Water Works Improvements, South Bend, Ind.
GENERAL NEWS ARTICLES
The city of South Bend, Ind., is making extensive improvements in its water works system, with the main object of increasing the capacity of its pumping stations and of providing a sufficient storage for fire reserve. At present there are two pumping stations in operation, both of which obtain their supply from artesian wells. One plant, known as the central station, is located in the central part of the city and along the St. Joe river. This plant is operated by water power from the river and has a daily capacity of 5,000,-000 gallons. The other plant, known as the north pumping station, is located in a city park near the river. The latter station is a steamoperated plant, having in use two Deane compound duplex pumps of 3,000,000 and 6,000,000 gallons capacity respectively. On account of the economical operation owing to the water power at the central station this plant will be continued, but lack of space prohibits an increase in its capacity, so all of the improvements in course of construction are being made at the north station. These improvements include a new pumping station building, a chimney, boilers, piping, boiler auxiliaries, coal and ash handling equipment, pumps, suction well and storage reservoir. The building was designed with due regard to its ornamental features and is considerably more elaborate than is usual for pumping station buildings, owing to its location in the city park. It is constructed with an exterior of dark brown face brick and is trimmed in cut stone. The building is divided into three rooms, the one on the north and one on the south being wings off the center room, which is the main pump room. The latter is 52 feet by 78 feet 10 inches, and the two former are 50 feet 3 inches bv 71 feet 8 inches. The south wing is to serve as a boiler room and has sufficient space additional for coal storage and coal and ash handing equipment. A switch track from the city car line runs into this room so that coal can be handled in carload lots and dumped directly into bunkers from the cars. The main pump room will contain all of the new pumping machinery, including two 5,000,000gallon per day high duty pumps, two 8,000,000 single stage turbine pumps and engines, as well as auxiliary air pumps. The interior walls of the building will be finished with white enamel brick. A gallery 10 feet wide extends along the entire front of this room. It is accessible from the front entrance of the building and will furnish visitors an admirable view of the machinery, being 12 feet higher than the pump room floor and 24 feet above the floor of the pump pit. The north wing of the building will serve as a pump room for the two pumps at present in use at the old station. The new building is so located that it will be unnecessary to reset the old pumps. In addition to serving as the old pump room the north wing will contain a workshop, storage room, toilets, shower baths, etc. The roof of the building is constructed of red roof tile, and all windows have the patented steel sash and will furnish abundant light in all parts of the builing. The chimney, located in the rear of the boiler room, is of tile-concrete construction, 6 feet 6 inches in diameter and 175 feet high above the water table of the building. The tile, composed of a mixture of pipe clay and fire clay, furnish an inside as well as an outside lining for the stack. The body of the stack is reinforced concrete. From the base to the top of the opening for the breeching the chimney and breeching cover are trimmed with brick and cut stone to correspond with the building. Steam is generated at 150 pounds gauge pressure in four watertube boilers, two of 300 horsepower each and two of 150 horsepower each. The two former are new boilers of Cahalt-Freeman design. Each consists of twin steel drums 22 feet 6 inches long by 3 feet in diameter, set horizontally and connected in front and rear to water legs or headers of pressed steel, into which are expanded the ends of 145 4-inch tubes set in 10 rows horizontally and staggered vertically. The two 150-horsepower boilers are of the Babcock-Wilcox pattern and are at present in use in the old boiler room. It is planned to operate the old pumps from the new 300-horsepower boilers, then to wreck the old boiler plant in order to carry on the work on the main pump room. per hour. Heat is supplied by the steam exhaust from the low duty pumping engines and all steam auxiliaries in connection with the plant. The heater receives its water supply in the form of condensation from the high duty pumps, drainage from the high pressure steam leaders, and from a make-up tank located overhead in the boiler room. A connection to the city main is also provided for use in case of insufficient supply from the make-up tank. By-pass connections from the city main and from the make-up tank are inserted in the 6-inch boiler feed suction for use when the heater may not be in operation. A gate valve is inserted in each boiler lead close to the 4-inch main and is provided with an extension stem for operation from the boiler room floor. In addition to the gate valves the branch lines are furnished with check valves guarded by supplementary globe valves.
When the new boilers arc in operation the old boilers will be taken down and rebuilt before being placed in the new boiler room. The fact that the boilers will be in pairs of different size will make it possible to net a suitable combination for any desired boiler capacity, 300, 150, 600, 750 and 900 horsepower being secured as required.
The gases of combustion pass into a steel breeching 6 feet 6 inches in diameter and extending across the boiler room at a convenient height above the boilers.
The boilers are set with furnaces of the type adopted for Jones underfeed stokers, which are being installed. It is the intention to have all fuel, which will consist of slack, handled automatically as nearly as possible from the time it enters the boiler room until it is removed as ashes. The coal in cars is switched into the boiler room over a spur track from the C. S. B. & N. I. electric fine. By using the bottom dump gondola cars the coal can be dumped into the coal bunkers below the track. These bunkers have inclined sides and bottom which terminate in a chute with a gate leading to the conveyor located in a pit between the boilers and bunkers and extending the entire length of the boiler room. By means of this conveyor the fuel will be raised and deposited in bins overhead, from which it can be served directly into the hoppers of the stokers as required. The ashes and clinker as removed from the furnaces will be raked through grated doors into steel fire brick lined hoppers located in the conveyor pit below the boiler room floor. From these hoppers they can be hoisted by the coal conveyor to a bin overhead, front which they can he chuted into empty coal cars and removed from the premises. The main boiler feed apparatus consists of two Worthington duplex 10x6x10, brass fitted, packed plunger pumps of the pot valve type, taking their supply from a Cochrane open neater having a capacity for heating 30,000 pounds of water
The high duty pumping engines in the mam pump room are Allis-Chalmers horizontal cross-compound condensing Corliss crank and fly-wheel of the opposed type, and are designed to operate against a domestic pressure of 90; pounds per square inch, but are also capable of operating against a fire pressure of 140 pounds per square inch. They will be set side by side across the front of the main pump room at an elevation which will allow them to operate directly from the suction well at all times. The main suction pipe is 30-inch, leading directly from the well outside and provided with a 20-inch branch line for each pump. The 18-inch discharge lines from each pump are connected into a 24-inch discharge main which passes out through the front wall of the pump pit and is connected to the 24inch city main in the street in front of the building. The main suction pipe is provided with a by-pass and connection to the 5,000,000-gallon storage reservoir for emergency use in case of a large fire. On the suction of each pump is a cylindrical surface condenser into which is discharged the exhaust from the pumping engines. The air pump which maintains the vacuum in the condenser is operated from the engine shaft and discharges the overflow or condensation into a receiver and pump, which in turn forces it back into the feed water heater. Each engine is provided with a regulating device for automatically controlling the speed of the engine in accordance with the discharge pressure. This device also serves as a safety to prevent the engine attaining a dangerous speed in the event of a break in the water main or other accident.
The low duty turbine pumps which set on the lower pit floor in the rear of the main pump room take their suction direct from the suction well and discharge into the storage reservoir, which is located about 500 feet from the station. These pumps are single stage turbine, each, with a 14-inch suction and a discharge of the same size, and have a capacity of 8,000,000 gallons per 24 hours. They are operated by American Blower Co. engines, direct connected to the pump shaft. In addition to the high and low duty pumps in the main pump room, there are: A well system vacuum air pump for exhausting the air from the suction pipes leading from the wells to the suction well: a drainage pump for removing oil and condensation from the oil separator and for priming the pumping engines, and an air charging pump for keeping the air chambers on the high duty pumping engines fully charged when working against fire pressure.
The high pressure steam piping is of the extra heavy class, all joints being made up with the Van stone flanges and having the expansion taken care of by long radius bends. The main leader to the old pumps is provided with a pressure reducing valve set to reduce the pressure from 150 pounds to 100 pounds, which is the pressure carried for operating the old pumps.
A well 20 feet in diameter and 35 feet deep, acting as an equalizer of the flow from the artesian wells, is located about 50 feet back of the main pump room. It is constructed of vitrified pav ng blocks laid in cement mortar and is reinforced with steel reinforcing rods hoth vertically and horizontally. The construction of the walls was started near the surface of the ground on a steel concrete shoe and was continued as the shoe settled, all excavation being made from the inside. The several suction pipes which carry the flow of some 60 10-inch diameter artesian wells to the suction well are provided with drop pipes extending from the elevation at which they enter the well to within two feet of the bottom. The suction to the pumps also extends down to that depth so that in case the rate of pumping exceeds the normal flow of the wells the lowering of the water level in the suction well will produce an additional pull on the well system. A by-pass arrangement is provided by means of which the suction of the pumps can be connected directly to the well system. This can be operated for short intervals when a supply greater than the flow of the wells is desired.
The reservoir for storage reserve is a reinforced concrete covered basin 210 feet long, with circular ends, 180 feet wide and 20 feet deep. The bottom is at an elevation above the normal water level in the river, and it is planned to grade up around the tank to within eight feet of the top. The floor is constructed in two layers with an interlining of asphalt tar for water-proofing. Each layer is cast in slabs 6 feet square, with expansion joints between each. The side walls are constructed in sections approximately 20 feet long, each being strengthened by three pilasters, one in the center and one near each end. The adjoining sections have interlocking joints, which also serve as expansion joints, being filled with asphalt tar to prevent leakage. As an extra precaution against leakage a copper flashing is set in each joint, having one side anchored in the concrete of either section. The roof is constructed in squares similar in size to the floor and is supported by columns and girders of reinforced concrete. In addition to the pipe connections with the high and low duty pumps, the basin is provided with a wash line and overflow to the river. Plans and specifications for the reservoir suction well and outside niping were prepared by the city engineer, William S. Moore, white the plans and specifications for all machinery, boilers and auxiliaries, as well as the general lav-out of the plant, were furnished bv Burns & McDonnell, consulting engineers, Kansas City, Mo., and their assistant engineer, A. R. Klein, is supervising this part of the improvements. Freyermuch & Maurer, of South Rend, are the architects on the building. The pumping machinery, with all auxiliaries, is furnished and installed by the Allis-Chalmers Company, Milwaukee. Wis. George J. Hoffman Company, South Bend, are the contractors on the building and are also placing all concrete in the pump pit and foundations. The chimney was erected by the Weederboldt Construction Company, of St. Louis. Mo. The boilers, stokers, conveyor and structural steel in the coal bins are being furnished by the Cobalt Sales Company, Chicago, Ill., while the Best Manufacturing Company have the erecting of all the piping, both steam and water, within the building. C. H. Defrees. of South Bend is contractor on the storage reservoir. The total cost of the improvements will be approximately $250,500.