Water-works for Small Towns.

Water-works for Small Towns.

An illustration of what may be done with a well-designed and well-managed water-works system, owned by a village, is furnished in the following statement made by the secretary of the Baldwinsville (N. Y.) water-works :

“ This is a pumping system pumping from a well into a stand-pipe by steam power, and is to be fairly compared with pumping plants owned by companies and operated under a franchise, the village paying hydrant rental, the usual price of which is $40 per hydrant per annum. These works have been in operation only about four months, having been completed in February, 1890. The exact number of water mains now (June 23, 18170). is 167. The yearly rentals for this number will amount to $1650, or a trifle less than $10 per taker (the rate is $5 for a tap for domestic use). The cost for the first ten weeks, which includes engineer’s services, oil and coal consumed during that time, averaged $3.25 per day. This included 3360 pounds of coal per week, at $3.25 per ton, and $50 per month for engineer. The actual cost of pumping water during that time was ten cents per 1000 gallons. We shall reduce this average for the next three months, as we must pump nearly every day now, which will bring the price per 1000 gallons still lower. We are using 40,000 to 50,000 gallons daily. Our works, when complete, will cost $58,000, including engineer’s house now under construction, grading lot, building drives, walks, etc. The interest is 3 1/2 per cent, payable annually. We are making taps as fast as possible.”

” A detailed statement of the estimated expenses and receipts of the works is as follows :

Total cost of work…………………..$58,000

II. N .ShS. 3 per Cent .` zr . . Coal, estimate 90 tons . 93 5 Incidentals……… 29

EIPTS. 167 rentals……. $1,650 69 hydrants, say $30……..2,070 3,720 Surplus……$707

If the village should pay $20 per hydrant the income would just pay the expenses and interest.”

THE WORLD’S LARGEST Reservoirs.—Omitting lakes, which are in many cases natural reservoirs, the largest reservoir or artificial lake in the world, says The New York Telegram, is the great tank of Dhebar, twenty miles southeast of Udaipur city, Rajputana province, India. It covers an area of twentyone square miles. The masonry flam is 1000 feet long by 95 feet high ; 50 feet wide at the base anil 15 feet at the top. In southern India, also, there are some immense reservoirs. That of Cumbum in Cuddapath district is formed by damming the Gundlakamana river by a dam 57 feet high thrown between two hills. The reservoir has an area of fifteen square miles. The Sulekerl reservoir in Mysore State is very little smaller, and next to Cumbum is the finest in southern India. Compared with these artificial lakes. Loch Katrine (supplying Glasgow), four and one-half square miles, and Vyrnwy reservoir (supplying Liverpool), nearly two square miles, are insignificant in size. Fhe Manchar tank in Scinde has an area of 180 square miles, but only when fed by the waters of the river during the months of flood. In dry months it shrinks to quite a small

A NEW REMEDY FOR DOG BITES.—A female correspondent of The New York Tribune gives a novel remedy for the bites of dogs and other animals : “I have been bitten by dogs repeatedly,” she writes, “ once severely. A pet dog of a neighbor’s was very sick, and l was attein pting to relieve it. It bit me in the left thumb, just below the nail. That member be came black as far down as the wrist. It remained so until the nail came off. The owner talked of hydrophobia, and said that the dog had not tasted water for two weeks. Had 1 been afraid, I should, no doubt, have taken nervous fits ami died. The verdict would have been ‘hydrophobia. ‘ But 1 simply applied a solution of salt and vinegar,’ a little more vinegar than salt, washed the wound with it, then tied a clean rag a r on ml the thumb, keeping it saturated well with the solution, and moved the rag so that a fresh part covered the wound, at intervals. This remedy was once applied to my wrist by a colored woman, in the South, for a snake bite. My arm was then black, hard and painful. The remedy acted like a charm. In two hours the discoloration had disappeared, ami with it the pain, and only the needle mark where the fang had entered was visible. Again, I was bitten by a weasel in the Grand Centra* Depot. A girl had it in a bag and had placed it on a seat next to mine, remarking that it was a kitten. I placed my hand on it. Quicker than thought, a couple of teeth punctured the joint of my left forefinger to the bone. I compelled the girl to tell me what was in the bag. My finger was badly swollen ami painful before I reached home, some hours after. I used the same simple remedy, with the same speedy result. 1 have also applied it successfully in other cases.”

ANTIQUITY OF STEAM Heating.—That steam heating is not new, says The Safety Valve, appears from remarks made by George II. Babcock before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers some time ago. Mr. Babcock cited the fact that when at Pompeii he found that the old Roman baths there were heated by steam, and heated in a better and more scientific manner than is practiced at the present time. The walls were double, and the steam, of course, not above atmospheric pressure, was carried up through these walls all round the room. The walls were thus heated to a temperature approximating to that of the steam, and the occupants of the room were exposed to a radiation from all directions. This, Mr. Babcock held, is the true theory of heating, and the system of steam heating by indirect radiation, or heating the enveloping air only, is unscientific, expensive and uncomfortable. It is of interest to add here that the late Joseph Harrison, Jr., of Philadelphia, in delivering a lecture before the Franklin Institute several years ago, said that he hnd seen in the museum at Naples a boiler substantially of the same construction as the modern, vertical, tubular boiler. This boiler was found at Pompeii, and was made of copper.

—Important change of time, taking effect Monday, June 9, the through sleeping-car for Lake Superior, via Milwaukee and Northern Railroad, will leave Union Depot, Chicago, at 7.30 P. M., except Sundays, arriving at Ishpeming at 8.19; Negaunee, 8.28, anti Marquette at 9 A. M. Connection made at Champion for Houghton and the copper country, arriving at Houghton at 12.45 P. M.

To build a chimney that will draw forever ami not till up with soot, you must build it large enough—sixteen inches square—use good brick and clay instead of lime up to the comb ; plaster it inside with clay mixed with salt ; tor chimney tops use the very best of brick, wet them and lay them in cement mortar. The chimney should not be built tight to l»eams and rafters ; there is where the cracks in your chimneys come and where most of the tires originate, as the chimney sometimes gets red hot. A chimney built from the cellar up is better and less dangerous than one hung on the wall. Do not get your stove-pipe hole too close to the ceiling, but about eighteen inches from it.—[ The Manufacturer and Builder.]

To FIND A LEAK IN AN UNDERGROUND Pipe.—A German paper thus describes a method of detecting leaks in under ground gas pipes : Test-holes are sunk in the ground along the lines of the gas mains, ami half-inch wrought-iron pipes about three feet long are inserted. In the upper ends of these pipes small glass tubes are placed, each tube containing a slip of paper moistened with chloride of palladium. The test papers turn black under the influence of illuminating gas, the rapidity ami distinctness of the reaction depending upon the strength of the palladium solution and upon the volume of escaping gas. Under the most unfavorable conditions, however, an exposure of the test-paper for “a period of fifteen minutes is considered long enough to show whether or not gas is present. The test-holes should be placed about six feet apart, and should not reach below the line of gas pipe. The main object is to penetrate the more or less compact surfacematerial of the street, so that the gas in the ground has a direct and convenient means of escape. In many of the streets of Franfront-on-the-Main, especially those having asphalt pavement, one-inch pipes lead through the asphalt and the underlying layer of beton, their lower ends extending to within a short distance of the gas mains. These escape pipes are tilled with pieces of sponge, and are closed with cork stoppers. The pieces of sponge are renewed from time to time. The pipes have been found to overcome, to a considerable extent, the annoyance of digging up the streets for long stretches with the view of locating leaks in the main.

IMPROVEMENTS TO THE NEW HAVEN WATER COMPANY’S Works.—The dam which the New Haven (Conn.) Water Company is building in Woodbridge is rapidly approaching completion. The main dam is 850 feet long and forty-eight feet high. The overflow is forty-three feet. Its base is 176 feet broad. Longitudinally through its centre runs a core wall of concrete and crushed stone eight feet wide at the base and tapering to four feet in width at the top. The dam will flood about sixty-three acres of land and will hold back 300,000,000 gallons of water. It is built under the supervision of Engineer Taylor. Work on the dam has been going on over a year, and 150 men have been employed constantly. The contract calls for the completion of the entire work, including a twentyseven-inch main to the city line, by September 1, but probably not until a month later will everything be finished. Water from this new reservoir will not be used, unless a great emergency arises, for less than a year. The water will be of very superior quality, probably slightly better than the supply from Lake Whitney and Lake Saltonstall. Ultimately other dams will be built above the new dam in Woodbridge, and when the system is completed the company will have a capacity of 20,000,000 gallons, an increase of about one-third more than the capacity at present. The plan at present is to build another dam next year in Bethany, about three miles north of the new dam in Woodbridge. President Henry S. Dawson, of the water company, said to a Palladium reporter recently : “ We are looking out for the future and intend to be prepared to supply a city of big population, such as we believe New Haven will be before many years have passed.”

THE NEW WATER WORKS AT NIAGARA Falls.—A new system of water-works has been completed in the town of Niagara halls, Canada. The work is interesting from the fact that a greater part of it was done near the brink of the Horseshoe Falls. A tunnel, 125 feet long, six by seven feet in size, the mouth of which is thirty-five feet below the brink of the precipice, and which was worked through solid limestone rock serves as a tailracc from the wheel-house to the pump-house. The necessary water to operate the works comes to the wheelhouse through a wooden tube about 600 feet long. At the upper end of the wooden tube is an open cut twelve feet wide and eleven feet deep, extending about IOO feet outward to the northern end of Cedar Island, where the water is deep. Outside the wooden tube is placed a fourteen-inch pipe, the end of which extends some few feet beyond the mouth of the open cut near Cedar Island, and through this pipe comes the water furnished in the town for general use.

THE W ATER SUPPLY OF Tokio.—Tokio, Japan, was provided with a system of water distribution in 1620, when water was taken from three ponds west of the city and conveyed thence by a canal, from which it was distributed in wooden pipes to the various points to be supplied. A second canal was built in 1652, the two systems having been designed for supplying about 400,000 inhabitants, and in 1882 a third system was inaugurated. The distributing pipes are in general of wood. Where the internal diameter is very small these pipes are made of round logs hollowed out, square logs being employed tor the larger pipes. Stone conduits are also used, there being in all about 46 miles of these, as against 96 miles of the wooden pipes. The depth of laying ranges from 4 feet to 17 feet, and the life of the pipes, if of wood, varies from 10 to 20 years, according to the character of the ground in which they are laid. Instead of being supplied directly to the houses, the water is led into wells, which as a rule are located on one side only of the street.

BIG OIL I ANKS IN Denmark.—Several large reservoirs for the storage of petroleum have recently been constructed in Denmark. In Aarhus, Jutland, the Danish Petroleum Company has built one, with a capacity of about 16,000 barrels petroleum, which corresponds with the size of the tank steamers in question. The reservoir consists of heavy plate iron riveted together on the spot. From the reservoir an underground pipe, about 5000 feet long, leads to the harbor. This pipe consists of 6 inch steel pipes screwed together. From the reservoir the petroleum is again led down to a small house where the ” barrelling” takes place. Six barrels can be filled at the time, and when full the tops are automatically closed. In a second house are the workshops for the repairs of barrels, etc., and in a third boiler and engine house a second reservoir with about 13,000 barrels’ capacity will be shortly commenced. It was intended to have the establishment lighted by electricity, but the authorities have forbidden this. An earthen rampart surrounds the whole establishment. The whole of the works has been clone by the local firm of ‘Prick’s successor. In Copenhagen several large reservoirs are in the course of construction on the island of Refshale in the Copenhagen harbor. One of these, which will be the largest in the country, is for account of the Nobel firm, and another is intended to be used for American petroleum.

Water-Works for Small Towns.

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Water-Works for Small Towns.

The demand for modern conveniences and improvements by individuals and communities is a marked feature of the present age. We are no longer content to travel in slow and uncomfortable vehicles, or to put up with poor light, water or air. We desire the best that we can get and science has met our wants. The present is also distinguished from the past by the more uniform distribution of the benefits mentioned. The great majority of persons, at least in our country, enjoy almost equally with the few very wealthy ones, the benefits of public and private improvements.

This leads to the subject of water supply, especially for small towns. It is remarkable how many of these smaller communities are now enjoying pure and abundant water. From published statistics we find that over one-half of the waterworks of the New England States have been constructed within the past seven and one-half years. Seventy-six works, or twenty-seven per cent have been constructed within two and one-half years. These newer works supply a much smaller average population than the earlier ones, which were designed for large cities only. Statistics also show that a very large part of the population has likewise only been supplied within the last few years. In the Western States it seems as if everything almost in the way of water-works had been done since 1880.

The fact is established that small cities and towns, as a rule, are demanding a public water supply, and, to meet this demand in a scientific manner, affording the best obtainable results for the amount of money available, is the proper duty of the civil or hydraulic engineer.

To secure or choose the proper source of supply, the planning of the pumping plant and distribution are problems requiring skill and judgment. The necessity of securing a proper supply, both as to quantity and quality, for the present, as well as for the reasonable future demand, is self evident. While almost every city or town presents features peculiar to itself as to drainage and water supply, yet a common end is to be attained in each by the construction of all sanitary works. Water-works are intended primarily to supply abundant and as nearly as possible pure water for domestic purposes, and secondly for manufacturing and municipal uses, such as for extinguishing fires, generating steam, running elevators, sprinkling streets, flushing sewers, etc. Large cities are shown to consume more water per capita than small cities and towns. This is accounted for by the very large quantity of water consumed by the former in municipal works—for street sprinkling, fountains and sewers, and in the private use of water closets, more largely than in less thickly settled communities. A supply of water for small towns can generally be secured more readily than it can be for large cities. The neighboring streams and springs can be oftener used, as they are not as liable to contamination adjoining small towns, and their sufficiency is ample in one case, while not in the other. Wells of various kinds are used, as also are rivers, surface water and springs, to furnish the supply for cities and towns.

In the State of Iowa, in thirty-nine works out of a total of fifty-two which supply towns, varying from 1000 to 5000 in population, the statistics show as follows: The sources of these thirty-nine works were as percentages: From springs, 6; from surface, 6; from rivers, 27; from creeks, 4; from wells, 57. The character of these wells are not however, alike, for while many are artesian and driven wells which generally furnish water fit for domestic use, there are some shallow wells which depend on little or no filtration of the water drained into them.

Only after careful analysis and examination as to the liability of pollution by surface drainage, should such wells be used.

Rivers are as sources of supply next in frequency in this State, owing to their purity and number. Except in low stages and during floods the water is generally fit for domestic use; but in the cases mentioned stagnant pools create organic impurities, while floods carry a large quantity of inorganic impurities. The first make the water unfit for domestic use, the second while objectionable can be used after being allowed to settle. The filtration of the river water through an intervening bed of gravel or an artificial filter can be made to overcome both of the objections against the direct use of river water.

Springs are not very numerous in our State, owing to general level and undulatory surface, but when available, they furnish a pure domestic supply; and for small towns one or more springs combined are generally enough. The selection of the source of supply for small towns is generally limited to that which is most economical, but in no case should impure water be supplied for domestic use. If necessary some method of filtration should be used.

The quantity to be supplied varies per capita from twenty to forty gallons for towns of from 1000 to 5000 inhabitants, for domestic use. For fire purposes an additional capacity of pumping or storage of from 175,000 to 350,000 gallons daiiy should be secured. Domestic supply may be from a limited source, while for fire purposes connection can be made with a less pure source, such as a stream or river adjoining.

Proceeding to the subject of pumping plant we find the same variations as in case of sources of supply. The power used is generally steam, air and water not being reliable where an increased power may be suddenly required. The capacity of pumping engines should not be less as a rule than 500,000 gallons daily. The boiler and engine capacity should be greater than actually needed for present and immediate future —it is economy in wear and fuel. The mains should also be larger than may seem needful at the moment, for experience has shown great loss in cases of fire, due to the small mains being insufficient to furnish an adequate quantity of water. In a manufacturing district no mains should be less than six inches in diameter, and none smaller than four inches in any portion of the system. Even where smaller pipes are adequate the loss of head is so great that it is better policy to use the larger. To secure the required pressure, we find in Iowa the following different methods and the percentage of each used: By gravity, 4 per cent; by reservoir, 26 per cent; by tank, 30 per cent; by stand-pipe, 10 percent; by direct pumping, 30 per cent.

The methods are preferable in the order mentioned. Although the direct pumping method is resorted to as frequently as the tank or reservoir plan, yet it is only on the score of economy that this is done. Where direct pumping is only resorted to in case of fire the inconveniences and injury are less because of course of the infrequency of the demand for it.

The necessity of a large and free supply of water is even more important in case of fires than is very great pressure in the case of small towns, for the buildings are comparatively low, and hence it is more economical and safe to secure ample storage, by means of an elevated reservoir or tank, or else ample pumping capacity with large mains. As the necessity for increased pressure may arise by the growth of the town, it may then be secured without causing any material change of existing plans.

Still, when a private company or a municipality proposes to build water-works, the first cost and probable revenue are the first questions brought up. To arrive at the cost of any proposed works, surveys and detailed plans are required, from which an approximate estimate can be made. To find the average cost of water-works for small cities and towns, those constructed in this State give valuable data. We find that 34 6/10 per cent of the population of towns supplied, use the works, and that the cost of construction per capita is $25.40 for those using them, or about $7.50 per capita of the entire population. The cost of works per mile of main is estimated at $17,150. and the revenue 9.82 per cent of the entire cost.

The cost of water-works for small towns and cities in Iowa ranges from $9750 to $32,500. With the growth of these towns the revenue can be made to pay a fair dividend on the investment.

The question of ownership of public water supplies draws out arguments on each side, but, on the whole, the record of this State shows that which we think the most advisable. In Iowa the public owns and controls sixty per cent of the works. The use of such a necessary article as pure water should be restricted as little as possible, but this is too often done by the excessive rates of private companies. With a proper plant, good supply, moderate rates and fair measurement, any town can secure a fair revenue from its works.

Finally, as an illustration of some of the preceding statements, the accompanying sketch and approximate cost of the proposed water supply of Humboldt, Ia., is submitted, with the idea that it may be of use to the others, as similar sketches have been to the writer.

The town of Humboldt has a population of about 1000, and is located on rolling ground on the east bank of the Des Moines river, with bluffs on the west. The committee on water supply had determined, if practicable, to secure the supply from one or more of the springs in and along the banks of the river. The analysis showed the water to be comparatively pure, and it only remained to determine by surveys the most practical method of utilizing them.

The Avery and Rickard springs were selected, the former discharging 110 gallons and the latter approximately forty gallons per minute. Their elevation and location arc shown on the accompanying plan. It is proposed to wall up and cover these springs and convey the flow from the Avery to the Rickard spring and thence the combined flow to the pump well. This well is placed as shown and sunk to a depth of two feet below low water in the river, with which it is connected for use if ever found necessary for direct pumping in case of fire. The quantity which it is estimated would be required for domestic use was fixed at 30,000 gallons per day, with an additional allowance of 25,000 gallons daily, probably to be used by the railroad company. To afford pressure, and for the present a sufficient storage, so as not to require constant pumping, and to avoid possible failure of supply in case of machinery breakage. the construction of a reservoir with a capacity of 350,000 gallons was thought advisable, as it could be readily constructed and without great expense. This reservoir when full will afford storage for five days supply, for some years. The pumping engine is to have a capacity of 500,000 gallons daily. In case the ordinary pressure of twenty-six to thirty pounds is insufficient for fire purposes, direct pumping into the mains can be resorted to. This, however, at the present, is not anticipated as being necessary. The pumping station and mains are to be designed for the future growth of the city, and no changes in the proposed plans are anticipated as necessary, except the addition of an elevated tank or stand-pipe to insure a greater pressure.

Following is the estimated cost of the proposed works:

Engine and boiler house…………………………$1,000.00 Pumping plant………………………………… 2,150.00 Mains and valves………………………………. 2,250.00 Hydrants…………………………………….. 35,000 Trenching and laying pipe………………………. 2,250.00 Reservoir…………………………………….. 1,025.00 Conduit, pump well and spring protection…………. 850.00 Engineering and contingencies, ten per cent………… 1,097.22 Total……………………………………..$10,972.22.