W. S. Hamilton, superintendent, of water works, Youngstown, Ohio, has addressed the following circular letter to several chief engineers of the fire departments. The questions asked are certainly interesting, and it is to be hoped the replies will fully elucidate the subject, which is one which every year disturbs the equanimity of both superintendent and fire chief alike on the approach of the cold season:

YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO, February 12,1900.

Dear Sir:—Please allow me the liberty of asking your opinion on a few questions which are of great interest to tire engineers and water works superintendents.

Would you consider a Are hydrant frozen in which no water is found, and the pipe leading from the main to the hydrant is free from frost, and all the other parts in perfect working order, and yet the nut at the top of the hydrant caught, due to the action of the frost upon the moisture which arises from the inside of the hydrant—this being easily overcome by a few taps with a hammer or wrench?

Do you know of any way in which this little difficulty may be overcome?

What do you consider constitutes a frozen Are hydrant?

Your consideration of the above questions and any other information on this subject will be greatly appreciated, and hoping to hear from you soon, I am,

Very respectfully,


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