The board of public works of Grand Rapids, Mich., has recently requested a $100,000 bond issue for water main extensions.

There is a strong movement among the citizens of Baltimore, Md., to have extensive improvements in the water plant of that city.

The city council of San Francisco, Cal., will consider within a short time the question of reimbursing consumers who have had mains installed at their own expense.

The commissioner of public works of Chicago, Ill., states that the water rates of that city are not sufficient to operate and maintain the plant and have sufficient for funds for depreciation, extensions and improvements.

Plans for the proposed new water works pumping station for Madison, Wis., have been submitted to the city council. When all improvements are completed the water works will have a total pumping capacity of 15 and a half million gallons a day.

Alexander W. MacCallum, C.E., of Philadelphia, Pa., a prominent consulting engineer, who made a specialty of water works arbitration, valuation and management, died recently. Mr. MacCullum was a member of the American Water Works Association.

Eugene R. W. Pratt, of Cleveland, Ohio, an expert on water, recently stated that Dayton, Ohio, which has a well water supply, is now considering the construction of three or four reservoirs at differen tpoint to equalize the pumping requirements and to afford fire protection to the entire city.

The city reservoirs of Pittsburgh, Pa., are below their normal level because of the failure of the contractor to deliver at the pumping stations all of the eight to 10 carloads of coal required every day, but the superintendent of the Water Bureau, Charles A. Finley, said recently there was no occasion for a worriment by consumers.

The water commissioners of Gardner, Mass., recently reconstructed the reservoir on Reservoir Hill at a cost of $17,625.83, which, according to the commissioners report, was paid out of the current revenues for the year 1916. The cost of the new reservoir was almost 33 per cent, of the entire revenue for that year from meter and schedule rates. Beside that the commissioners also paid out $21,690 on bonds and interest maturing for the year.

The receipts of the Red Bank water plant of Kcyport, N. J., for the year 1916 were $30,769.54, and the operating expenses $13,177.80. Of this sum $6,855 was used for paying interest on water bonds, redemption of certificates and sinking fund requirements, leaving $6,322.80, of which $4,532.09 was spent for new mains and $1,396 for a new well. New meters costing $1,608 were bought during the year, and this item was included in the operating expenses.

The Winona Electric Light and Water Company, of Warsaw, Ind., which recently spent $10,000 in drilling new wells, has been ordered by the city council of that city to discontinue using them and to pump all water out of Center lake. The well water, which is now being used, is hard, and, it is stated, contains so much lime and iron that it is unsatisfactory for domestic use. The city council has appealed to the public service commission for better water service and the case is now being considered by that body.

The work of installing the new municipal water system at Ellendale, N. D., has been completed. The pump has been placed in the basement of the city hall and all inside connections of piping made. Digging for the reservoir connection was done and it is expected that the work will be finished shortly. Ellendalc water users have been without sufficient supply of soft water for several years. It has been necessary to turn a part of the water from the hard water well into the mains in order that sufficient water might be supplied.

Specifications for seven new wells to be drilled at the south side pumping plant near Hermann Park, Houston, Tex., were completed recently, and bids will be invited by the city. Each well is to lie approximately 1,500 feet deep and must have a guaranteed flow of 3,400 gallons of water per minute. The new wells are made necessary by the steady growth of Houston in the south end section. The new wells, when drilled, will furnish more than enough water for the present in the section which they are to supply, but the city officials thought test to drill enough to guarantee a water supply in that section of the city for several years to come.

Argenta, Ark., is to own a municipal water works plant without an assessment being levied against the property of the city, according to a plan adopted by commissioners of Water Works District No. 2, created for the purpose of taking over the Argenta pipe line and plant of the Arkansaw Water Company. The plan does not even call for the first assessment, as originally decided upon. According to the plan no bonds will be issued that cannot be cared for from the earnings from the plant. This plan was agreed upon after long deliberation, the commissioners say. One of the principal arguments that has been urged against the purchase of the plant was that the purchase of the plant as originally intended would saddle a large debt upon property.

Mayor Stolberg, of Canton, Ohio, has recently sent a call for manufacturers to meet him and outline a plan to be followed in the movement to enlist state aid in the construction of a large reservoir or artificial lake north of the city to conserve surface water for the use of the manufacturing plants. Mayor Stolberg said he asked those manufacturers who are large users of water and interested in the development of a bigger supply for the city to confer with him. It is the belief of the mayor that such an artificial lake to impound surface waters would enable the city to sell this water to plants at a much cheaper rate than the well water. The well water of the city is too expensive for the plants to use and is also needed for the homes, the mayor states. He believes that the plan to enlist the aid of the state should be pushed.

The city of Canton, Ohio, according to a well driller, George E. Martin, is located on a huge reservoir of water sufficient to supply all of the needs of that city for at least ten years for both industrial and private purposes. “For 15 or 20 years Canton has been pumping water from the big gravel bed under the west creek, and in that time the water level has lowered only six feet,” Mr. Martin said. “Indications are that the gravel bed under west creek extends up through Jackson township to Turkeyfoot lake. In that case, it has an immense drainage. One well would be enough to supply the city. It is only a matter of pumping. The water is in the west creek locality. Although the northeast wells have been sunk only a couple of years, in that time the water level there has fallen more than has the level in the west creek in the same length of time.”

A new pump installed in the city of Alliance, Neb., water works will have a capacity of 1,000 gallons a minute. With the old pump the twenty-four hour capacity was about 680,000 gallons of water, and during the extreme hot weather of the summer this amount was not su..cient to meet the needs of the persons then using city water. There was a lack of pressure on the second floors of buildings in the business sections and in the higher, outer portions of the town there was a lack of water. Mr. J. E. Hughes, city water and light superintendent, estimates that, with the new users that have been added to the city’s patrons through the winter, a quantity of 900,000 gallons of water a day will be used in the summer. The amount used daily now is about 250,000 gallons. The new pump already has been tested and will shortly be ready for daily service.

According to the annual report of the water commissioners of Concord, N. H., for the year 1916, the average daily consumption for the city the past year was 2,362,000 gallons. The total consumption of water for the year was 862,130,000 gallons. It also gives the information that three more plots of land have been bought by the department surrounding Penacook lake, the source of the water supply, and that 27,000 pine seedlings were secured from the State to continue the work of reforesting the land now owned by the city about the body of water. The total receipts for the department last year were $75,062.72, and the expenses $25,390.27. During the year $17,888,78 was paid in interest on outstanding bonds, and the matured bonds paid off totalled $38,000. The net cost of the water works property is now $1,064,529.10 upon which there is a bonded indebtedness of $419,000.

The Burlington Railroad has recently erected a new reservoir at Ravenna, Neb., for engine use. A reservoir twenty feet in diameter and about sixteen feet in depth has been built on the south side of the tracks, about a hundred yards west of the Beaver bridge, to absorb seepage from the bayou or backwaters from the Ravenna mills dam. At this point the railroad grade forms a dam for the overflow of the mill pond, and large quantities of water seep through the railroad embankment, forming numerous springs above the point where the storage basin or reservoir has been built. A short distance above this reservoir a pipe has been laid under the grade, connecting with a wooden crib in the bayou, and in case the seepage is not sufficient to meet requirements it will be an easy matter to supply all the water needed through this opening. A six-inch cast iron water main is to be laid from the reservoir to the round house. It is believed that when the work is completed there will be an ample supply of water for engine use. The creek water has always been in high favor with the railroad company because of its softness as compared with well water. This water supply will be for boiler use only. All drinking water will be provided from other sources.

Commissioner of Public Works Bennett, of Chicago, Ill., states that the city last year supplied, free of cost, an amount of water to the value of $328,918. The growth in the free water service is shown in the following totals for the last six years: 1916, $328,918; 1915, $315,537; 1914, $300,518; 1913, $300,243; 1912, $270,399; 1911, $285,312. A summary of the accounts for last year showing the number of users of free water as well as the value is presented in this tabulation of the water bureau:

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