some remedies which can be applied while still retaining these waters to bring down the rate. I made some time ago a comparison between London, England, and Lawrence, Mass. The sewage pollution of the Thames is approximately eight times as great as the sewage pollution of the Merrimack, where Lawrence takes its water supply; but the death rate from typhoid in Lawrence is relatively eight times as great. It is on account of the careful filtration in London. The filters which are in use there, it is stated by Professor Franklin, take out upward of ninety per cent of the bacteria. The filters secure from these waters much polluted sewage, and the water may be used without noticeable increase in the death rate. In Lawrence we are now using a water filter designed by Mr. Mills.

The paper by L. J. Le Conte, Oakland, Cal., was then read on “ Details of construction of high earthen dams for storage reservoirs of the Pacific coast.” The association then adjourned until Friday morning.

FRIDAY-MORNING SESSION.

The president announced the first order of business to be volunteer papers.

Thos. W. Yardley then presented one on the “ Efficiency of pumps.”

Mr. Dunham-—I would like to inquire if the conditions of draught were the same in each case ; whether it was simply a question of the intelligence of the fireman.

Mr. Yardley—The conditions were the same.

Mr. Benzenberg—I know of one of the cases referred to. The intelligent comprehension of the operation of the boiler by the fireman is the point. That such was the case was developed by the fact of one fireman withdrawing, and then returning later, and showing the same relative saving over another fireman.

Mr. Dunham—I would like Col. Fanning to tell us something further of the conditions under which the steam fire engines refused to do the work expected of them, referred to in his paper yesterday.

Mr. Fanning—It was stated in the paper that it was observed that the needle on the pressure gauge upon the hydrant to which the engine was attached would indicate a higher pressure as the engine was speeded faster, that is, after the engine had come up to a certain speed, its proper speed for work, after that the pressure increased in the hydrant. My view was that apparently the piston of the pump was working faster than the water could flow the valves, and therefore the piston was simply churning up and down without delivering a full cylinder of water in each revolution. The instances I observed were not all of the same make of engine ; there was quite a variety.

Mr. Diven—I have seen the same thing, the theory being that the valves were running so fast they could not seat, merely bobbing up and down.

Mr. Dunham—I feel pretty confident that an ordinary steam fire engine will take water at any pressure from zero, or from a draught of eighteen or twenty feet up to 100 pounds per square inch, and give very satisfactory results at the other end of the hose, the nozzle.

Mr. Benzenberg—The case Mr. Fanning refers to does not infer that the engine did not deliver its full quantity of water at the proper speed, but that in speeding up the piston speed was too rapid for the action of the valves, and that the valves did not allow the filling of the pump cylinders sufficient to give a full flow at the other end of the hose.

Mr. Hopper—I have two horizontal pumps, self-acting compound, that if speeded up to sixty strokes per minute, twelve inch stroke, will race in that manner. I have attributed the trouble to the size of the suction pipe, which is only six inches, when it should be eight or ten. The suction pipe is about 160 feet long.

The report of the special committee on animal and vegetable growths affecting water supplies was presented. The committee stated that this subject had been earnestly taken up by boards of health and water chemists, and as it was impossible for the committee to accomplish any great good without the expenditure of time and money, which was not practicable in the present case, it asked to be discharged. On motion the report was received and the committee discharged.

Secretary Milne then submitted a volunteer paper on ‘* Electroloysis.”

After the reading of the paper samples of iron and lead pipe were shown from Indianapolis, Ind., Columbus, O., and Milwaukee, Wis., showing where electric currents had eaten into and destroyed these pipes.

Mr. Benzenberg—About a year ago we received complaints that a water service pipe leading from the main to the house had become entirely corroded and eaten away and it was replaced by new pipe. Not long after a leak was detected in the service main. I had a part of the pipe taken out and a basket full of earth which surrounded it at the point of leakage. It was subjected to chemical analysis, and it was found that there was nothing in the soil warranting the action on the pipe, and that it must have been caused by the action of electricity escaping from some conduit. About three months afterward we received word of the breaking of the main where the service pipe had been reported as leaking. Upon examination of the pipe we found one length almost entirely gone and another length adjacent to it pretty well corroded and eaten out. The pipe was so soft and spongy that you could poke an umbrella end through it. It became hard after being taken out. There was an opening in the pipe about four feet in length, varying from an inch to two and a half inches wide. It was five-eighths pipe. I found upon investigation that the street railway company had connected their ground wire with our fire hydrants without our knowledge. We did not know how many such connections had been made, but afterward found there were over two hundred.

The negative current, after having done its work in the motor, returns to the station either by the rail or through the rail circuit, if the rails are well connected by wires sufficiently large to conduct the current from one end to the other, or by the connection through the hydrants to the mains. There is no action that I have been able to discover on the hydrant shell by the conducting of the electricity on to the pipe, but the damage is done in the current attempting to leave the pipe in attempting to reach the generator at the point opposite the station. This trouble occurred at a point about seventy-five feet from the power station of the railway. We made a compromise with the railway company, and to a great extent have overcome the trouble by connecting the currents through a copper band around the hydrant and having a copper band around the main at the nearest point opposite their several power stations to make a complete connection. I do not think any damage is done by the current of electricity traversing the pipe, it is only when it attempts to leave the pipe and meets with resistance. I believe in a short time we will be able to reduce the whole trouble to a minimum.

Mr. Alexander—Is there not danger in connecting the currents to the fire hydrants. Water being such a good conductor of electricity, is there not liability of injury to persons handling hose at the hydrant by receiving a shock?

Mr. Benzenberg—l doubt if there is sufficient voltage in a trolley wire to affect a person ; there are 500 volts only in it on the positive wire, and the return wire carries but very little.

Mr. Alexander—But suppose a connection should be established in some manner with an electric light wire ?

Mr. Benzenberg—Our electric light wires are all covered. There is only a small extent exposed at the post. As to the current from the railways, we have found no indication ot any effect on any of the mains or service pipes except immediately opposite or near the power stations.

Mr. Donahue—I consider this one of the most important subjects, aside from the purity of water, that could be presented for our consideration. It is a subject which has worried me very much in the last few months ; and no doubt many others have been troubled by it. We have as yet experienced no difficulty, but expect it at any time. The railway company in our city has an electric sprinkler, to which we furnish water, having cut a five-inch bole in our mains under the track for that purpose.

Mr. Gardner—I suggest that in some appropriate way the members of the association be requested to collect all the information possible and present it in the shape of a discussion at the next meeting.

Mr. Nicholls—The electric railways do not have sufficient facilities for the return current. In some cities we have the double trolley, in which one wire is used for the positive and the other for the negative or return current. It would be well for members who live in cities where they have that system to make some examinations into it, and see if it is any better than using the return wire* underground (or the return current.

The next buxine** was the report of the committee on the memorial to Congress to restrict pollution of streams from which water supplies of cities are drawn. The memorial was prepared by C. Monjeau, secretary of the committee, and was read te the meeting.

The report was received, and the committee thanked (or it* efforts. The question was raised, however, as to whether a memorial to Congress was the proper step to be taken in the matter ; and it was generally agreed that the subject was one which came exclusively within the control of the State boards of health.

The committee on revision of constitution and by-laws reported. A number of minor amendments were presented and agreed upon. The only change of importance made was in the matter of the selection of officers. The present method i* for a nominating committee to be selected and nominate officers, which are usually agreed to by the meeting. It was desired by a large number of the members to have nominations and elections made in open meeting. A compromise was effected, however, in that the selection of the nominating committee will be made by the members, and the five gentlemen receiving the highest number of votes to be the nominating committee. Hearty and cordial invitations were extended to the association from the cities of Indianapolis, Ind., Richmond, Va,, and Minneapolis, Minn., to hold the next meeting of the association in their respective cities.

Several telegrams on behalf of Indianapolis, from the Mayor and president of the Commercial Club; also a letter of invitation from Mr. Davis, a member of the association from that city, were read.

Messrs. Bolling of Richmond and McIntosh of Norfolk presented a strong plea for the association to go to Richmond. They were charged with an invitation from the citizens to urge the members to come and see what they had been doing in the line of advance, and in keeping up with the North and West.

Messrs. Foote, llradish and Fanning advanced the claims of Minneapolis, and promised if the association should hold it* meeting in that city, everything would be done to insure a successful gathering. A vote was taken, and the choice in favor of Minneapolis was then declared by the chair.

Mr. Diven then offered resolutions, thanking the officers and committees.

The nominating committee then presented the following report: President, James P. Donahue, Davenport, la.; first vice president, Wm. Ryle, Paterson, N. J.; second vicepresident, H. G. Holden, Nashua, N. H.; third vice-president, Charles E. Bolling, Richmond, Va.; fourth vice-president, John Caulfield, St. Paul. Minn.; fifth vice-president, F, A. W. Davis, Indianapolis, Ind.; secretary and treasurer, Peter Milne, New York. Finance—Wm. Molis, Muscatine, la.; J. T. Sawyer, Waverly, N. Y.; C. M. Foote, Minneapolis, Minn.

On motion the secretary was authorized to cast a ballot for the foregoing officers. They were declared duly elected.

The meeting then adjourned to meet in Minneapolis, Minn., August at-24, 1894-

LIST or ATTENDANTS.

New York city—J. H. Decker; Peter Milne, secretary; E. J. Snow; E. T. Ivins. Thomson Meter Company ; F. W. Sheppeid, FIRE AND WATER; Geo. Montgomery, Thomson Meter Company; Benj. C. Smith, pipe cutlets and connections; F. J. Bradley, National Meter Company ; E. L. Abboit, Neptune Meter Company; Lewis H. Nash, National Meter Company; W, M. Deuicb, New Yotk Filler Company; H. F. Dunham; Merrick Cowles, Engineering Record. Chicago, III.—Octavus .(ones, valves: James M. Johnston, Chicago Water Motor and Fan Company; K. W. Buss. Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company; H. E. Keeler; Hosea Webster; H. R. Worthington; E. M. Nichols. Crane Company ; H. F, Probert, Fait banks, Morse & Co.; T. W. Yardley; T. E. Smith, Jr.. Western Fireman ; C. K. Bleyer; W. F. Tatnall; A. T. Prentice; A. H. Austin; A. E. Jones, Rensselaer Manufacturing Company; J. W. Strachbinn. Michigan Brass and Iron Works; E. E. Russell Tratman, associate editor Engineering Record: O. H. Jewell Filter Company, Samuel U. Artingstall, Philadelphia, l’a.—Jesse Garrett, R. D. Wood & Co.; Josiah Thompson, water works supplies; George W. Musfit, plumlier. Milwaukee. Wis.—G. H. Benzenberg, president; l. H. Keyoolds, A. L, Rogers, The E. P. Allis Company: Ch*ks Allis i)eW~ti Stevei~. upei1ntendent Roud of }fre .1. A. MftIrr, E. P. AUls Company. Newark, N. J.-W. H. Van Winkle, A. P. Smith; Anthony P. Smith, J~eoh E. Haynes. Ma,or. New Orleans. 1.a.-L. R. (arth,pr. superintendent; John B. Fisher, guest. Baton Rouge, I-a —John H. Wood, secretary and manager. Detroit, Mich.—Charles Lynch, A. H. Brier, Michigan Brass and Iron Works. Berlin. Germany—Th. Hoecb, German Consulate Chicago, Technical Attache to the German Embassy, Washington. Brooklyn, N Y.—Frank Lambert. Thomson Meter Company; T. E. Crossl man. stenographer; Samuel McElroy; John C. Kelley, president National Me cr Company. Troy, N. Y.—William Ross, Robert Ross, Ross Valve Company; Rensselaer Manufacturing Com. panv, valves; John Knickerbocker, president Eddy Valve Company. Worcester, Mass.—George H. Carr, J. P. K. Otis, Union Meter Company. I oledo, O.—C. S. Brown, National Muer Company; H. C. Colter, superintendent; D. C. Shaw, commissioner. Lafayette, Ind. — Edward Cunningham, superintendent. Davenport, fa.—James P. Donahue. Nashua, N. H.— H. G. Holden superintendent. Merrill, Wis.—M. F. Wright. Cambridge, Mass.—Hiram Nevins, suoerintendeot. Memphis, Tenn.—A. A. Tucker, superintendent, Kansas City, Mo.—G. B, Wing, cashier; Wm. L, Cameron; C. A. Jones, assistant superintendent. Peoria, 111.—C. H. Hammond, E. H. Kellogg & Co. Minneapolis, Minn.—C. M. Foote, C. E.; J. T. Fanning, C. E.; F. T. Moody; F. W. Cappe’en, city engineer; Geo. W. Fla’ders, member wa’er board, Minneapolis; J. L. Kilchli, president council; J. H. Bradish, chairman water board. Atlanta, Ga.—Win, G. Richards, superintendent; Robert M. Clayton, city engineer. Madison, Wis.—Jno. B. Heim, superintendent. Deca ur, III.—H. Mueller, Mueller Manufacturing Company. Racine, Wis.—w. H. Laing, superintendent; Chas. H. Laing, registrar. Port Huron, Mich.—Hugh F. Doran, superintendent. Savannah, Ga.—Jas. Manning, superintendent. New B itain, Conn.—J. W. Ringrose. St. Paul, Minn.—John Cauefield, secretary Board Water Commissioners. Elmira, N. Y.—J. M. Diven, superintendenl. Reading, Pa.—Geo. H. Felix, president water board; FtankA. Tyson, member water board. Cincinnati, O.—Geo. W. Linbertb, Bourbon Brass and Copper Works. Covington, Ky.—W. H. Glorc. Quincy, Ill.—Dow R. Gwinn, superintendent. Richmond, Va.—Charies E. Bolling, superintendent. Leadville, Col.—C. N. Priddy, superintendent and secretary. Jackson, Miss.—Wm. S. Wilcox, superintendent Light, Heat ard Water Company. Lynchburg, Va.—J. B. Page. Belleville, Ill.—M. J. Stockey. Manistee, Mich.—S. A. Cahill, superintendent. Fostoria, O.— Walter S. Payne, water-works supplies. Salina, Kan.—John L. Bishop, secretary, tieasurer and superintendent. Bowling Green, Ky.—Jamis H. Wilkerson, superintendent. Paterson, N. J.— William Ryle, superintendent. Muscatine, la.—Wm. Mobs, superintendent. Arkansas City, Kan.—George E. Hopper, receiver. Boston. Mass.—George W. Coppins, secretary Walworth Manufacturing Company ; J. A. Tilden, general manager Hersey Manufacturing Company; J. E. Spofford, Hersey Manufacturing Company. Aurora, II’.—M. W. Corbett. Atchison, Kan.—E. S. Wills, superintended. Waverly, N. Y.—J. T. Sawyer, president water company. Belo t, Wis.—E. G. Smith, analytical chemist; York, Pa —Jacob L. Kuehn. Johnstown, Pa.—Thomas Watkins ; London, Can.—O. Ellwood, secretary. J. M. Moore, engineer and superintendent. Bridgeton, N. J.—Timothy Woodruff, superintendent. Wilmington, Del.—J. A. Bond, superintendent. Mt. Carmel, Pa,—C. L. John, superintendent. Paducah, Ky., M. Burnett, superintendent. South Bend, Ind.—Ira S. Schrop. Rome, Ga.—TJ. Wagner, superintendent. Wilkinsburg, Pa.—W. A. Alexander, superintendent. Freeport, Ill.—Owen T. Smith. Norfojk, Va.—H. L. Smith ; George McIntosh, president water commissioners. Lockport, N. Y.—W. K. Helmer, Holly Manufacturing Company; Frank W. Holly. Marlborough, Mass.—B. R, Felton, city engineer; George A. Stacy, superintendent; Paris, ‘I ex.—J. D. Thomas. Dayton, O.—Charles Eckstein, superintendent street department. Indianapolis, Ind.—F. A. W. Davis, vicepresideni and general manager. Columbus, O.—A. H. McAlpine, engineer and superintendent. Iowa City, la.—Jay Chatam, superintendent water-works. Bennington, Vt.—William E. Hawks superintendent water-works. Concord, N. H.—C. R. Robimon. Janesville, Wis.—W. C. Mitchell, superintendent. Lowell, Mass. —Ralph Bulkeley, chairman water-works commissioners; R. J. Thomas, superintendent. Lauriner, Mass.—Allen Hazen, chemist. Lauriner Experiment Station. Waterloo, la —J. P. Berry, chief engineer and superintendent. New Brighton, Staten Island, N. Y.—Lewis K. Davis, consulting enginfer. Youngstown, O — W. S, Hamilton, superintendent. West Superior, Wis.—A. A. Crors, Superior Water, Light and Power Company. Brookline, Mass.—F. F. Forbes, superintendent. Ogden, Utah.—P. M. Hawley, agent water-works. Italy—L. M. D. Minerbi.

THE EXHIBITS.

Owing to the fact that many manufacturers of water-works machinery and supplies had exhibits at the World’s Fair, the display at the convention was somewhat less than that usually seen at these annual meetings. The arrangements for showing the exhibits, however, were better than had been made at any other convention. The corridor leading to the arcade where the sessions of the association were held was secured for the purpose, so that the.delegates had to pass each display before reaching the hall.

THE HERSEY MANUFACTURING COMPANY secured a parlor on the first floor and placed an attractive exhibit of Hersey meters to the best advantage for inspection. The company was represented by J. A. Tilden, superintendent, and J. E. Spofford.

JAMES B. CLOW & SON.

This firm had a fine display of water-works supplies, including Eddy valves and hydrants, stop cock boxes, lead kettles, meters, cast-iron pipe and special castings, and in fact a full line of all appliances used in construction. The exhibit attracted the especial attention of the visitors during the days of the convention, and they were well received and attended to by the representative* of the company, M. W. Welles, E. B. Holley and Albert E. Hyde.

EDDY VALVE COMPANY.

John Knickerbocker, president, was, as usual, on hand to represent his company. Its hydrants and gates are well known everywhere, so that it is only necessary to say that the representative of the company looked after its interests to the best advantage.

THE WORTHINGTON PUMPING ENGINE COMPANY was represented by Hosea Webster, manager of the Chicago branch of the company.

“DISPLACER” MOTOR COMPANY.

This is a new company with headquarters at Covington, Ky. It manufactures a water motor and fan combined with water power. The motor was shown in operation and received favorable comment from those who witnessed its operation.

MICHIGAN BRASS AND IRON WORKS.

This company was represented by D. J. O’Brien and J. Lynch. Its display was the most extensive and attractive in its line. It consisted of samples of the Galvin patent compound wedge gate valves and conical compound wedge gate fire hydrants, besides a large variety of water-works supplies.

O. II. JF.WELL FILTER COMPANY was represented by O. H. Jewell, president of the company. This firm has constructed several large water-works plants, notably that for Quincy, Ill., where 5,000,000 gallons of water is filtered each day. No exhibit.

NEW YORK FILTER COMPANY.

Mr. Deutsch represented this company; has over seventy plants now in operation in different city water-works. The New York filter combines all the improvements contained in the Hyatt, National, American and Blessing’s patents, and are claimed to be as near the perfect machine tor filtration as possible to make it. The fact that it has become so generally in use is a good argument in its favor, and one which may soon lead to filters being more generally used in connection with city water-works construction.

THOMSON METER COMPANY.

The largest display of meters was shown by this company, from the smallest to the largest size, which it manufactutes. -T h e arrangement of the exhibit was very artistic and was favorably commented upon b y those who visited the Thomson room. At (he New York convention last year the company distributed small clocks as souvenirs; this year it did still better, by presenting each visitor with a good fountain pen, bearing the inscription, “compliments of Thomson Meter Company.” The company was fully represented by Frank Lambert, president; George T. Montgomery, vicepresident ; F. J. Snow and E. T. Ivins.

FRANK LAMBERT, President.

Ross VALVE COMPANY.

This exhibit was very unique, consisting of a frame constructed with reducing valves, pressure regulators and water engines, with “ Ross Valve Company ” in brass letters across the top, the full width of the frame. Every member of the association carried with him a reducing valve as a handle, a present from the company. Messrs. George and William Ross were the representatives in attendance.

WALTER S. PAYNE,

manufacturer of tapping machines, corporation cocks, curb cocks and water-works supplies, Fostoria, O., had a full display of these goods on hand and he was constantly engaged in describing the merits of the various appliances over those of other make. There is no doubt but that the Payne tapping machine, as improved, is a very good appliance, and its use in many water-works corroborates this fact.

NATIONAL METER COMPANY

had a most unpretentious display consisting of small meters and sections. The National Meter Company takes great pride in announcing that it was the first firm to manufacture and introduce meters into water-works in America, and that it has now in use 121,000 scattered over all sections of the country. This company manufactures the well-known Empire, Crown, Gem and Nash brands. John C. Kelley, president of the company, and F. J. Bradley, Western agent, were present.

WATKINS PIPE JOINTER.

This appliance has been before the water-works people of the country for many years, and it may be safely said that it is generally used for making joints in water mains. It is a great saver of time, besides being easily handled, and it dispenses with the old style clay packing which is troublesome and often unreliable. The manufacturer, Thomas Watkins of Johnstown, Pa., was present to represent his exhibit.

FRENCH PIPE CUTTING MACHINE.

This apparatus was set up and worked for the benefit of the delegates. It is a machine that is attached to the pipe and worked by a lever, which causes the revolution of a knife around the pipe, making a clean cut in an incredibly short time as compared with the old hand and chisel method. There is no doubt but that this machine will come into general use on account of its accuracy and saving in pipe cutting. B. C. Smith, 275 Pearl street, New York, the agent for the apparatus, was present and explained its working.

RENSSELAER MANUFACTURING COMPANY.

This company manufactures valves and gates, which have gained a good reputation among water-works men. Octavous Jones, Western representative of the company, was most assiduous in his attention to the members, and many of them were treated to an explanation of the working of the Rensselaer gates from models which he had o n exhibition.

CRANE COMPANY was represented by Mr. Nichols, who was very successful in explaining the merits of the patent hydrant manufactured by this company. The principal feature of this hydrant is that it is a compression one, the main valves of which are leather faced and close without pressure, and admit of rough usage. This company also had gates and other waterworks supplies on hand.

OCTAVOUS JONES.

R. D. WOOD & Co.

Jesse Garrett and A. T. Prentice were on hand to look after the interests of this company, and that they succeeded goes without saying. The Matthews hydrant is known everywhere, so that these gentlemen had little else to do than entertain the visitors who called at their headquarters.

SAMUEL EASTMAN & Co.,

manufacturers of deluge sets and nozzle holders, had an exhibit under the direction of C. R. Robinson.

ANTHONY P. SMITH.

The connecting branch sleeve and tapping apparatus for water mains, manufactured by Anthony P. Smith of Newark, N. J., is now acknowledged to be the most useful tool for water-works men in the market. It can make large connections without shutting off water or diminishing the pressure in a very short time when compared with the old process. The saving made by its use alone makes it a valuable appliance, which every superintendent ought to have. During the convention the members were shown a connection made in a twenty-inch main in the distribution of Milwaukee, and all were greatly pleased with the speed and accuracy of the operation.

HOLLY MANUFACTURING COMPANY, manufacturers of water-works pumping engines, Lockport, N. Y., was represented by Frank Holly. This company has constructed two engines of 24 000,000 gallons capacity for the World’s Fair water supply, and a large number of its high duty pumping engines are used in the water-works of the United States and Canada.

H. MUELLER MANUFACTURING COMPANY.

In the line of water-works supplies of all kinds this company took first rank both as to the extent and variety of its exhibits. The firm is well known as manufacturers of tapping machines, corporation and stop cocks, and all kinds of brass goods. H. Mueller and son were present in charge of the exhibit.

Other exhibitors were the E. P. Allis Company, Milwaukee, pumping engines; Neptune Water Meter Company, New York, represented by E. L. Abbott, and Illinois Malleable Iron Company.