WATER WORKS SYSTEM OF WINNIPEG
Wninipeg, Man., has a population of 140,000 and is situated at the confluence of the Red river of the North and the Assinniboine river. The general level is 757 above sea-level, 33 ft. at low water, and 10 ft. at high water, above the waterlevel of the rivers. The soil consists of 1 to 3 ft. of black loam resting upon some 50 ft. of sedimentary clay, below which is about 5 ft. of glacial drift and boulder clay resting upon the rock—a magnesian limestone.
On boring through the impervious clay into the rock, the water rises from it, and’sometimes from the boulder clay, to a height of some feet above the surface of the ground, indicating that it is a true artesian supply.
The city has now five wells in operation, from which may be obtained about 12,000,000 gal. per day. The wells are situated in the northern portion of the city, four on the west and one on the cast side of the Red river. The principal pumping station is situated on McPhillips street, near Logan avenue, and contains the following equipment : One 1,500,000-gal. 60-lb. pressure, compound steam pump; 1 5,000,000-gal., 125-lb. pressure, triple-expansion pump; 1 5,000,000-gal., 80lb. pressure, triple-expansion pump; 1 5,000,000gal., 125-lb. pressure, electric driven centrifugal fire pump; 1 750-k. w. Curtis turbine-generator set; 1 1,000-k. w. Parsons turbine-generator set; 1 300-k. w. steam engine and generator set; 11 250horsepower, Babcock & Wilcox boilers; 1 pumpreservoir, capacity, 300,000 gal.; 1 storage-reservoir, capacity, 6.000,000 gal.
The following are not at present in use: The 5,000,000-gal. electric fire pump and the well pumps at wells 3, 4 and 5 are connected with the power system of the Winnipeg Electric Railway company The generating plant above mentioned being held in reserve. Each of the wells, 3, 4, 5 and 6. is fitted with electrically driven pumps of a capacity of 2,500,000 gal. per’day. Wells 3 and 4, as at present operated, will not furnish this quantity or water. Well No. 5 supplies from 2,500,000 to 3,000,000 gal. per day, with a depth of 60 ft. of water remaining in the well. In this well is being installed a second 2,500,000-gal. pump. Well No. 2 is served by the 5,000,000-gal., SO-lb. pump above mentioned, working at about 50 per cent, of it scapacity. The ordinary pressure carried in the mains is 50 lbs. This is increased to 80 lb. pressure on alarm, in case of fire, the time required to raise the pressure being from one to two minutes.
With the 6,300,000-gal. reserve, the following quantities of water can be pumped into the mains:
The distribution system consists of 185 miles of pipe, with 1.200 hydrants.
The following is a statement showing analyses of the water: 1. before softening treatment— parts per 1,000,000—Turbidity, 9; color, 7; total solids. 1.055; chlorine, 235; sulphates (SOS), 158; lime (Cao), 110: magnesia (Mgo), 112; total hardness, 492; alkalinity, 364; incrustation, 128. 2, (after treatment)—Parts per 1,000,000—Turbidity, 1: color, 3 ; total solids, 785; chlorine, 234 : sulphates (SOS), 154: lime (Cao), 46; magnesia. 47: total hardness, 200; alkalinity, 80; incrustata, 120. The softening plant is at present not being used.
EIRE SERVICE WATERWORKS SYSTEM.
In the year 1905, Winnipeg was subject to veryexcessive fire insurance charges, due largely to the fact that the development of the waterworks system had not kept pace with the extraordinarygrowth of the city. As a means of relief and til place the city in the highest class of fire risks, the city council had a thorough investigation made of the firefighting waterworks, and. after a careful consideration, determined that the gas engine pumping plant offered, for the conditions in Winnipeg, the most economical and satisfactory solution of the problem of fire protection from the lire underwriters’ point of view, which demanded two independent sources of power. It mav be explained that the pumping station of the” domestic waterworks system is about 2 miles from the business centre of the city, and from the bank of the Red river, from which the water for fire protection was to be obtained. Had it been possible to use the steam plant of the domestic system, with additional boiler capacity, it is probable that steam would have been adopted as the motive power; but, steam and electricity being out of the question, gaspower was finally adopted. For alternative sources of power there are available, producer-gas and city gas, in addition to a large reserve of producer-gas in the holder. The standby losses in fuel in this system are practically nothing.
The first of the pumping units was placed in ;t-rvice in November, 1907, and has been availal lc for lire protection since that time. The remaining units were completed and placed in service between that time and July 1, 1908, when the whole plant was practically completed, and its operation taken over by the city. The fire service waterworks system consists of 8 miles of mains l()-in. to 20-in., and 85 fire hydrants. It covers the central closely built business section of the city.
The pumping station is situated on the bank of tl e Red river at the foot of James street, and contains the following equipment: Four Crossley 2 cylinder, tandem gas engines of 540-horsepower each ; 2 Crossley 2-cylinder, tandem gas engines of 250-horsepower each; air-compressing starting plant in duplicate; 1 producer-gas main supplying all engines; 1 city gas main, in reserve, supplying all engines. The engines above described drive 6 triplex, double-acting pumps, made by Glenfield & Kennedy, of Kilmarnock, Scotland.
The pumps are furnished with 20-in. suction and discharge-mains, in duplicate, all pumps being connected with both mains and either main being of sufficient capacity for the whole plant. The pumps take their water from a well, which is divided into two compartments, either of which will supply the whole plant. The water is conducted to the well by an intake-pipe 3 ft. in diameter, which extends for a distance of 425 ft. from the well to the deep water in the river, where it ends in a stone-ballasted crib.
THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.
Two 20-in. mains lead from the pumping station to Main street by different routes, connecting with the submains on the way. Either of these mains, in case of accident to the other, is sufficient to take the water from the pumps when working at their rated capacity. The mains are designed to withstand the ordinary working pressure of 300 lb. per sq. in., and water-hammer. They were tested to 70o 11). per sq. in. at the foundry, and. after being laid, were tested to from 500 to 600 lb. The pipes were prvided with extra heavy hubs and two lead grooves. These joints have given entire satisfaction.
The hydrants are connected to the mains by 8-in. flanged pipe. They are provided with 4-in. to 4½-⅛. hose-nozzles, with independent gates. These nozzles, when required, are reduced to 3½-⅛. and 2½-⅛. by suitable reducers, 3½-0>. being the largest hose now used. The hydrant valve is 8-in., and is provided with 1-in. pilotvalve to fill the hydrant before opening the main valve against the pressure. Both the valves arc operated by the same steam. Each hydrant connection is provided with a gate-valve, so that the hydrant may be cut out from the system, in case of necessity.
The record of gauge-pressure at one hydrant during the underwriters’ test, which lastetj for eighteen minutes, there being no water pumped during the last two minutes and the 17 streams varying in number from seven to three thrown at the same time—the gauge pressure ranged from 250 lb. to 100 lb.
With 300 lb. on the main at the pumping station, while supplying the above streams, a great deal of water, probably one-third, was wasted through the relief-valves at the pumping station. Two or three, other streams could have been supplied by closing the relief-valves.