WATERWORKS SYSTEM OF JOHNSTOWN
Specially written for FIRE AND WATER ENGINEERING.
Johnstown, N. Y., beafs a name not unknown to those who read American history. Its first settlement goes back to 1760; its incorporation as a village followed in 1808; as a city in 1805. It is one of the larger towns in Fulton county and is located on Cayadntta creek. Its population, which in 1900 was 10,130, derives much of its livelihood from the different factories. Its area extends over acres and the majority of it” buildings are of wood, and wooden roofs are permitted. Under such dangerous conditions an adequate water supply is an imperative necessity. The waterworks system is well up to the mark. It was installed by the village in 1878 at a cost of $121,000, the engineer being P. H. Baormann, of Troy. The source of supply (which is gravity) is springs and streams four miles from the business centre. The first storage reservoir built was the Cold Brook, whose construction in 1878 formed part of the original system. It was formed by building a timber dam across Cold brook, with an area of half an acre, a depth of 12 ft. and a capacity of 10,000 gals. From that reservoir ran 2,700 ft. of 8 in. pipe, with a 33 ft. fall, and 700 ft. of 6-in. pipe, with a fall of 130 ft., leading to a distributing reservoir, formed by an earthen dam across a ravine, 250 ft. long and 23 ft. high, the well in the centre being puddle. This reservoir is connected with the distribution system by 19,377 ft. of m-in. cast iron pipe. The Warren reservoir, built in 1883 by construtting a 5 ft. high dam across Warren brook, connecting it with the distribution reservoir by 515 ft. of 12-in., now 16-in, cast iron pipe. The capacity of this reservoir is 22,550,000 gals. Cork Centre reservoir, the chief source of the city’s supply, is five miles distant from the city, the Warren and Cold Brook reservoirs being three miles distant and each 925 ft. above tide-water, as against the 955 ft. of the Cork Centre. The average altitude of each of the three above three of the principal streets of the city is 699 ft. The capacity of the Cork Centre reservoir is 700,000 gals. At six of the principal mills the water-pres sure averages a very little over 114 1/2 lbs. During the year ft. of mailt, -in. to 8-in., were laid : six new hydrants were set a total of 177; 30 meters were installed a total of 175 in service. At the end of the year Cold Brook and Warren streams were both turned into the reservoir on December t. At that time the daily flow of Cold brook was 334,000 gals.; Warren stream, 238,000 -total daily flow, 572,000 gals.: the reservoir filled in fourteen days, showing its capacity to be 8,008,000 gals., instead of 10.000,000 gals., as had heretofore been claimed. It was found that the syphon, or mud-pipe was wide open into the main, so that, when water was taken from this reservoir, it came from the lowest point, drawing mud and sediment into the main; at the present time this reservoir is overflowing with water of an excellent quality, proved by analysis to be the best of the entire system. During the warm weather of the summer of 1907 the water in the Warren reservoir became stagnant to such a degree that it was thought advisable to cut it out of the system. It was. accordingly, drained about the middle of August and left empty until the middle 01 October. The water of Warren stream is of good quality; but, before it enters the reservoir, it flows between muck banks down quite a steep descent; it is easily disturbed by showers and carries down large quantities of muck and leaves. The reservoir was built without any mud-pipe, and it is recommended that it should be cut out and used for emergency only. It is also recommended that the watershed of the Cork Centre reservoir be improved as to its conditions, which are not favorable to purity. The per-capita use of water in Johnstown is very high—188 gals. This is due in part to the use of water in the mills; to the number of water-motors; and to the reckless waste of water. The excess may he corrected by discontinuing the use of large motors and by metering all services, while, if necessary, the total supply may be increased at no heavy cost by 334,000 gals, per day from Cold brook, which, under the present arrangement cannot be drawn upon, except when the Cork Centre line is cut off. During 1905-6, 47,917,005 gals, of water passed through the meters, for which the charges were $5,335-73The daily supply to the city is as follows: Cork Centre stream, 1,500,000; Warren stream, 191,000; Cold Brook stream, 334,000. Cold Brook and Warren reservoirs are connected with the distributing mains of the city with a 10-in. main; and Cork Centre reservoir, with a 16-in. main. Johnstown, therefore, is fortunate in possessing two independent sources of supply. A glance at the accompanying v’evvs of the Johnstown system will show what forward strides the city has made in the way of improving the original waterworks of 1878 For much of that betterment the credit is due to the good and faithful work of Superintendent Lucien 1 tillabrandt.