WATER WORKS OF ST. LOUIS
THERE are six settling basins built in pairs. Each basin is 670 feet long and 400 feet wide, and has a capacity of 22,000,000 gallons. The sides and ends are heavy masonry walls backed with clay puddle and earth embankments. The bottoms of basins are lined with sixteen inches of puddle and covered with six inches of concrete in seven-foot squares, the spaces between the squares being filled with asphaltum to take up the expansion The basins slope to a cleaning ditch running east and west through the centre, which drains to a two-foot by three-foot mud gate in the east wall of the basin and leads to the sewer. There are six filling and drawing chambers, with hydraulic lifts for the gates. When all the basins are in operation, four are settling, one filling, and one drawing. Settling is continued in the basins until sufficient mud has been accumulated to justify cleaning them ; then the mud gate is opened and the slush is allowed to run through a twenty four-inch sewer to the river. A stream of water is then turned into the basin by means of a syphon from an adjoining basin, and men shovel the mud down into the cleaning ditch-the mud being carried to the sewer by means of the water. T he water from the settling basins is as clear as can be obtained by twenty-four to thirty hours’ settling. The drawing conduit carries the water along the east side of the basins through an open chamber (where screens catch any floating matter which falls into the basins) into the conduit, which from this point to Baden is eleven feet wide and nine feet high. The conduit is built of brick backed with concrete. When carrying 100,000,000 gallons, the velocity of flow is about one and one-half miles per hour, or two feet per second. T he fall is six inches to the mile, or one in 10.000. T he conduit passes over three bridges in its entire route. The bridge foundations are all carried down to bed rock. The bridges are provided with overflow wires and waste gates. 1 here is a gate chamber at Baden, where the conduit section changes from eleven feet by nine feet to nine feet by eight and one-half feet, and a branch leads off to 11. S. station No. 3. T wo gates cover the openings of both conduits.
At Baden station the arrangement of the buildings is much the same as at the Chain of Rocks. T he engine house is fifty-seven feet by 184 feet; the coal house, eighty-eight feet by ninety-eight feet; the boiler house (containing eight 300horse power John O’Brien boilers) is 167 feet by sixty-one feet. A twenty-ton, three-inch motor electric crane traverses the engine house, which is divided into three separate pits, in each of which, when the station is completed, will be two engines-six in all. The pits are twenty-eight feet, six inches deep, and are reinforced with heavy abutments. The water is conducted from the gate chi mber partly through a brick conduit and partly through a seventy-two inch pipe to the wet well, w’hich is 135 feet long. Six iron pipes lead from the wet well through the engine house wall into the pits. Six engines have been contracted for, of which two are completed. These are triple expansion, condensing engines; diameter of cylinders, thirty-one inches, fifty-six inches, and eighty inches; plungers, single acting, twenty-five and one-half inches diameter and sixty-four-inch stroke. T he specifications require a capacity of 10,000,000 gallons per twenty-four hours and a duty of 125.000000 gallons. Two 15,000,000 engines have also been contracted for for this station-to be ready about March 1.
Bissell’s Point terminal chamber is distant four and onehalf miles from the Borden water station. The main conduit extends beyond this point and connects with the old settling basins, in which the water supply of St. Louis was formerly handled. They now act as reservoirs for the water coming from the Chain of Rocks. These basins are four in number, each 600 feet by 277 feet and sixteen feet deep. The capacity of each is 15,000,000 gallons. Connecting with these basins is a conduit leading to the clear well ; another conduit connects this well directly with the terminal chamber. Thus part of the supply may be led into the basins and held in reserve, or the water may be conducted directly to the clear well.
At Bissell’s Point station two separate conduits conduct the water from the clear well to the wet wells of H. S. stations Nos. 1 and 2 (illustrated herewith). II. S. station No. 1 contains two beam and fly wheel engines with bucket and plunger pump, each capable of pumping 16,500,000 gallons per twenty-four hours. T he third engine is a doub’e compound beam and fly wheel engine with bucket and plunger pumps. The cylinders are compounded after the Wolf type.and this engine pumps 20,000,000 per twenty-four hours. Eight Geary water tube boilers, of a nominal capacity of 300 horse power each supply the steam. The engines in station No. 2 are the counterparts of those in station No. 1 and are supplied with steam by eighteen return flue boilers. Each engine is provided with a separate thirty-six-inch main to one of the two standpipes-both of which connect with the general distribution system It is the intention of the water commissioner to begin immediately to pull up the three engines in H. S. .Station No. 1, and replace them with modern machines.
1 he standpipes (illustrated herewith) are two highly artistic structures and serve as ornaments to the city. Each is six feet in diameter, and about 150 feet high. Three thirty-sixinch mains connect them with Compton Hill reservoir-four miles from Bissell’s Point. This reservoir is in two divisions, each 450 feet by 422 feet, and twenty-six feet deep; total capacity about 60,00c,000 gallons.
The water works of St. Louis cost in 1889, $13,345,000; bonded debt in 1890, $5,200,000; operating expenses, last year, $423,259; revenue. $1,264,254. The cost of extensions has been met by revenue. The cost of pumping per million U. S. gallons, including coal, salaries,and supplies was: High service, $7,635. low service, Bissell’s Point (old system), $4,416; low service. Chain of Rocks (new system), $1,388.
Mr. M. H. Holman is water commissioner and superintendent.