Waterworks in Korea.

Waterworks in Korea.

Consul-General Thomas Sammons, of Seoul, Korea, furnishes the following report concerning the completion of the waterworks in that city and the proposed building of similar works in other Korean cities:

“The problem of providing Korean cities wi_____ pure water is receiving the serious attention of the Japanese protectorate. Under such protectorate the Korean government will, in the near future, complete public waterworks at Chemulpo, the chief seaport of the empire, and at Pingvang, the chief commercial mart aside from Seoul. At Fusan the new water-supply plant is owned jointly by the government and private individuals. The first water-supply plant to be completed in Korea, however, was chartered and built hv Americans, at a cost of $1,250,000 The materials and supplies used, were purchased, with the exception of the cement and miscellaneous supplies, through American firms. This plant has been accepted by a British syndicate and is now in working operation in Seoul. Active construction-work was begun in September, 1906, and the completed works were turned over to the Korean Waterworks (Limited) on July 23, tgo8, six weeks before the contract date of completion. The plant is on the bank of the Han river, from which the water is drawn, and is protected from floods, which occasionally cover the banks, bv an earth levee 10 ft. in height. The station buildings are of brick, with granite trimmings. They are lighted by a general electric 6-kilowatt dynamo direct, connected to a vertical Omen engine of 8-horsepower. The steam is supplied from a hitterv of boilers, with superheaters, with which economisers are used. The chimnev is of brick. 5 ft. in internal diameter and 103 ft. high. The water is pumped from the Han river to the settling reservoirs by Worthington 12-in., centrifugal numps in duplicate, directly connected to 36horsepower, vertical, compound-condensing engines. The capacity is 4,000,000 imperial gal. per twenty-four hours. After filtration, the water is raised to the service reservoir by two Worthington direct-acting, triple-expansion pumping engines ; capacity, 3,750,000 imperial gal. per twentyfour hours. The powerhouse is arranged for the installation of more machinery as occasion requires, so that the plant may be doubled in capacity, if desired. Each of the two settling reservoirs is 158 ft. square, with a water-depth of 8 ft. From them the water flows by gravity to the filters, five in number, each with 900 sq. yds. of filtering surface. There is ample room for the extension of these filters. After filtration, the water flows to the dear-water basin, from which it is pumped to the service-reservoir. This is located on a spur of Namsan mountain, outside the city wall. It is 120 ft. in diameter and 22 ft. in depth. All these reservoirs, or basins, are of concrete—1 part of cement to 2 1/2 of sand and 5 of broken stone. They were plastered inside with mortar (1 part of cement to 2 of sand, the cement receiving 1 per cent, of alum; the water, 1 per cent, of soap). This made them almost watertight. The filters and clean-water basin are roofed with reinforced concrete, covered with 15 in. of earth to prevent freezing. The cement used was Japanese, manufactured and tested under the Japanese government specifications. The main pipe-line is of steel. For the purpose of saving freight, it was brought out nested in three sizes, 19 3/8, 21 15-16, and 2254 in. in diameter. This pipe is all lap-welded and laid with lead joints. With the exception of about a mile of 16-in. steel, the distribution-pipe is of cast iron, varying from 3 to 12 in. in internal diameter. There is a total of 5 miles of steel pipe and 30 miles of cast iron pipe in the system. There were provided for, under the contract, 216 fire hydrants and 630 service hydrants for street use; hut some of the service hydrants have been held in reserve until experience indicates where thev are most desired. Water is to be sold from these service hydrants to the poorer people, through the water carriers’ guild; but others will have private service in their houses.

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